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Water uptake

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  • The problem of water movement through the root zone has attracted increasing interest during the last few decades. In this research, the spatial and temporal pattern of root water uptake in wetted soil was studied in the root zone of a 6-year-old apple tree.

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  • The lack of information about the effects of salinity on vegetative growth of triticale prompted us to study the salt tolerance levels of 3 newly registered cultivars, Karma-2000, Presto, and Tatlicak-97.

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  • WATER PLAYS A CRUCIAL ROLE in the life of the plant. For every gram of organic matter made by the plant, approximately 500 g of water is absorbed by the roots, transported through the plant body and lost to the atmosphere. Even slight imbalances in this flow of water can cause water deficits and severe malfunctioning of many cellular processes. Thus, every plant must delicately balance its uptake and loss of water. This balancing is a serious challenge for land plants. To carry on photosynthesis, they need to draw carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, but doing so exposes them to...

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  • LIFE IN EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE presents a formidable challenge to land plants. On the one hand, the atmosphere is the source of carbon dioxide, which is needed for photosynthesis. Plants therefore need ready access to the atmosphere. On the other hand, the atmosphere is relatively dry and can dehydrate the plant. To meet the contradictory demands of maximizing carbon dioxide uptake while limiting water loss, plants have evolved adaptations to control water loss from leaves, and to replace the water lost to the atmosphere.

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  • The present study investigates an experiment of uptake capacity of metals by Vetiveria zizanioides to treat contaminated water from a metal production trade village, Dong Xam, Thai Binh, Vietnam (DXV). Vetiver was grown in two pot culture experiments TB10, TB6 with solutions containing respective concentrations of Al, Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn of 2.5, 55.6, 0.15, 7.7 and 24.4 mg from the DXV for a period of 36 days.

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  • Different peanut yields under terminal drought might be due to the different nutrient uptakes among peanut genotypes. Nutrient uptake was presumed to be a drought-resistant trait and might involve drought tolerance mechanisms. The aims of this study, therefore, were to characterize the effect of terminal drought on peanut nutrient uptake and to investigate the genotypic variability of nutrient uptake and its interactions with terminal drought.

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  • The objective of this study was to investigate the responses of peanut genotypes to midseason drought, regarding in particular nutrient uptakes and their correlations with biomass production and pod yield. The experiment was conducted during the dry seasons of 2011/12 and 2012/13.

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  • Straight and clear sapwood specimens of 3x3x1.5 cm were prepared from spruce (Picea orientalis L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), beech (Fagus orientalis L.), and alder (Alnus glutinosa Geartn. L.).

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  • A ‘textbook’ plant typically comprises about 85% water and 13.5% carbohy- drates. The remaining fraction contains at least 14 mineral elements, without which plants would be unable to complete their life cycles. These essential mineral elements include six macronutrients – N, K, P, S, Mg and Ca – which are present in relatively large amounts in plant tissues (mg g−1 of dry tissue), and several micronutrients, including Fe and Zn, which are present in smaller amounts (µg g−1 of dry tissue).

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  • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been applied to study the water uptake for four primer paint films J1 - J4 on carbon steel surfaces exposed to seawater. Based on the Brasher-Kingsbury equation, the water uptake was estimated from CC values calculated by both EIS data treatments: one from the high frequency Nyquist semicircle and the other by using Fit and Simulation software.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp quốc tế, đề tài: Changes in carbon uptake and allocation patterns in Quercus robur seedlings in response to elevated an 2 CO and water stress: C 13 labelling...

    pdf13p toshiba6 07-10-2011 39 2   Download

  • The harms to individuals, families, communities and Australian society as a whole from alcohol, tobacco and other drugs are well known. For example, the cost to Australian society of alcohol, tobacco and other drug misuse1 in the financial year 2004–05 was estimated at $56.1 billion, including costs to the health and hospitals system, lost workplace productivity, road accidents and crime. The overarching approach of harm minimisation, which has guided the National Drug Strategy since its inception in 1985, will continue through 2010–2015.

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  • If the soil becomes saturated, oxygen may become scarce and in anoxic conditions, denitrifying bacteria may convert the nitrate to nitrogen gases (NO, N2O, and N2). Nitrogen converted to these gases becomes unavailable for plant uptake or for surface water contamination. Additionally, saturated soil during the growing season is harmful to many crops like maize that cannot tolerate low oxygen concentrations in the root zone for more than a few days.

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  • Many attempts have been made to understand the plant response to water using plant growth models. The effects of fertilizer on crop yield are greater than those of water. Therefore, some models that have been developed for the evaluation of water–yield relationships can also be used for fertilizer-yield relationships.

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  • A Abatement: Reducing the degree or intensity of, or eliminating, pollution. Abatement Debris: Waste from remediation activities. Absorbed Dose: In exposure assessment, the amount of a substance that penetrates an exposed organism's absorption barriers (e.g.,, skin, lung tissue, gastrointestinal tract) through physical or biological processes. The term is synonymous with internal dose. Absorption Barrier: Any of the exchange sites of the body that permit uptake of various substances at different rates (e.g., skin, lung tissue, and gastrointestinal-tract wall).

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  • Toxic heavy metals, i.e. copper (II), lead (II) and cadmium (II), can be removed from water by metallurgical solid wastes, i.e. bauxite waste red muds and coal fly ashes acting as sorbents. These heavy-metal-loaded solid wastes may then be solidified by adding cement to a durable concrete mass assuring their safe disposal. Thus, toxic metals in water have been removed by sorption on to inexpensive solid waste materials as a preliminary operation of ultimate fixation. Metal uptake (sorption) and release (desorption) have been investigated by thermostatic batch experiments.

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  • The ocean absorbs a significant portion of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from human activities, equivalent to about one-third of the total emissions for the past 200 years from fossil fuel combustion, cement production and land use change (Sabine et al., 2004). Uptake of CO2 by the ocean benefits society by moderating the rate of climate change but also causes unprecedented changes to ocean chemistry, decreasing the pH of the water and leading to a suite of chemical changes collectively known as ocean acidification.

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  • In the majority of cases the most direct risk would currently be considered adverse effects to consumers of crops (humans and animals) by virtue of uptake by crops or contamination of crops. An important risk at heavily amended sites is that of groundwater pollution. Many countries in Europe rely heavily on groundwater for drinking water and irrigation water. Persistent contaminants in groundwater can eventually reach and potentially pollute surface waters.

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  • Inorganic mercury is toxic when humans or wildlife are exposed to high levels for a short peri- od of time. Organic methylmercury has a greater tendency to accumulate in the body over time, eventually causing harm, even in small amounts. Methylmercury has the three properties that make substances particularly harmful to humans and other organisms — it persists, it bioaccumulates, and it is toxic to most life forms. The health effects of mercury are described in more detail in the next chapter of this primer.

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  • In most agricultural settings, commercial fertilizer provides only one source of N used for crop production. Animal manure, biological N fixation, mineralization from soil organic N, and deposition of N from the atmosphere can also contribute to soil fertility and surface water contamination. Because there are multiple sources and sinks of N in the soil, the relationship between N fertilizer application rate and nitrogen loss in drainage water is not always consistent across locations and across studies.

    pdf28p tainhacmienphi 19-02-2013 45 3   Download

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