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Two water molecules

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  • The existence of the O−H∙∙∙O hydrogen bond present at dimer of water increases the stability of O−H∙∙∙O and C−H∙∙∙O hydrogen bonds in the ternary complexes compared to relevant binary complexes. By vibrational and NBO analyses, it is found that the magnitude of stretching frequency red shift of O−H bonds in the O−H∙∙∙O hydrogen bonds is enhanced, whereas the extent of stretching frequency blue shift of C−H bonds in the C−H∙∙∙O hydrogen bonds is weakened when the cooperativity of hydrogen bonds happens in the ternary complexes.

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  • PLANT CELLS ARE SEPARATED from their environment by a plasma membrane that is only two lipid molecules thick. This thin layer separates a relatively constant internal environment from highly variable external surroundings. In addition to forming a hydrophobic barrier to diffusion, the membrane must facilitate and continuously regulate the inward and outward traffic of selected molecules and ions as the cell takes up nutrients, exports wastes, and regulates its turgor pressure.

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  • ent-Kaurene is a tetracyclic diterpene hydrocarbon and a biosynthetic intermediate of the plant hormone gibberellins. In flowering plants, ent-kaurene is biosynthesized from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) by two distinct cyclases,ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) and ent-kaurene synthase (KS).

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  • Single-crystal X-ray structure determinations of the complex between the minor-groove binder distamycin and d(GGCCAATTGG) reveal two 1 : 1 binding modes which differ in the orientation of the drug molecule in the minor groove. The two crystals were grown from different crystallization conditions and found to diffract to 2.38 and ˚ 1.85 A, respectively. The structures were refined to completion using SHELXL-93, resulting in a residual R factor of ˚ 20.30% for the 2.38-A resolution structure (including 46 ˚ water molecules) and 19.74% for the 1.

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  • The following mechanisms are involved. Glomerular filtration. The rate at which a drug enters the glomerular filtrate depends on the concentration of free drug in plasma water and on its molecular weight. Substances that have a molecular weight in excess of 50 000 are excluded from the glomerular filtrate while those of molecular weight less than 10 000 (which includes almost all drugs)21 pass easily through the pores of the glomerular membrane. Renal tubular excretion. Cells of the proximal renal tubule actively transfer strongly charged molecules from the plasma to the tubular fluid.

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  • Drug-Receptor Interaction partial charges. When a hydrogen atom bearing a partial positive charge bridges two atoms bearing a partial negative charge, a hydrogen bond is created. A van der Waals’ bond (B) is formed between apolar molecular groups that have come into close proximity. Spontaneous transient distortion of electron clouds (momentary faint dipole, !!) may induce an opposite dipole in the neighboring molecule. The van der Waals’ bond, therefore, is a form of electrostatic attraction, albeit of very low strength (inversely proportional to the seventh power of the distance).

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  • A compound is different than a simple mixture of elements. If hydrogen and oxygen are mixed, the result is a colorless, odorless gas, just like either element is a gas separately. A spark, however, will cause the molecules to join together; this will liberate energy in the form of light and heat. Under the right conditions, there will be a violent explosion, because the two elements join eagerly. Water is chemically illustrated in Fig.

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  • admittance Symbol, Y. Unit, siemens (formerly mho). The property denoting the comparative ease with which an alternating current flows through a circuit or device. Admittance is the reciprocal of impedance (Z ): Y = 1/Z. adp 1. Abbreviation of AMMONIUM DIHYDROGEN PHOSPHATE, a piezoelectric compound used for sonar crystals. 2. Abbreviation of AUTOMATIC DATA PROCESSING. adsorption Adhesion of a thin layer of molecules of one substance to the surface of another without absorption. An example is adsorption of water to the surface of a dielectric.

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  • Biochemistry is the study of the chemical composition and reactions of living matter. All chemicals in the body fall into one of two major classes: organic or inorganic compounds. Organic compounds contain carbon. All organic compounds are covalently bonded molecules, and many are large. All other chemicals in the body are considered inorganic compounds. These include water, salts, and many acids and bases. Organic and inorganic compounds are equally essential for life.

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