Their solubility

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  • Covers all basic aspects of the chemistry of resins and binders, their solubility in solvents, and their compatibility with pigments essential for modern coating material. Presents state-ofthe-art knowledge of organic coatings materials and their manufacturing and processing. DLC: Gums and resins.

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  • Dieter Stoye, Werner Freitag (Editors) Covers all basic aspects of the chemistry of resins and binders, their solubility in solvents, and their compatibility with pigments essential for modern coating material. Presents state-ofthe-art knowledge of organic coatings materials and their manufacturing and processing. DLC: Gums and resins. This hook was carefully

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  • Due to their low aqueous solubilities, the PCBs and PAHs lay on the surface of soils and waters. PCBs and PAHs adsorb strongly to the organic fraction of soils (Girvin & Scott, 1997; Hiller et al., 2011). Soils contaminated with PCBs and PAHs are transported directly or indirectly by rivers to the water reservoir and are subsequently converted into the bed sediments. Therefore, soils could be considered as the primary sinks for these organic contaminants. PCBs and PAHs are persistent in the environment, resistant to degradation process, and accumulate in food chain.

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  • Interest in food lipids has grown dramatically in recent years as a result of findings related to their health effects. Fats and oils have often been condemned because of their high energy value and due to potential health problems associated with certain saturated fatty acids as well as trans fats. However, lipids are important in that they provide essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins as well as flavor, texture, and mouthfeel to foods.

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  • Nutrition is of interest to everyone. For the impoverished, nutrition is an issue of obtaining enough food to survive. For some, it is a health concern in their fight against obesity and diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and degenerative skeletal disorders that accompany this nutritional problem. For others, it is of interest so that they will not be embarrassed wearing their bathing suits.

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  • After attending lectures, reading the text and working assigned problems related to this chapter, students will have acquired the following knowledge and abilities: Given the IUPAC name for a compound containing an amine functional group, be able to draw its structure; know the orbital mechanism for inversion at a pyramidal amine nitrogen; know how the relative electronegativity of N vs. O affects the boiling point, solubility, and basicity of amines vs. alcohols;...

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  • Since chemical vapor deposition of carbon-containing precursors onto transition metals tends to develop as the preferred growth process for the mass production of graphene films, the deep understanding of its mechanism becomes mandatory. In the case of nickel, which represents an economically viable catalytic substrate, the solubility of carbon is significant enough so that the growth mechanism proceeds in at least two steps: the dissolution of carbon in the metal followed by the precipitation of graphene at the surface.

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  • Enrichment of diet and culture media with the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid has been found to reduce the amyloid burden in mice and lower amyloid-b(Ab) levels in both mice and cultured cells. However, the direct interaction of polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid, with Ab, and their effect on Abaggregation has not been explored in detail.

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  • O-Fucosylation is a post-translational glycosylation in which anO-fucose is covalently attached to the hydroxyl group of a specific serine or threon-ine residue. This modification occurs within the consensus sequence C2X4)5(S⁄T)C3 present on epidermal growth factor-like repeats of several proteins, including the Notch receptors and their ligands.

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  • Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurological disorder characterized by the presence of amyloidb(Ab) peptide fibrils and oligomers in the brain. It has been suggested that soluble Ab oligomers, rather than Ab fibrils, contribute to neurodegeneration and dementia due to their higher level of toxicity.

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  • The formation of amyloid fibrils is associated with various human medical disorders of unrelated origin. Recent research indicates that self-assembled amyloid fibrils are also involved in physiological processes in several micro-organisms. Yet, the molecular basis for the recognition and self-assembly processes mediating the formation of such structures from their soluble protein precursors is not fully understood.

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  • Dynamin, a protein playing crucial roles in endocytosis, oligomerizes to form spirals around the necks of incipient vesicles and helps their scission from membranes. This oligomerization is known to be mediated by the GTPase effector domain (GED). Here we have characterized the structural features of recombinant GED using a variety of biophysical methods.

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  • Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) separates polymer molecules and biomolecules based on differences in their molecular size. The separation process in simplified form is based on the ability of sample molecules to penetrate inside the pores of packing material and is dependent on the relative size of analyte molecules and the respective pore size of the absorbent. The process also relies on the absence of any interactions with the packing material surface. Two types of SEC are usually distinguished: 1.

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  • Solubility of the catalysts in water is determined by their overall hydrophilic nature which may arise either as a consequence of the charge of the complex ion as a whole, or may be due to the good solubility of the ligands. Although transition metal complexes with small ionic ligands, such as halides, pseudohalides or simple carboxylates can be useful for specific reactions the possibility of the variation of such ligands is very limited. As in organometallic catalysis in general, phosphines play a leading role in aqueous organometallic catalysis (AOC), too.

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  • Introduction: Nicotine is a main water-soluble alkaloid being contained in the tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum), which acts as an inducing compound for smoking-dependence. Twelve kinds of nicotine metabolites are known in rats [1]. Among them, cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine; the half-life (T1/2) of cotinine is much longer (10–20 h) than that of nicotine (24–84 min). The qualitative analysis of cotinine in urine and saliva is being thus carried out as indicators for smoking during its abstinence therapy and for confirming passive smoking.

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  • Lipids (fats and oils) are a wide range of organic molecules that serve several functions in organisms. Lipids are essential components of our diet, highlighting their important contribution in energy, representing 9 kcal/g (or 37.7 kJ/g), and by some components relevant to the metabolism, such as essential fatty acids, fat soluble vitamins and sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols).

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  • Depending on their structures, polyphenols (e.g. tea polyphenols) could also act by chelating prooxidant transition metal ions such as Fe2+, which are involved in reactions eliciting free radical production, including hydroxyl radicals (OH•) and alkoxyl radicals (RO•) (Dufresne & Farnworth, 2001).

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  • Nitrogen, found in commercial fertilizers and manure, is applied in many different chemical forms. Bacteria can convert all of them to nitrate, a form of nitrogen that can be taken up by plant roots. Nitrate is very soluble in water and is easily carried from farm fields into streams and rivers. Perforated pipes called tiles, which farmers bury under their fields to manage water drainage in an effort to maximize crop production, make the situation worse.

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  • The amyloidbpeptide (Ab) is crucial for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Aggregation of monomeric Ab into insoluble amyloid fibrils proceeds through several soluble Abintermediates, including protofibrils, which are believed to be central in the disease process. The main reason for this is their implication in familial Alzheimer’s disease with the Arctic amyloid precursor protein mutation (E693G).

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  • Cellobiohydrolases (exocellulases) hydrolyze cellulose processively, i.e. by sequential cleaving of soluble sugars from one end of a cellulose strand. Their activity generally shows an initial burst, followed by a pronounced slowdown, even when substrate is abundant and product accumulation is negligible.

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