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Toxicity and hazard

Xem 1-20 trên 53 kết quả Toxicity and hazard
  • There is a commonly held myth in our society that anything that is “natural” is good, wholesome, and healthful, whereas anything that is “synthetic” is bad, toxic, and harmful. The mere mention of the word chemical is enough to strike terror into the heart of any food faddist. This attitude is, at best, naïve and, at worst, dangerous.

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  • Under moderate conditions the body automatically adjusts itself to keep its temperature within safe limits. Sweating is the body's most efficient means of getting rid of heat, but the more humid the air, the harder it is for sweat to evaporate and the harder it is for the body to cool off. Under hot and humid conditions, work becomes harder because much of our blood is going to the surface of the body, and less is available to the active muscles. Loss of salt from sweating can result in fatigue.

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  • The main aim of this review study was to know the effects by aflatoxin of mycotoxin fungal diseases for the health hazards of silkworm Bombyx mori and series of events that led to the discovery of aflatoxin as a potent carcinogen. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 & G2 may be referred as the toxic and produced by the Aspergillus fungal diseases, among all the Aflatoxins, B1 and G1 are highly toxic to the silkworm, which is carcinogenic in nature and can be occurred immediately higher incidence in bivoltine silkworms than in multivoltine and cross breed.

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  • In the science of aquatic toxicology, fish play an important role in toxicity testing and hazard evaluation, as do the white rat and guinea pig in mammalian toxicology (Anon, 1972), especially teleost fish may be a good indicator of pollution as their biochemical responses are almost similar to that of mammals (Banaee et al., 2008).

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  • The field of toxicology has grown enormously since Industrial Toxicology: Safety and Health Applications in the Workplace was first published in 1985. And while the original edition was hugely popular among occupational health professionals, the time is ripe to address toxic agents not only in the industrial setting but also in the environment at large.

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  • Dr. Samuel Luoma has given us an excellent description and analysis of the science of silver and nanosilver. His paper raises many questions for policy makers. Its subtitle, “Old Problems or New Challenges,” is appropriate, because the subject of the paper is both. Metals are among the oldest of environmental problems. Lead, silver and mercury have posed health hazards for thousands of years, and they are as persistent in the environmental policy world as they are in the environment.

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  • The study conducted by Hiller et al. (2011) to investigate the concentrations, distributions, and hazards of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PCBs are used mainly as coolant and electronic industries (capacitors, transformers), paints, sealants for wood, cutting and lubricating fluids, plasticizers, and as dielectric fluids. Therefore, at the former site of PCB manufacturing area in Slovakia, high concentrations of PCBs are detected in soils, sediments, humans, and wildlife (Kocan et al., 2001; Petrik et al., 2001; Hiller et al., 2011)....

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  • `Now you've got nothing to worry about, my dear,' he said, `except to get back your health and strength. I don't say anything about your looks because nothing affects them. You're a young woman and a very pretty one, and I have no doubt you'll marry again. But don't marry for love next time; it's a mistake; marry for position and companionship.' She laughed. She had had a bitter experience and had no intention then of ever hazarding again the risks of wedlock; it was odd that now she was contemplating doing exactly what the shrewd old lawyer had advised....

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  • In recent years, completion of the sequencing of the human genome as well as the genomes of dozens of other organisms and subsequent development of tools for comprehensive analysis of other cellular constituents have revolutionized biology. These new technologies, referred to broadly as “genomics,” have integrated biologic sciences with information sciences and engineering.

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  • Within the overall transport process, attenuation processes may cause movement of the chemical to differ from that of the bulk flowing groundwater, for example dispersion, sorption and chemical or biological degradation of the chemical. Such attenuation processes potentially act to mitigate the impact of chemicals and are a function of both the specific chemical and geologic domain. Indeed, attenuation may vary significantly between individual chemicals and within different geological settings.

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  • High cooking temperature and thus high pressure is needed when alcohols are used as cooking chemicals. Methanol has been used as an additive in kraft, sulphite and soda pulping. However, the use of methanol may be hazardous, since methanol is a highly flammable and toxic chemical. Demonstration plants using the alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-methanol process (ASAM) (Patt & Kordsachia 1986, Khristova et al. 2002, Patt et al. 1999) and the soda pulping method with methanol (Organocell) (Schroeter & Dahlmann 1991) have been built.

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  • Chemicals are able to bring about both desirable and undesirable effects on organisms to which they are exposed, and the actions of medicines and poisons and toxic agents have been recognized for thousands of years. As a result of industrialization, modern man and the environment is now exposed to increasing numbers of chemicals. Because of their potential hazard, there is an appreciation of the requirement to assess the effects of these chemicals. Since chemical structure was elucidated (for a very brief history see Table 1.

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  • Since 1980, the principal form of crop loss assistance in the United States has been provided through the Federal Crop Insurance Program. The Federal Crop Insurance Act of 1980 was intended to replace disaster programs with a subsidized insurance program that farmers could depend on in the event of crop losses. Crop insurance was seen as preferable to disaster assistance because it was less costly and hence could be provided to more producers, was less likely to encourage moral hazard, and less likely to encourage producers to plant crops on marginal lands.

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  • This chapter deals with toxicity, specifically, harmful effects arising from exposureof biota to metals and inorganic metal substances (collectively referred to as metals).The focus of this chapter is the aquatic environment; it considers exposure from thewater column, from sediment, and from ingestion of food or sediment.

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  • Mercury health effects depend on the type of mercury to which a person is exposed. In general, health impacts include renal toxicity, damage to the immune system, alteration of genetic and enzyme systems and neurological damage, especially in babies exposed in utero. Methyl mercury is the most toxic form of mercury because it is absorbed quickly in the body and expelled much more slowly. Currently there is not enough human exposure data to make links between mercury and cancer.

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  • Congress has enacted laws requiring individuals and facilities to take measures to protect environmental quality and public health by limiting potentially harmful emissions and discharges, and remediating damage. Enforcement of federal pollution control laws in the United States occurs within a highly diverse, complex, and dynamic statutory framework and organizational setting. Multiple statutes address a number of environmental pollution issues, such as those associated with air emissions, water discharges, hazardous wastes, and toxic substances in commerce.

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  • Safety footwear must meet ANSI minimum compression and impact performance standards in ANSI Z41-1991 (American National Standard for Personal Protection-Protective Footwear) or provide equivalent protection. Footwear purchased before July 5, 1994, must meet or provide equivalent protection to the earlier ANSI Standard (ANSI Z41.1-1967). All ANSI approved footwear has a protective toe and offers impact and compression protection. But the type and amount of protection is not always the same. Different footwear protects in different ways.

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  • After creating toxic hazardous chemicals, society has followed an unsustainable course in using and disposing of toxins. More and more sites are being contaminated, cancer rates are rising, indoor air quality has declined to become often more contaminated than outdoor air, and toxic chemicals continue to be found in species as far away from civilization as the Arctic Circle. This chapter provides knowledge of hazardous chemicals: pollution and preventi.

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  • Thermal muds have been used in many spas for the treatment of different diseases as well as to clean and beautify the skin and in different forms such as mud baths, masks, and cataplasms. Mineralogical and chemical compositions and the possible toxicity of the peloids were investigated and compared with some limits to determine whether they have any health benefits and potential applications for pelotherapeutic treatments.

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  • This paper assesses the risk of lead and cadmium heavy metals on Cyprinus carpio in laboratory conditions. The research determined the 96 hours LC50 value of lead nitrate and cadmium nitrate in the fish Cyprinus carpio. This study combined the ecological toxicology test with the ecological hazard description to determine the acute toxicity effects of lead and cadmium on Cyprinus carpio. Ecological toxicology took place in 96 hours with test concentration of 0.25; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 mg/l on lead and 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 3.0 mg/l on cadmium.

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