Essential LightWave 3D- P21

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Essential LightWave 3D- P21

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Essential LightWave 3D- P21: What you have in your hands is, quite simply, a collection of tools and techniques that many professional LightWave artists use every single day doing what we do in our various fields. The tools and techniques explored in this book are essential to creating the caliber of imagery that you see on film and television and in print and video games.

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  1. Appendix A · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Justice http://www.joejustice.org/ than LightWave’s built-in controller located Maintained by Joe Justice under Rendering | Network Rendering (which fully occupies the instance of LightNet LightWave being used to control the net- work rendering). (Intel) Full Version Notes: Study both the LightNet Installa- tion Guide and the LightWave manual What it is: LightNet is an external pro- section on network rendering to make set- gram that manages the bunches of ting up your render farm much easier. (If networked computers that do nothing but you are setting up a networked render farm, await your bidding and render the scenes you will also need to understand basic net- you send to them (known locally as a render work privileges and directory mappings. farm). LightNet is the most widely used (Mac users can also find ScreamerNet con- free render farm controller for LightWave. trollers through Flay.com, discussed in What makes this cool: LightWave lets Appendix B.) you have an almost unlimited number of “render nodes” for the purchase price of the software (unlike some other software packages). Using a render farm of only two machines (of equal processor speed and physical memory) will render your scene twice as fast as just one of the machines alone! Even if you only have one machine, you can queue a bunch of things to render and have LightNet set the CPU priority of the render node to Lowest, so you can still work while you’re rendering. LightNet is much Figure A-28: LightNet. easier to set up and work with 588
  2. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Plug-ins and Programs Kaser http://www.kaser.com/ Notes: This demo version only contains Program by Everett Kaser five puzzles of each size (3x3 through 8x8). The full version ($19.95 + shipping) has Sherlock over 65,000 puzzles of each size. (Intel) Demo What it is: Sherlock is a game of logic — a lot like solitaire, only that with each and every puzzle you have the ability to be suc- cessful. Your own mental ability, not chance, is what determines whether you win or lose. What makes this cool: This simple game will help train you to see how solving even the most seemingly complex puzzles is simply a matter of doing what needs to be done in the moment — eliminating the impossible and slowly resolving your way to the solution. This is training for 3D — Figure A-29: Sherlock. and for life. Figure A-30: Sherlock. 589
  3. Appendix B Resources So, where do you go to find answers to the yet. Some are just too cool to not jump in questions you come across as you go about immediately and start scrounging around your work? There are many resources, both for neat bits and pieces that are the perfect online and in print. Some answer questions fit for the things you have zinging about in you may not even know you’ll be asking your creative mind! Community LightWave’s online community is without connecting people from around the world. If equal. Just as some are gifted in program- you aren’t sure where to find what you’re ming (as are the artist/programmers who looking for, or if you aren’t quite sure what have contributed to the wealth of material you’re looking for yet, these places can help described in Appendix A), some are gifted point you in the right direction. in teaching, organizing information, or NewTek http://www.newtek.com/products/lightwave/ One of the first places to go to find out “how” (as well as get updates, patches, and whatnot) is the NewTek web site. (Do you think this kind of community could exist for a package that doesn’t stand with its users 100%?) NewTek’s web site has collections of tutorials, links, and information about “who’s who” in the LightWave community. Check it out! Figure B-1: NewTek web site. 590
  4. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Re s o u r c e s Flay http://www.flay.com/ Flay is also a “first stop” for finding out just about anything that exists concerning LightWave. Here you will find up-to-date listings of news, jobs, tutorials, tips, and of course, my personal favorite: plug-ins. Each category is searchable so you can quickly find exactly what you’re looking for. Figure B-3 shows Figure B-2: Flay.com web site. the plug-ins page, list- ing the latest 20 plug-in “spottings” and sporting a search engine that will find what you’re looking for, even if you don’t know its name — only what you want it to do for you! Figure B-3: Flay.com plug-ins page. 591
  5. Appendix B · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · SpinQuad http://www.spinquad.com/forums SpinQuad is one of the leading LightWave forums on the web. Founded by industry legend William “Proton” Vaughan and populated by some of the most established LightWave users in the world, it is an excellent place to meet professionals, get answers to your ques- tions, and hone your skills. With its friendly, small-town feel and an unwavering commit- Figure B-4: SpinQuad web site. ment to the user and his art, SpinQuad perfectly embodies the spirit of the LightWave community. CgTalk http://www.cgtalk.com/ CgTalk is the world’s largest forum for com- puter graphics professionals. With almost 100,000 mem- bers, it offers support for nearly every major graphics application. Visitors can find focused critiques, contests, industry information, jobs, and, of course, dis- cussions on more than a dozen 2D/3D applications. Figure B-5: CgTalk web site. 592
  6. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Re s o u r c e s 3D Fight Club http://www.3dfightclub.com/ There’s nothing like a challenge to bring out the best in a person, and 3D Fight Club does a great job of providing users with just that. Born out of a desire to extol the powers of LightWave over Maya, the site now includes users of every 3D applica- tion. Members participate in a variety of challenges, ranging from several minutes to several hours in length. The idea is to work quickly toward your goal and produce better work than your competitors within the time allowed. If you really want to hone your skills, I highly recommend a workout at 3D Fight Club. Figure B-6: 3D Fight Club web site. Friends of NewTek http://www.friendsofnewtek.com/ site is a resource for connecting LightWave and Video Toaster users with established Decades before the Internet made its user groups in their area. If you’ve never debut, user groups functioned as the princi- had the privilege of being in a user group, pal means of support for the computer- you owe it to yourself to check one out. using community. While online forums now offer a chance to connect with people all over the world, they still lack the ben- efits that come from a local gathering. User groups frequently showcase new hard- ware and software, bring in special guest speakers, and offer personalized assis- tance to those new to the scene. The Figure B-7: Friends of NewTek web site. Friends of NewTek 593
  7. Appendix B · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · TUCOWS http://www.tucows.com/ I had just sort of assumed that most people already knew about TUCOWS as the ulti- mate place on the net to download reviewed software for almost any and every com- puter platform. But I have found that a lot of people are still unaware of it. Plain and sim- ple, it is the best place to search for programs you need, whether they be games, OS “fine-tuners,” network “stuff,” emulators, or whatever (IMHO). Almost every package is reviewed and scored in “cows” (five cows being the highest score). You can even super search on the kind of license agreement the package has (com- Figure B-8: TUCOWS web site. mercial, shareware, freeware, etc.). Commercial While the quantity of free materials avail- from providers who have spent countless able on the net is astounding, nothing can hours developing materials to assist in the match the quality of dedicated commercial development of your skills and abilities. products. The following resources come Kurv Studios http://www.kurvstudios.com/ per hour, making them one of the most cost-effective sources of training you’ll find. Kurv Studios burst onto the scene in 2004 and has quickly become one of the leading suppliers of high-quality com- puter-based training material. Their LightWave series is hosted by indus- try-recognized artists and offers training on nearly every aspect of the software. But what makes Kurv Studios really stand out from the competition is not the quality; it’s the price. Videos from Kurv Studios typically range from $24.95 to $49.95 and contain more than 10 hours of training material. That’s less than $5 Figure B-9: Kurv Studios web site. 594
  8. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Re s o u r c e s 3D.sk http://www.3d.sk/ 3D.sk is the de facto supplier of high-resolution figure reference photos. The images range from male to female, young to old, clothed and nude. There are ref- erences for facial expressions, body poses, and even suggested poly-flow. If you’re planning on developing 3D characters, a membership to this site should be considered essential. For less than $10 you can gain access to nearly 10,000 high-res images. If Figure B-10: 3D.sk web site. you’ve looked at the price of stock photos or the labor involved in hiring your own ref- erence model, you’ll quickly see why 3D.sk is an invaluable resource at an unparalleled price. HDRI 3D http://www.hdri3d.com/ HDRI 3D is definitely worth tak- ing a look at. Each issue is filled with an amazing number of high-quality tutorials and articles on subjects from texturing and hair and fur shading to vehicular modeling and building city- scapes. It doesn’t just touch on the “tried-and-true” uses of LightWave. The issues I’ve seen have also explored some really neat applications that I don’t imagine a lot of people have Figure B-11: HDRI 3D magazine web site. thought of — yet! 595
  9. Appendix B · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Worley Laboratories http://www.worley.com/ Worley Labs is the company that contributed the Lite version of their Sasquatch Hair/Fur Shader to LightWave 7+. They also have two collections of very useful plug-ins bundled under the names Taft and Polk (yes, just like two former U.S. presidents). The really cool thing they’ve just come out with is the FPrime pro- gressive rendering system. FPrime provides you with “real-time F9” rendering, allow- Figure B-12: Worley Labs web site. ing you to see changes to surfaces, lights, cameras, objects, etc., in real time. Without a doubt, FPrime everything that the plug-in does, but is the most impressive product to hit the Worley’s web site contains all of the details LightWave market in some time. There is and nearly a dozen sample videos and I simply not enough room to describe highly recommend you check it out. Colin Cohen: Freelance Programmer http://cohen-plugs.tripod.com/ In the world of LightWave developers, the public. His work as both an animator there are an elite few who consistently pro- and a programmer (with over a decade of duce high-caliber, extremely useful software development experience) gives plug-ins. Colin Cohen is one of them. Colin him a unique insight into the needs that can is most widely known for his free plug-ins, arise during production. Keep Colin’s infor- but his generosity is not what makes him mation handy. There are a number of such a valuable asset to the community. extremely talented programmers in the Rather, Colin, who lives in the Los Angeles LightWave community, but very few of area, is one of the few programmers who them are available for hire. make their exceptional skills available to 596
  10. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Re s o u r c e s Next Limit http://www.nextlimit.com/ Next Limit makes two products that you’ll definitely want to take a look at once you’ve got the basics of LightWave down. These products are RealFlow and RealWave. They create some of the best simulations of fluids (large and small) I’ve Figure B-13 seen, and their fluid dynamics simulations equal work done on Houdini versions of the software are available for (which costs many, many, many times download from their web site. more). Fully functional time-limited demo Dynamic Realities http://www.dynamic-realities.com Dynamic Realities is the com- pany that supplied the particle simulation Particle FX to LightWave. Their new version, Napalm, adds an exponential level of control to what you Figure B-14 know in Particle FX. Pyro is a smoke and flame dynamics and Trees & Bolts creates lightning and other rendering engine that greatly simplifies the electrical effects with real-time OpenGL creation of realistic fire and smoke in previews. LumeTools helps create realistic LightWave. Impact 3 is a solid body dynam- surfaces for your models and scenes. ics system for LightWave. NatureFX 2 Demos are available from the Dynamic realistically creates large bodies of water, Realities web site. wakes, clouds, and atmosphere effects. 597
  11. Appendix B · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Electronic Rain http://www.erain.com/ If you’re into doing web graphics, Elec- specularity, and shadows. It’ll render your tronic Rain makes something I think will LW scene to Flash’s vector-based format as interest you. Swift 3D is a tool that exports polygonal outlines, cartoon shading, or LightWave stills and animations into photo-realistic using multiple layers of Macromedia’s Flash format. It fully sup- transparency to get realistic specular high- ports gradients, transparency, reflections, lights and shadows. Wordware Publishing http://www.wordware.com/ Wordware, the publisher of the book you up with books that talk a lot but don’t say are reading, provides books on many differ- much. I choose to publish my LightWave ent computer-related subjects, from its books through Wordware because we share Game and Graphics Library to books on similar foci in our intent in making a differ- pixel shading and real-time graphics coding. ence and giving the community things you Few publishers have books that actually can actually use, things you really want to teach you things you need to know. I don’t know. want to get on a soapbox here, but I am fed Safe Harbor http://www.sharbor.com/ Safe Harbor is an online retailer that sup- years and consistently provide a high level ports the 3D and graphics communities. of personal service and professionalism. If While it is not my intention to single out you’re looking for 3D-related hardware and one retailer from another, I call attention to software and are having trouble locating Safe Harbor because they have served the what you need through other vendors, digital content community for more than 16 check out Safe Harbor. 598
  12. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Re s o u r c e s Recommended Reading This section lists books I have found essen- Letters to Strongheart tial to getting to where I am in my career. J. Allen Boone With some of them, it will be immediately As an artist, you see, feel, experience life and obvious as to how they relate to LightWave, the things that impact you in ways that animation, or filmmaking. With others, the leave much more permanent impressions connection may not be so obvious. on your spirit than do the travels of “every- Art isn’t something that can be quanti- day people.” These things have to if you are fied and put into a box. Every work of art, going to be able to take these experiences regardless of medium, is something that and share them with others through your encapsulates the entirety of your emotional, work. Letters to Strongheart is a collection of mental, physical, and spiritual existence — short letters detailing Boone’s travels whatever this summation happens to be. around the world. In a way I have not the The more you know, the more you experi- skill to describe, Boone’s experiences and ence, and the more you live and can really how he sees them has done more to open my “hold” the experiences you find, the better eyes to things in my own experiences that I artist you will be. never would have noticed before than nearly any other book (non-fiction or other- The Artist’s Way wise). I rank this on the same level as The Julia Cameron Artist’s Way. Top on the list of books I recommend is this one. Why? Because if you’re like most art- Film Directing: Shot by Shot ists who find themselves pulled to 3D, Steven D. Katz you’re not just good at one thing — you’re For anyone who is going to be successful in good at a whole lot of things. How do you the art of visual storytelling, you must know what you really want to focus your understand how to communicate within this time, energy, and spirit into? This book is medium. I’ve seen a few books come on the made up of exercises that seem like play at market that are seriously pale shadows of first but really help you figure out what you this book. This is what you study when you want to devote your time as an artist study filmmaking at the top schools in the toward. Perhaps even more valuable, it country. (Need I say more? Okay, I will.) To shows you how to experience the time you illustrate its points as to how to tell your spend creating your art as “playtime”; this is story, it has extensive storyboard sequences the one true secret to letting your work from Citizen Kane, The Birds, Blade Runner, soar to its highest heights more quickly The Graduate, and Empire of the Sun. It than anything else. clearly shows you all the established filmic conventions (camera positions, ways of shooting dialogue, and establishing and maintaining narrative control) and how to break them when you need to. 599
  13. Appendix B · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · To the Actor Audition Michael Chekhov Michael Shurtleff This is the premier book for teaching actors This is another “must-have” for the charac- the keys to “getting inside” their charac- ter animation crowd. This book teaches you ters. Its exercises have been practiced by how to quickly understand the inner work- the best actors for generations. (It is what ings and dynamics between characters in a directors study to understand how to get the scene (and within a single character him- performances they need from the actors to self). In a nutshell, it teaches you the tell the story they need to tell.) Plain and quickest, most effective ways of getting the simple: If you plan on doing character-based clearest picture of why the scene is in the work, either as an animator or director, the film (because in an audition, you frequently information in this book will be one of your have less than thirty seconds from being greatest keys to success. handed the script to acting it out before director, producer, et al.). Then, combining LightWave 3D 8 Character what you find with Chekhov’s “method,” Animation you can make the scene as moving to the Timothy Albee audience as it possibly can be. This book takes you from where you are now and puts you on the path to being a fea- Vilppu Drawing Manual ture-quality animator. Character rigging, Glenn Vilppu inverse kinematics, posing, timing, silhou- If you want to do figurative work — charac- ettes, squash-and-stretch, action, acting, ters, humans, or otherwise — you need to facial animation, and taking a scene from get this book. As I mentioned earlier, start to finish are only a few of the items Glenn’s greatest gift is in being able to covered in depth within its pages. If you’re teach people (even those with little or no not a modeler, don’t worry; you can animate previous experience) an understanding of any of the characters that ship on the the human form such that they are able to book’s CD-ROM; they even come fully create works that one would normally asso- rigged if you have no interest in learning ciate with a master figurative artist. It is the feature-quality rigging (setting up a charac- understanding of how the forms of the ter for animation). Exercises like human body work together that make a “Life-Drawing in 3D” and “Moving Life model of a human look “good.” The exer- Drawing in 3D” have proven themselves (in cises in this book will give you that teaching promising young animators work- understanding. ing for me at my studios) as the best, fastest ways of going from novice to feature-quality animator. 600
  14. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Re s o u r c e s Alla Prima: Everything I Know I can impress deeply enough the fact of how About Painting important this is in your actually becoming Richard Schmid a good artist yourself — in every medium http://www.richardschmid.com you touch!) Plus, Richard has this wonder- All arts pull from the same source. Having ful, light way of not taking himself or his art a strong understanding of drawing and too seriously, and this is simply beyond painting is one of the best ways to make refreshing — the book is a joy to read. your 3D work excel. (It’s all art! It doesn’t matter what tools you use to create it!) I’ve Travels with Charley: In Search of been taught by teachers in some of the America most respected art schools in the country. John Steinbeck All of them together have taught me only a If you ever find yourself getting entrenched fraction of what I learned by reading Rich- in your element, don’t just read this book ard’s book. Maybe the way in which he — try your darnedest to follow in the presents what he knows fits with how I author’s footsteps. Steinbeck was in the need to have things presented to me in same position — his solution was to pack order to learn — or maybe he has a unique up a pickup-camper, take his dog, Charley, way of teaching that finally demystifies this and set off across the “blue highways” of gliding of paint on canvas. Regardless, read- America. He knew no one, and no one ing his book, I finally got it. This is no knew him, and through the book’s pages, “theorist” expounding about how things you can feel the excitement of the treasure “should” be done or someone simply show- of life and living flooding through author and ing you moves to copy by rote. He talks text. (It is one thing to create art — it is about his process of seeing that leads his another thing entirely to live it.) decision-making process. (I don’t know how 601
  15. Appendix C LightWave’s Default Hot Keys (Remember that all hot keys are CASE SENSITIVE.) Modeler Modeler: General Cut Ctrl + x Copy Ctrl + c Paste Ctrl + v Center around cursor g Rotate selection 90º clockwise r Undo Ctrl + z Redo z Point Selection mode Ctrl + g Polygon Selection mode Ctrl + h Volume Selection mode Ctrl + j Symmetry mode Y Numeric window n Statistics window w Point/Polygon Info window i Surface q Toggle full-screen viewport Numeric keypad 0 Help F1 General Options window o Display Options window d Modeler: Create Box X Ball O Manage Fonts F10 Text W “Open” curve from selected points Ctrl + p Points + Make Polygon p 602
  16. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · L i g h t Wa v e ’ s D e f a u l t H o t K e y s Modeler: Modify Move t Drag Ctrl + t Snap-Drag G DragNet ; Magnet : Shear [ Center F2 Rest on Ground F3 Rotate to Ground F4 Rotate y Bend ~ Size H Stretch h Jitter J Smooth M Modeler: Multiply Bevel b Edge Bevel Ctrl + b Extrude E Extend e Lathe L Smooth Shift F Path Extrude P Mirror V Array Ctrl + y Clone c Knife K Subdivide D Triple T Cut U Modeler: Construct Remove Polygons (Leave Points) k Bridge l SubPatch Activate/Deactivate Tab Freeze Polys Ctrl + d Spline Patch Ctrl + f Modeler: Detail Merge Polygons Z Merge Points m Unweld Ctrl + u Weld Ctrl + w Set Value v Flip f 603
  17. Appendix C · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Spin Quads Ctrl + k Unify Polygons I Measure Ctrl + e Modeler: Map Clear Map from Selection _ Moduler: Utilities Add Plug-ins F11 Edit Plug-ins Alt + F11 Modeler: View Zoom Ctrl + q Fit All a Fit Selected A Zoom In . Zoom In x 2 > or Shift + . Zoom Out , Zoom Out x 2 < or Shift + , Insert Layer Insert Delete Layer Home Swap Layers ' Next Layer Bank Page Up Previous Layer Bank Page Down Select Connected ] Invert Connected ? Expand Selection } Contract Selection { Invert Selection " Drop Selection / Hide Selected - Hide Unselected = Invert Hidden | Unhide All \ Layout Layout: General Save Scene s Save Scene As Ctrl + s Save Scene Increment S Show/Hide Floating Windows Tab Show/Hide Toolbar Alt + F2 Show/Hide SubPatch Cages Alt + F3 Show/Hide Motion Paths Alt + F4 Show/Hide Handles Alt + F5 Show/Hide IK Chains Alt + F6 604
  18. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · L i g h t Wa v e ’ s D e f a u l t H o t K e y s Scene Editor Ctrl + F1 Graph Editor Ctrl + F2 Surface Editor F5 Image Editor F6 Display Options d General Options o Objects O Bones B Lights L Cameras C Item Properties p Auto Key Create Shift + F1 Create Key Return Delete Key Del Undo Ctrl + z Redo z Statistics w Help F1 Layout: Items Load Scene Ctrl + o Load Object + Add Null Ctrl + n Clone Selected Item Ctrl + c Mirror V Clear Selected Item - Layout: Modify Move t Rotate y Size H Stretch h Jump to Numeric Input Field n Coordinate System: World Shift + F5 Coordinate System: Parent Shift + F6 Coordinate System: Local Shift + F7 Layout: Setup Enter Bone Edit Mode E Exit Bone Edit Mode D Enable IK Shift + F8 Add Child Bone = Joint Move Ctrl + j Tip Move Ctrl + t Bone Twist Ctrl + k Record Pivot Rotation P Record Bone Rest Rotation r 605
  19. Appendix C · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Unparent Bone Ctrl + u Mirror Hierarchy Ctrl + w Import Rig I Export Rig J Motion Options m Record Minimum Joint Angles { Record Maximum Joint Angles } Selected Bone Active/Inactive Ctrl + r Layout: Utilities Edit Plug-ins Shift + F11 Master Plug-ins Ctrl + q Layout: Render Render Frame F9 Render Scene F10 Render Selected Object F11 Render Motion Builder Preview Shift + F9 Layout: View Zoom In . Zoom In x 2 > Zoom Out , Zoom Out x 2 < View Mode: Back 1 View Mode: Top 2 View Mode: Right 3 View Mode: Perspective 4 View Mode: Light 5 View Mode: Camera 6 View Mode: Schematic 7 Previous View Layout F3 Next View Layout F4 Increase Grid ] Decrease Grid [ Select All Objects Ctrl + a Select Item By Name ‘ Select Next Item down arrow Select Previous Item up arrow Select First Item Shift + up arrow Select Last Item Shift + down arrow Select Next Sibling Ctrl + down arrow Select Previous Sibling Ctrl + up arrow Show/Hide Safe Areas Alt + F7 Show/Hide Field Chart Alt + F8 Toggle Fullscreen Viewport Numeric keypad 0 606
  20. Index 4-Point Lighting Setup plug-in, 583 C C_Bend plug-in, 581 A cage, action centers, 18 creating, 298-335 action modes, 17 patching, 337-344 Action Safe view, 6 tips for patching, 335-336 Add Edges tool, 153-154 Camera Properties window settings, 94-99 Align to Rail plug-in, 580 camera, 6-7 ambient light, 104 caustics, 6 animation, rendering, 395-396 Center Current Item control, 33 antialiasing, 96 Change Surface window, 16-17 area lights, 5 character animation, 398-399 arms, modeling, 216-219 child items, 14 ASA chrome sphere, creating, 114-117 BufferSaver plug-in, 569-570 CinePaint program, 586 ColorPicker plug-in, 570 ClothFX, 483 Fake Irradiance Illumination plug-in, 571 using, 499-504 Light Absorption in See-Through Items Coffee! plug-in, 582 plug-in, 571 Collision dynamic, 483 RenderTarget plug-in, 572 using, 486-489 atlas mapping, 167-168 collisions, 488 Auto Key button, 37 color maps, 15 axes, compositing, protected, 45 CG elements into live-action plate, 440-448 solving for, 408-409 explosions, 449-457 axis, 1 shadows, 443-448 Configure Keys window, 27 B Configure Menus window, 28-30 Backdrop tab, Modeler, 23-24 Construct tab, Modeler, 19-20 BandGlue tool, 202 context menus, see quick menus BandSaw Pro tool, 201 Contract Selection tool, 61-62 BandSaw tool, 200-201 Create Key button, 36 bank, 2-3 Create tab, Modeler, 19-20 beard, creating with SasLite, 523-528 Current Item pop-up menu, Layout, 37 Bend tool, 142 Current Object menu, 13 using, 77-78 curves, selection order, 274, 276 Bevel tool, using, 88-89 body, modeling, 214-234 D bones, 398-399 Delete Key button, 36 Boolean, 82 deselecting, in Modeler, 17 using, 82-88 Detail tab, Modeler, 19-20 box modeling, 237 detail-out modeling, 237 Bridge tool, using, 136-137 Display Options tab, Layout, 44-45 Display Options window, Modeler, 22-25 distant light, 4 607
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