The language accepted

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  • In this paper, we prove that the set of sentences parsed by M~cus' parser constitutes a context-free language. The proof is carried out by construing a deterministic pushdown automaton that recognizes those smngs of terminals that are parsed successfully by the Marcus pa~er.

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  • The article is an attempt to present briefly the effective Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) for English for Specific purposes (ESP) classes. The author has articulated the shared understanding of methodological practice found for learning and teaching of both content and language. This article is trying to develop the widely-accepted term Content-based Instruction (CBI), CLIL in teaching ESP and give a clear-cut implementation in teaching ESP for university students in Vietnam.

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  • IELTS means International English Language Testing System. It is an internationally accepted English language test which assesses whether or not your English language skills are strong enough to commence studying at a university or at a vocational college in an English speaking country. Over 40,000 candidates sit for the IELTS test worldwide every year.

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  • A formal language: Is an abstraction of the general characteristics of programming languages. Consists of a set of symbols and some formation rules by which these symbols can be combined into sentences. Accepts input, produces output, may have some temporary storage, and can make decisions in transforming the input into the output.

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  • The Adelaide Declaration on National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-first Century identified learning languages other than English as one of the eight key learning areas to be included in a balanced curriculum (MCCETYA 1999). Since then, learning other languages has experienced fluctuating fortunes in the curricula of various Australian states and territories; its struggle for acceptance as a legitimate area in its own right is ongoing.

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  • His eyebrows and the comers of his mouth are turned down, and his head is slightly down, all of which demonstrate disapproval. Figure 176The man on the left and the man on the right have taken the closed body formation to show the middle man that he is not accepted into the conversation.

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  • In addition, the fact that there have been few studies investigating the efficacy of conversational implicature to enhance Japanese high school students’ communicative competence was another cause for me to start this research. Though some experimental studies have been done (see Bouton,1992; Broersma, 1994; Kubota, 1995; and Taguchi, 2007), the subjects of their research were university students and immigrants. Few people seem to have examined students’ development of communicative ability in Japanese high school.

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  • Each institution that uses TOEFL scores sets its own minimum level of acceptable performance. These minimums vary from one institution to another, depending on factors such as the applicant's field of study, the level of study (undergraduate or graduate), whether the applicant will be a teaching assistant, and whether the insti-tution offers English as a Second Language support for its students.

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  • Behaviour-Driven Development (BDD) gives you the best of Test Driven Development, Domain Driven Design, and Acceptance Test Driven Planning techniques, so you can create better software with self-documenting, executable tests that bring users and developers together with a common language.

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  • II. THE STUDY ABSTRACT A desirable long-range goal in building future speech understanding systems would be to accept the kind of language people spontaneously produce. We show that people do not speak to one another in the same way they converse in typewritten language. Spoken language is finer-grained and more indirect. The differences are striking and pervasive. Current techniques for engaging in typewritten dialogue will need to be extended to accomodate the structure of spoken language.

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  • Though ACL occasionally have had demonstration sessions, this will be the first attempt for ACL to have this kind of sessions, which aim to provide researchers or developers of natural language technologies with a generous environment for presentation and discussion of their works. Each paper receives an opportuity to give a five-minute oral preview presentatin and a poster or poster with demo presentation for two and half hours. To this attempt, there were initially 62 submissions, one paper was withdrawn during the review process, and we could accept only 28 papers. ...

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  • Many natural language understanding systems behave much like the proverbial high school english teacher who simply fails to understand any utterance which doesn't conform to that teacher's inviolable standard of english usage. But while the teacher merely pretends not to understand, our systems really don't. The teacher consciously stonewalls when confronted with non-standard usage to prescribe quite rigidly what is acceptable linguistic usage and what is not.

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  • This volume contains the papers prepared for the Sixth Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, held 19-23 April 1993 in Utrecht. The Programme Committee received a large number of submissions (5 page extended abstracts) from all over the world. The general quality of the submissions was high. Out of a total of 229 submissions, 47 were accepted, including 7 reserve papers. Every abstract submitted was reviewed by one member of the Programme Committee and three referees (see pages v and vi). ...

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  • This paper proposes the “Hierarchical Directed Acyclic Graph (HDAG) Kernel” for structured natural language data. The HDAG Kernel directly accepts several levels of both chunks and their relations, and then efficiently computes the weighed sum of the number of common attribute sequences of the HDAGs. We applied the proposed method to question classification and sentence alignment tasks to evaluate its performance as a similarity measure and a kernel function. The results of the experiments demonstrate that the HDAG Kernel is superior to other kernel functions and baseline methods. ...

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  • In this article we outline a basic approach to treating metonymy properly in a multilingual machine translation system. This is the first attempt at treating metonymy in an machine translation environment. The approach is guided by the differences of acceptability of metonymy which were obtained by our comparative survey among three languages, English, Chinese, and Japanese. The characteristics of the approach are as follows: (1) Influences of the context, individuals, and familiality with metonymy are not used.

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  • This paper introduces a special programming environment for the definition of grammars and for the implementation of corresponding parsers. In natural language processing systems it is advantageous to have linguistic knowledge and processing mechanisms separated. Our environment accepts grammars consisting of binary dependency relations and grammatical functions. Well-formed expressions of functions and relations provide constituent surroundings for syntactic categories in the form of two-way automata. ...

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  • The speech synthesis group at the ComputerBased Education Research Laboratory (CERL) of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champalgn is developing a diphone speech synthesis system based on pltch-adaptive short-tlme Fourier transforms. This system accepts the phonemic specification of an utterance along with pitch, time, and amplitude warping functions in order to produce high quality speech output from stored dlphone templates.

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  • The Model Driven Engineering (MDE) approach has been proposed in software engineering domain in order to provide techniques and tools to deal with models in the automated way. In this paper, we will review existing user interface languages that gain wider acceptance, and discuss their applicability for model-driven user interface development.

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  • The purpose of the TOEFL® is to evaluate a non-native English speaker's proficiency in the English language. Almost one million students every year from 180 countries register to take the TOEFL®: the majority of universities and colleges in North America as well as in other English-speaking countries require official TOEFL® score reports for admission. The test is also used by institutions in other countries where English is the language of instruction.

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  • Success doesn't mean the absence of failures; it means the attainment of ultimate objectives. It means winning the war, not every battle. Edwin C. Bliss You have met people who literally wander through life. They simply accept whatever fate brings them. A few may succeed by accident, but most suffer through a lifetime of frustration and unhappiness. This book is not for them. They have neither the determination to succeed nor the willingness to devote the time and effort necessary to achieve success. This book is for you....

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