Urban villages

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  • Housing of course means homes. To most people this is their most treasured possession. It is not just bricks and mortar or a financial investment; it is a vital part of their life. ‘You mould the building and the building moulds you’ as Winston Churchill is said to have put it. Home is crucial to everybody’s daily well-being. As such it is normally treated with pride, and its character and contents are an extension of their per- sonality. The creation of a home is not therefore just an intellectual design exercise detached from the occupant. It should be their design.

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  • Life in cities—i.e., in organized human settlements, which are mostly referred to as communities in this book—is possible only if people have mobility1 on a daily basis—the ability to move around so that they can do what they have to do or like to do. One char- acterization of a city is that it consists of specialized, frequently clustered, activities that perform discrete functions. Residences are separate from workplaces, major shopping is concentrated in identifiable centers, and larger entertainment and relaxation facil- ities are found at specific locations.

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  • Thirty-eight women and men were trained from June 14 to July 2, 2010 in the administration of the RDHS survey instruments, anthropometric measurement, hemoglobin testing, malaria testing, and blood draw for HIV testing. Seven days of fieldwork were followed by one day of interviewer debriefing and examination. Pre-test fieldwork was conducted in 230 households in two rural and two urban villages outside of Kigali. The majority of pretest participants attended the main training and served as field editors and team leaders for the main survey.

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  • A range of factors contributed to this situation, such as the lack of access to basic health facilities - only 40% of the population is in the coverage areas of basic health facilities, and only 9% of rural households surveyed in 2003 reported a health facility in their village;1 lack of female staff at the existing facilities particularly in rural areas; marked rural-urban disparities in availability of health facilities; and lack of infrastructure (roads and transport) and security that reduce mobility and access.

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  • The deterioration of water quality in China seriously affects the inhabitants. For example, the residents in Chongqing and Guangyuan are suffering from diseases due to water pollution from industrial wastewater (Searchina 2004ab). Another serious problem is unsafe drinking water. According to Chinanet (2005), 300 million people in China cannot drink water which passes the standard for safe drinking, and some people in villages are suffering from diseases due to unsafe drinking water, like in Chongqing and Guangyuan.

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  • But in Africa, microfinance has caught on more slowly than in other regions of the developing world. While it has made some inroads, primarily in urban areas, most Africans, who live off the land and in small towns and villages, have yet to be reached. Until very recently, the cost of bringing financial services – even microfinance services – to remote parts of Africa has been prohibitive, and the logistics of doing so daunting.

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  • The sample for the 2010 RDHS was designed to provide population and health indicator estimates for the country as a whole and for urban and rural areas. Survey estimates can also be reported for the provinces (South, West, North, and East provinces) and Kigali City. The results presented in this report show key indicators that correspond to these provinces and Kigali City. A representative sample of 12,972 households was selected for the 2010 RDHS. The sample was selected in two stages.

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