Vaccine and cancer

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  • For decades we have been learning about the interplay between tumors and the immune system. Our knowledge seemed somewhat incomplete and indirect, like listening to the ocean waves through a shell. Only recently, cancer immunotherapy has started to become a reality, with Provenge (Dendreon Corporation, WA), an autologous antigen-presenting cell preparation, earning the approval of United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer in 2010.

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  • Immune system is composed of innate and adaptive responses and plays critical roles in cancer development and destruction. A century ago, Paul Ehrlich postulated that cancer would be quite common in long-lived organisms if not for the protective effects of immunity. About 50 years later, Burnet and Thomas proposed the concept of cancer immunosurveillance based on the experimental evidence of immune recognition of tumor antigens expressed on tumor cells (Dunn et al. 2004 ) . In 1971, the US Congress created a National Cancer Act – a War on Cancer.

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  • Baseline values for HPV type prevalence in cases of cervical cancer are important because these can reveal whether the types in cancers are changing as more of the population is vaccinated and whether new vaccines are targeting the correct types. A meta-analysis looked at papers published between 1990 and 2010 on more than 30,000 cervical cancer cases. 4 The most common HPV types found, in order of decreasing prevalence, were HPV 16 (57 percent), 18 (16 percent), 58 (4.7 percent), 33 (4.6 percent), 45 (4.5 percent), 31, 52, and 35.

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  • Dendritic cell (DC) vaccines are a promising and potent therapeutic tool for chronic diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancer because of the unique ability of DCs to stimulate T cells. The challenge of DC vaccines is to find an effective form for antigen presentation.

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  • This book describes a course of cancer growth starting from normal cells to cancerous form and the genomic instability, the cancer treatment as well as its prevention in form of the invention of a vaccine. Some diseases are also discussed in detail, such as breast cancer, leucaemia, cervical cancer, and glioma. Understanding cancer through its molecular mechanism is needed to reduce the cancer incidence.

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  • (bq) part 2 book "vaccines expert consult" presentation of content: biodefense and special pathogen vaccines, therapeutic cancer vaccines, cytomegalovirus vaccines, dytomegalovirus vaccines, diarrhea caused by bacteria, ebola vaccine, hepatitis e vaccines, vaccination of special groups,...and other contents.

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  • (BQ) Continued part 1, part 2 of the document Principles and applications in virology has contents: Human immunodeficiency viruses, bacterial viruses, origins and evolution of viruses, emerging viruses, viruses and cancer, virus vaccines, anti viral drugs,... and other contents. Invite you to refer.

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  • Public health efforts to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers include HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening. We quantified the annual healthcare cost of six HPV-related cancers in order to provide inputs in cost-effectiveness analyses and quantify the potential economic savings from prevention of HPV-related cancers in Norway.

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  • Despite considerable efforts at developing therapeutic vaccines for cancer, clinical translation of preclinical successes has been challenging, largely due to the difficulty of inducing strong and sustained cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in patients.

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  • The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health has recommended vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) to prevent cervical cancer since 2008. To establish monitoring of the future public health impact of vaccination, baseline population-based data are required.

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  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are indicated for the prevention of cancers and genital warts caused by vaccine-covered HPV types. Although the standard regimen requires a two or three-dose vaccine series, there is emerging data suggesting that a single dose of the bivalent or quadrivalent HPV vaccine generates persistently positive antibody titers

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  • Cancer immunotherapy is a type of therapy that uses the body's immune system to prevent, control, and eliminate cancers. The cancer cells on their surface often express the tumor antigens, which are targeted by the immune response components. The past decade has witnessed immunotherapy as an appealing and attractive strategy that established a strong pillar to fight various types of malignancies (Subramaniam et al., 2016). The therapeutic and prophylactic approaches of cancer immunotherapies have been tried against different types of cancers both in human and Veterinary medicine.

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  • The new nine-valent vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) includes the four HPV genotypes (6, 11, 16, and 18) that are targeted by the older quadrivalent HPV vaccine, plus five additional oncogenic types (31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) remain significantly associated with high grade lesions.

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  • This study aims to assess the most efficient combinations of vaccination and screening coverage for the prevention of cervical cancer (CC) at different levels of expenditure in Nigeria. An optimization procedure, using a linear programming approach and requiring the use of two models (an evaluation and an optimization model), was developed.

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  • Cancer vaccine is one of the attractive treatment modalities for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, because of delayed immune responses, its clinical benefits, besides for overall survival (OS), are not well captured by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria.

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  • Cancer is a significant and growing problem worldwide. While this increase may, in part, be attributed to increasing longevity, improved case notifications and risk-enhancing lifestyle (such as smoking, diet and obesity), hygiene-related factors resulting in immuno-regulatory failure may also play a major role and call for a revision of vaccination strategies to protect against a range of cancers in addition to infections.

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  • The first report of a quantitative risk evaluation applied to health goes back to Laplace, in the late eighteenth century, which calculated the probability of death among people with and without vaccination for smallpox. With Pasteur's studies in the late nineteenth century, it was possible to use the tools of statistics to evaluate the factors related to communicable diseases, giving birth to the concept of epidemiological risk (Covello; Munpower, 1985, Czeresnia, 2004).

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  • Endometrial, cervical, and ovarian cancers are the three most common malignancies of the female reproductive tract. In the United States alone, roughly 12,000 women are diagnosed with uterine cervical cancer annually, and 4,000 will die from the disease [1]. The relatively low incidence of cervical cancer in the US is largely attributable to the effectiveness of Papanicolaou’s cytological cervical screening test (the Pap test).

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  • Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women worldwide, and infection with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) has been identified as the causal agent for this condition. The natural history of cervical cancer is characterized by slow disease progression, rendering the condition in essence preventable and even treatable when diagnosed in early stages.

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  • Screening is performed earlier and more frequently when there is a strong family history. Randomized, controlled trials have documented that fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) confers a 15 to 30% reduction in colon cancer mortality. Although randomized trials have not been performed for sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy, well-designed case-control studies suggest similar or greater efficacy relative to FOBT. b In the future, Pap smear frequency may be influenced by HPV testing and the HPV vaccine.

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