Xem 1-16 trên 16 kết quả Underspecifying
  • This paper describes a wide-coverage Japanese grammar based on HPSG. The aim of this work is to see the coverage and accuracy attainable using an underspecified grammar. Underspecification, allowed in a typed feature structure formalism, enables us to write down a wide-coverage grammar concisely. The grammar we have implemented consists of only 6 ID schemata, 68 lexical entries (assigned to functional words), and 63 lexical entry templates (assigned to parts of speech ( B O S s ) ) .

    pdf5p bunrieu_1 18-04-2013 46 3   Download

  • We investigate the problem of determining a compact underspecified semantical representation for sentences that may be highly ambiguous. Due to combinatorial explosion, the naive method of building semantics for the different syntactic readings independently is prohibitive. We present a method that takes as input a syntactic parse forest with associated constraintbased semantic construction rules and directly builds a packed semantic structure. The algorithm is fully implemented and runs in O(n4log(n)) in sentence length, if the grammar meets some reasonable 'normality' restrictions. ...

    pdf8p bunthai_1 06-05-2013 43 3   Download

  • This paper addresses a data-driven surface realisation model based on a large-scale reversible grammar of German. We investigate the relationship between the surface realisation performance and the character of the input to generation, i.e. its degree of underspecification. We extend a syntactic surface realisation system, which can be trained to choose among word order variants, such that the candidate set includes active and passive variants.

    pdf11p hongdo_1 12-04-2013 41 2   Download

  • A theory of discourse interpretation has to deal with a set of problems including anaphora resolution and the hierarchical ordering of discourse structure: (1) Several students organised a dinner party for Peter. Some students wrote fancy invitation cards. Some other students bought exotic food. But Peter didn't like it.

    pdf5p bunrieu_1 18-04-2013 22 2   Download

  • Mapping and classification of chemical compound names are important aspects of the tasks of BioNLP. This paper introduces the architecture of a system for the syntactic and semantic analysis of such names. Our system aims at yielding both the denoted chemical structure and a classification of a given name. We employ a novel approach to the task which promises an elegant and efficient way of solving the problem. The proposed system differs significantly from existing systems, in that it is also able to deal with underspecifying names and class names. ...

    pdf9p hongphan_1 15-04-2013 39 4   Download

  • Rambow, Wier and Vijay-Shanker (Rainbow et al., 1995) point out the differences between TAG derivation structures and semantic or predicateargument dependencies, and Joshi and VijayShanker (Joshi and Vijay-Shanker, 1999) describe a monotonic compositional semantics based on attachment order that represents the desired dependencies of a derivation without underspecifying predicate-argument relationships at any stage.

    pdf8p bunrieu_1 18-04-2013 41 3   Download

  • A compositional account of the semantics of German prefix verbs in HPSG is outlined. We consider only those verbs that are formed by productive synchronic rules. Rules are fully productive if they apply to all base verbs which satisfy a common description. Prefixes can be polysemous and have separate, highly underspecified lexical entries. Adequate bases are determined via selection restrictions.

    pdf3p bunthai_1 06-05-2013 29 3   Download

  • We introduce a first-order language for semantic underspecification that we call Constraint Language for Lambda-Structures (CLLS). A Astructure can be considered as a A-term up to consistent renaming of bound variables (aequality); a constraint of CLLS is an underspecified description of a A-structure. CLLS solves a capturing problem omnipresent in underspecified scope representations. CLLS features constraints for dominance, lambda binding, parallelism, and anaphoric links. Based on CLLS we present a simple, integrated, and underspecified treatment of scope, parallelism, and anaphora. ...

    pdf7p bunrieu_1 18-04-2013 42 2   Download

  • We introduce an algorithm for scope resolution in underspecified semantic representations. Scope preferences are suggested on the basis of semantic argument structure. The major novelty of this approach is that, while maintaining an (scopally) underspecified semantic representation, we at the same time suggest a resolution possibility. The algorithm has been implemented and tested in a large-scale system and fared quite well: 28% of the utterances were ambiguous, 80% of these were correctly interpreted, leaving errors in only 5.7% of the utterance set. ...

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  • The "glue" approach to semantic composition in Lexical-Functional Grammar uses linear logic to assemble meanings from syntactic analyses (Dalrymple et al., 1993). It has been compurationally feasible in practice (Dalrymple et al., 1997b). Yet deduction in linear logic is known to be intractable. Even the propositional tensor fragment is NP complete(Kanovich, 1992). In this paper, we investigate what has made the glue approach computationally feasible and show how to exploit that to efficiently deduce underspecified representations. ...

    pdf7p bunrieu_1 18-04-2013 34 2   Download

  • Ambiguous propositions are analyzed in a type system where disambiguation is effected during assembly (i.e. by coercion). Ambiguity is introduced through a layer of types that are underspecified relative to a pre-existing collection of dependent types, construed as unambiguous propositions. A simple system of reasoning directly with such underspecification is described, and shown to be sound and complete for the full range of disambiguations. Beyond erasing types, the system supports constraints on disambiguations, including co-variation. ...

    pdf8p bunthai_1 06-05-2013 29 2   Download

  • We describe a method for interpreting abstract fiat syntactic representations, LFG fstructures, as underspecified semantic representations, here Underspecified Discourse Representation Structures (UDRSs). The method establishes a one-to-one correspondence between subsets of the LFG and UDRS formalisms. It provides a model theoretic interpretation and an inferential component which operates directly on underspecified representations for fstructures through the translation images of f-structures as UDRSs. ...

    pdf8p bunthai_1 06-05-2013 23 2   Download

  • The temporal relations that hold between events described by successive utterances are often left implicit or underspecified. We address the role of two phenomena with respect to the recovery of these relations: (1) the referential properties of tense, and (2) the role of temporal constraints imposed by coherence relations. We account for several facets of the identification of temporal relations through an integration of these.

    pdf3p bunmoc_1 20-04-2013 31 1   Download

  • We define a back-and-forth translation between Hole Semantics and dominance constraints, two formalisms used in underspecified semantics. There are fundamental differences between the two, but we show that they disappear on practically useful descriptions. Our encoding bridges a gap between two underspecification formalisms, and speeds up the processing of Hole Semantics.

    pdf8p bunthai_1 06-05-2013 29 1   Download

  • The Constraint Language for Lambda Structures (CLLS) is an expressive tree description language. It provides a uniform framework for underspecified semantics, covering scope, ellipsis, and anaphora. Efficient algorithms exist for the sublanguage that models scope. But so far no terminating algorithm exists for sublanguages that model ellipsis. We introduce well-nested parallelism constraints and show that they solve this problem.

    pdf8p bunthai_1 06-05-2013 35 1   Download

  • The paper adresses the problem of reasoning with ambiguities. Semantic representations are presented that leave scope relations between quantifiers a n d / o r other operators unspecified. Truth conditions are provided for these representations and different consequence relations are judged on the basis of intuitive correctness. Finally inference patterns are presented that operate directly on these underspecified structures, i.e. do not rely on any translation into the set of their disambiguations.

    pdf8p buncha_1 08-05-2013 36 1   Download




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