Multisensor thiết bị đo đạc thiết kế 6o (P2)
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Multisensor thiết bị đo đạc thiết kế 6o (P2)
INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS AND PARAMETER ERRORS This chapter is concerned with the devices and circuits that comprise the electronic amplifiers of linear systems utilized in instrumentation applications. This development begins with the temperature limitations of semiconductor devices, and is then extended to differential amplifiers and an analysis of their parameters for understanding operational amplifiers from the perspective of their internal stages.
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 Multisensor Instrumentation 6 Design. By Patrick H. Garrett Copyright © 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBNs: 0471205060 (Print); 0471221554 (Electronic) 2 INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS AND PARAMETER ERRORS 20 INTRODUCTION This chapter is concerned with the devices and circuits that comprise the electronic amplifiers of linear systems utilized in instrumentation applications. This develop ment begins with the temperature limitations of semiconductor devices, and is then extended to differential amplifiers and an analysis of their parameters for under standing operational amplifiers from the perspective of their internal stages. This includes gain–bandwidth–phase stability relationships and interactions in multiple amplifier systems. An understanding of the capabilities and limitations of opera tional amplifiers is essential to understanding instrumentation amplifiers. An instrumentation amplifier usually is the first electronic device encountered in a signal acquisition system, and in large part it is responsible for the ultimate data accuracy attainable. Present instrumentation amplifiers are shown to possess suffi cient linearity, CMRR, low noise, and precision for total errors in the microvolt range. Five categories of instrumentation amplifier applications are described, with representative contemporary devices and parameters provided for each. These para meters are then utilized to compare amplifier circuits for implementations ranging from low input voltage error to wide bandwidth applications. 21 DEVICE TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS The elemental semiconductor device in electronic circuits is the pn junction; among its forms are diodes and bipolar and FET transistors. The availability of free carriers that result in current flow in a semiconductor is a direct function of the applied ther mal energy. At room temperature, taken as 20°C (293°K above absolute zero), there is abundant energy to liberate the valence electrons of a semiconductor. These carri ers are then free to drift under the influence of an applied potential. The magnitude 25
 26 INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS AND PARAMETER ERRORS of this current flow is essentially a function of the thermal energy instead of the ap plied voltage and accounts for the temperature behavior exhibited by semiconduc tor devices (increasing current with increasing temperature). The primary variation associated with reverse biased pn junctions is the change in reverse saturation current Is with temperature. Is is determined by device geome try and doping with a variation of 7% per degree centigrade both in silicon and ger manium, doubling every 10°C rise. This behavior is shown by Figure 21 and equa tion (21). Forwardbiased pn junctions exhibit a decreasing junction potential, having an expected value of –2.0 mV per degree centigrade rise as defined by equa tion (22). The dV/dT temperature variation is shown to be the difference between the forward junction potential V and the temperature dependence of Is. This rela tionship is the source of the voltage offset drift with temperature exhibited by semi conductor devices. The volt equivalent of temperature is an empirical model in both equations defined as VT = (273°K + T °C)/11,600, having a typical value of 25 mV at room temperature. dIs d(lnIs) = Is · A/°C (21) dT dT dV V VT dIs = – · V/°C (22) dT T Is dT 22 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS The first electronic circuit encountered by a sensor signal in a data acquisition sys tem typically is the differential input stage of an instrumentation amplifier. The bal anced bipolar differential amplifier of Figure 22(a) is an important circuit used in many linear applications. Operation with symmetrical ± power supplies as shown results in the input base terminals being at 0 V under quiescent conditions. Due to the interaction that occurs in this emittercoupled circuit, the algebraic difference FIGURE 21. pn junction temperature dependence.
 22 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS 27 FIGURE 22. Differential DC amplifier and normalized transfer curves; hfe = 100, hie = 1 k, and hoe = 10–6 .
 28 INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS AND PARAMETER ERRORS signal applied across the input terminals is the effective drive signal, whereas equal ly applied input signals are cancelled by the symmetry of the circuit. With reference to a singleended output VO2, amplifier Q1 may be considered an emitter follower with the constant current source an emitter load impedance in the megohm range. This results in a noninverting voltage gain for Q1 very close to unity (0.99999) that is emittercoupled to the common emitter amplifier Q2, where Q2 provides the dif ferential voltage gain AVdiff by equation (23). Differential amplifier volt–ampere transfer curves are defined by Figure 22(b), where the abscissa represents normalized differential input voltage (V1 – V2)/VT. The transfer characteristics are shown to be linear about the operating point corre sponding to an input voltage swing of approximately 50 mV (± 1 VT unit). The maximum slope of the curves occurs at the operating point of Io/2, and defines the effective transconductance of the circuit as Ic/ (V1 – V2)/VT. The value of this slope is determined by the total current Io of equation (24). Differential input im pedances Rdiff and Rcm are defined by equations (25) and (26). The effective volt age gain cancellation between the noninverting and inverting inputs is represented by the common mode gain AVcm of equation (27). The ratio of differential gain to common mode gain also provides a dimensionless figure of merit for differential amplifiers as the common mode rejection ratio (CMRR). This is expressed by equa tion (28), having a typical value of 105. hfeRc AVdiff = singleended VO2 (23) 2hie = 50 Io = Is1 · exp(Vbe1/VT) + Is2 · exp(Vbe2/VT) (24) = 1 mA 4VT hfe Rdiff = (25) Io = 10 K hfe Rcm = (26) hoe = 100 M hoeRc AVcm = (27) 2 = 5 × 10–4
 22 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS 29 AVdiff CMRR = (28) AVcm = 105 The performance of operational and instrumentation amplifiers are largely de termined by the errors associated with their input stages. It is convention to ex press these errors as voltage and current offset values, including their variation with temperature with respect to the input terminals, so that various amplifiers may be compared on the same basis. In this manner, factors such as the choice of gain and the amplification of the error values do not result in confusion con cerning their true magnitude. It is also notable that the symmetry provided by the differential amplifier circuit primarily serves to offer excellent dc stability and the minimization of input errors in comparison with those of nondifferential circuits. The base emitter voltages of a group of the same type of bipolar transistors at the same collector current are typically only within 20 mV. Operation of a differential pair with a constant current emitter sink as shown in Figure 22(a), however, pro vides a Vbe match of Vos to about 1 mV. Equation (29) defines this input offset volt age and its dependence on the mismatch in reverse saturation current Is between the differential pair. This mismatch is a consequence of variations in doping and geom etry of the devices during their manufacture. Offset adjustment is frequently provid ed by the introduction of an external trimpot RVos in the emitter circuit. This permits the incremental addition and subtraction of emitter voltage drops to 0 Vos without disturbing the emitter current Io. Of greater concern is the offset voltage drift with temperature, dVos/dT. This in put error results from mistracking of Vbe1 and Vbe2, described by equation (210), and is difficult to compensate. However, the differential circuit reduces dVos/dT to 2 V/°C from the –2 mV/°C for a single device of equation (22), or an improvement factor of 1/1000. By way of comparison, JFET differential circuit Vos is on the order of 10 mV, and dVos/dT typical1y 5 V/°C. Minimization of these errors is achieved by matching the device pinchoff voltage parameter. Bipolar input bias current off set and offset current drift are described by equations (211) and (212), and have their genesis in a mismatch in current gain (hfe1 hfe2). JFET devices intrinsically offer lower input bias currents and offset current errors in differential circuits, which is advantageous for the amplification of currenttype sensor signals. Howev er, the rate of increase of JFET bias current with temperature is exponential, as il lustrated in Figure 23, and results in values that exceed bipolar input bias currents at temperatures beyond 100°C, thereby limiting the utility of JFET differential am plifiers above this temperature. Is2 Ie1 Vos = VT ln · (29) Is1 Ie2 = 1 mV
 30 INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS AND PARAMETER ERRORS FIGURE 23. Device input bias current temperature drift. dVos dVbe1 dVbe2 = – (210) dT dT dT = 2 V/°C Ios = Ib1 – Ib2 (211) = 50 nA dIos = B · Ios (212) dT = 0.25 nA/°C B = –0.005/°C > 25°C = –0.015/°C < 25°C
 23 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 31 23 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS Most operational amplifiers are of similar design, as described by Figure 24, and consist of a differential input stage cascaded with a highgain inner stage followed by a power output stage. Operational amplifiers are characterized by very high gain at dc and a uniform rolloff in this gain with frequency. This enables these de vices to accept feedback from arbitrary networks with high stability and simulta neous dc and ac amplification. Consequently, such networks can accurately impart their characteristics to electronic systems with negligible degradation. The earliest integrated circuit amplifier was offered in 1963 by Texas Instruments, but the Fairchild 709 introduced in 1965 was the first operational amplifier to achieve widespread application. Improvements in design resulted in secondgeneration de vices such as the National LM108. Advances in fabrication technology made pos sible amplifiers such as by the Analog Devices OP07, with improved perfor mance overall. Subsequent refinements are represented by devices including the Linear LTC1250, featuring zero drift and ultralow noise. It is notable that con temporary operational amplifier circuits are structured around a highgain inner stage employing a constant current source active load. The gain stage active load impedance of approximately 500 K ohms ratioed with an emitter resistance Re approximating 100 ohms, shown in Figure 24, is responsible for high overall AVo. FIGURE 24. Elemental operational amplifier.
 32 INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS AND PARAMETER ERRORS AVo Vd FIGURE 25. Inverting operational amplifier. Since Vo Rdiff , Vd = 0 as AVo AVo Vo –IRf –Rf AVc = = = (213) Vs IRi Ri The circuit for an inverting operational amplifier is shown in Figure 25. The cascaded innerstage gains of Figure 24 provide a total openloop gain AVo of 227,500, enabling realization of the ideal closedloop gain AVc representation of equation (213). In practice, the AVo value cannot be utilized without feedback be cause of nonlinearities and instability. The introduction of negative feedback be tween the output and inverting input also results in a virtual ground with equilibri um current conditions maintaining Vd = V1 – V2 at zero. Classification of operational amplifiers is primarily determined by the active devices that implement the amplifier differential input. Table 21 delineates this classification. According to negative feedback theory, an inverting amplifier will be unstable if its gain is equal to or greater than unity when the phase shift reaches –l80° through the amplifier. This is so because an outputtoinput relationship will also have been established, providing an additional –l80° by the feedback network. The relation ships between amplifier gain, bandwidth, and phase are described by Figure 26 and
 23 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 33 TABLE 21. Operational Amplifier Types Bipolar Prevalent type used for a wide range of signal processing applications. Good balance of performance characteristics. FET Very high input impedance. Frequently employed as an instrumentation amplifier preamplifier. Exhibits larger input errors than bipolar devices. CAZ Bipolar device with autozero circuitry for internally measuring and correcting input error voltages. Provides lowinputuncertainty amplification. BiFET Combined bipolar and FET circuit for extended performance. Intended to displace bipolar devices in generalpurpose applications. Superbeta A bipolar device approaching FET input impedance with the lower bipolar errors. A disadvantage is lack of device ruggedness. Micropower Highperformance operation down to 1 volt supply powered from residual system potentials. Employs complicated lowpower circuit equivalents for implementation. Isolation An internal barrier device using modulation or optical methods for very high isolation. Medical and industrial applications. Chopper dc–ac–dc circuit with a capacitorcoupled internal amplifier providing very low input voltage offset errors for minimum input uncertainty. Varactor Varactor diode input device with very low input bias currents for current amplification applications such as photomultipliers. Vibrating A special input circuit arrangement requiring ultralow input bias currents capacitor for applications such as electrometers. FIGURE 26. Operational amplifier gain–bandwidth–phase relationships.
 34 INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS AND PARAMETER ERRORS equations (214) through (216) for an example closedloop gain AVc value of 100. Each discrete inner stage contributes a total of –90° to the cumulative phase shift t , with –45° realized at the respective –3 dB frequencies. The highgain stage –3 dB frequency of 10 Hz is attributable to the dominantpole compensating capacitance Ccb shown in Figure 24. The second corner frequency at 1 MHz is typical for a dif ferential input stage, and the third at 25 MHz is contributed by the output stage. The overall phase margin of 30° (180° – t) at the AVc unity gain crossover frequency of 2 MHz insures unconditional stability and freedom from a ringing output response. 227,250 AVo = (214) f f f 1+j 1+j 1+j 10 Hz 1 MHz 25 MHz f f f t = –tan–1 – tan–1 – tan–1 (215) 10 Hz 1 MHz 25 MHz Phase margin = 180° – t (216) 24 INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS The acquisition of accurate measurement signals, especially lowlevel signals in the presence of interference, requires amplifier performance beyond the typical signal acquisition capabilities of operational amplifiers. An instrumentation amplifier is usually the first electronic device encountered by a sensor in a signal acquisition channel, and in large part it is responsible for the ultimate data accuracy attainable. Present instrumentation amplifiers possess sufficient linearity, stability, and low noise for total error in the microvolt range, even when subjected to temperature variations, on the order of the nominal thermocouple effects exhibited by input lead connections. High CMRR is essential for achieving the amplifier performance of interest with regard to interference rejection, and for establishing a signal ground reference at the amplifier that can accommodate the presence of ground return po tential differences. High amplifier input impedance is also necessary to preclude in put signal loading and voltage divider effects from finite source impedances, and to accommodate source impedance imbalances without degrading CMRR. The preci sion gain values possible with instrumentation amplifiers, such as 1000.000, are equally important to obtain accurate scaling and registration of measurement sig nals. The relationship of CMRR to the output signal Vo for an operational or instru mentation amplifier is described by equation (217), and is based on the derivation of CMRR provided by equation (28). For the operational amplifier subtractor cir cuit of Figure 27, AVdiff is determined by the feedbacktoinput resistor ratios (Rf /Ri, with practically realizable values to 102, and AVcm is determined by the mis
 24 INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS 35 FIGURE 27. Subtractor instrumentation amplifier. match between feedback and input resistor values attributable to their tolerances. Consequently, the AVcm for a subtractor circuit may be obtained from equation (218) and as tabulated in Table 22 to determine the average expected CMRR val ue for specified resistor tolerances. Notice that CMRR increases with AVdiff by the numerator of equation (28), but AVcm is constant because of its normalization by the resistor tolerance chosen. Vo = AVdiff · Vdiff + AVcm · Vcm (217) 1 Vcm = AVdiff · Vdiff 1 + · CMRR Vdiff 1 Rf 2 ± Rf 2 Rf 1 ± Rf 1 + 2 Ri2 ± Ri2 Ri1 ± Ri1 CMRRsubtractor = (218) Rf 2 ± Rf 2 Rf 1 ± Rf 1 – Ri2 ± RRi2 Ri1 ± Ri1 TABLE 22. Subtractor CMRR Expected Values Resistor Tolerance 5% 2% 1% 0.1% AVcm subtractor 0.1 0.04 0.02 0.002 CMRRsubtractar (xAVdiff) 10 25 50 500
 36 INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS AND PARAMETER ERRORS The subtractor circuit is capable of typical values of CMRR to 104, and its im plementation is economical owing to the requirement for a single operational am plifier. However, its specifications are usually marginal when compared with the requirements of typical signal acquisition applications. For example, each imple mentation requires the matching of four resistors, and the input impedance is con strained to the value of Ri chosen. For modern bipolar amplifiers, such as the Analog Devices OP07 and Burr Brown OPA128 devices with gigohm internal resistances, megohm Ri values are allowable to prevent input voltage divider ef fects resulting from an imbalanced kilohm Rs source resistance. Further, low biascurrent amplifiers are essential for current sensors including nuclear gauges, pH probes, and photomultiplier tubes. The OPA128 also offers a balance of input parameters for this application with an Ios of 30 fA and typical current sensor Rs values of 10 M ohms. The compensating resistor Rc shown in Figure 28 is matched to Rs in order to preserve CMRR. The five amplifiers presented in Table 23 beneficially permit the comparison of limiting parameters that influence per formance in specific amplifier applications, where the CMRR entries described are expected incircuit values. The threeamplifier instrumentation amplifier of Figure 29, exemplified by the AD624, offers improved performance overall compared to the foregoing subtractor circuit with incircuit CMRR3ampl values of 105 and the absence of problematic ex ternal discrete input resistors. In order to minimize output noise and offsets with this amplifier, its subtractor AVdiff is normally set to unity gain. The first stage of this amplifier also has a unity AVcm, owing to its differentialinputtodifferential output connection, which results in identical firststage CMRR and AVdiff values. FIGURE 28. Differential currentvoltage amplifier.
 24 INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS 37 FIGURE 29. Threeamplifier instrumentation amplifier. Amplifier internal resistance trimming consequently achieves the nominal subtrac tor AVcm value shown in equation (219). The differential output instrumentation amplifier, illustrated by Figure 210, of fers increased common mode rejection via equation (220) over the threeamplifier circuit from the addition of a second output subtractor. By comparison, a single sub tractor permits a fullscale 24 Vpp output signal swing, whereas dual subtractors de liver a fullscale 48 Vpp output signal from opposite polarity swings of the ±15 V dc power supplies for each signal half cycle. The effective output gain doubling com bined with firststage gain provides CMRRdiff output values to 106. This advanced amplifier circuit permits highperformance analog signal acquisition and the contin uation of common mode interference rejection over a signal transmission channel, with termination by a remote differentialtosingleended subtractor amplifier. CMRR3 ampl = CMRR1st stage · CMRRsubtractor (219) AVdiff 1st stage 1 = · 1 AVcm subtractor 2R0 1 = 1+ · R1 0.001 2R0 2 CMRRdiff output = 1 + · (220) RG 0.001
 38 INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS AND PARAMETER ERRORS FIGURE 210. Differential output instrumentation amplifier. Isolation amplifiers are advantageous for very noisy and highvoltage environ ments plus the interruption of ground loops. They further provide galvanic isola tion typically on the order of 1 A inputtooutput leakage. The front end of the isolation amplifier is similar to an instrumentation amplifier, as shown in Figure 211, and is operated from an internal dc–dc isolated power supply to insure iso lation integrity and for external sensor excitation purposes. As a consequence, these amplifiers do not require sourcing or sinking external bias currrent, and function normally with fully floating sensors. Most designs also include a l00 K ohm series input resistor R to limit catastrophic fault currents. Typical isolation barriers have an equivalent circuit of 1011 ohms shunted by 10 pF, representing Riso and Ciso. An inputtooutput Viso rating of 1500 V rms is common, and has a corollary isolation mode rejection ratio (IMRR) with reference to the output. CMRR values of 105 relative to the input are common, and IMRR values to 108 with reference to the output are available at 60 Hz. This capability makes possible the accommodation of two sources of interference, Vcm and Viso, both frequently encountered in sensor applications. The performance of this connection is de scribed by equation (221). 1 Vcm Viso Vo = AVdiff · Vdiff 1 + · + (221) CMRR Vdiff IMRR Highspeed data conversion and signal conditioning circuits capable of accom modating pulse and video signals require wideband operational amplifiers. Such amplifiers are characterized by their settling time, delay, slew rate, and transient subsidence, described in Figure 212. Parasitic reactive circuit elements and care
 24 INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS 39 FIGURE 211. Isolation amplifier. lessly planned circuit layouts result in performance derogation. Amplifier slew rate depends directly upon the product of the output voltage amplitude and signal fre quency, and this product cannot exceed the slew rate specification of an amplifier if linear performance is to be realized. For example, a 1 Vpp sine wave signal at a fre quency of 3 MHz typically encountered in video systems specifies an amplifier slew rate of at least 9.45 V/ s. If the amplifier is also loaded by 1000 pF of capaci tance, then it must also be capable of delivering 10 mA of current output at that fre quency. These relationships are described by equation (222) and its nomograph of Figure 213. Sr = Vopp · · fsignal (222) Io = V/s csh
 40 INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS AND PARAMETER ERRORS FIGURE 212. Wideband amplifler settling characteristics. Acceleration sensors are principally of interest for shock and vibration measure ments. Piezoelectric devices are prevalent transducers in this application and em ploy an equivalent circuit of a voltage source in series with a capacitive element, as shown in Figure 214, providing charge transfer as a function of acceleration me chanical inputs. A consequence of the small charge quantities transferred is the re quirement for a lowbiascurrent amplifier whose circuit also converts acceleration FIGURE 213. Amplifier slew rate curves.
 Ci Cf Ci FIGURE 214. Accelerometer displacement ac integrator. 41
 42 INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS AND PARAMETER ERRORS FIGURE 215. Precision actodc converter. inputs into velocity signals. A following ac integrator provides a displacement out put that may be calibrated, for example, in milliinches per volt. Accurate integration of very low frequency signals without saturation is possible owing to attenuation provided by the 1/R1C1 cutoff frequency choice. Extended frequency differentia tion is also available without noise sensitivity in this circuit by choice of the l/RC upper cutoff. The circuit of Figure 215 enables accurate rectification of signals to submillivolt levels by employing active actodc conversion. This offers a conver sion error of 0.6%FS with an RC filter cutoff of onetenth the input signal frequen cy , and reduced error for larger RC products at the expense of additional response lag. 25 AMPLIFIER PARAMETER ERROR EVALUATION The selection of an instrumentation amplifier involves the choice of amplifier input parameters that minimize amplification errors for applications of interest. It is therefore instructive to perform an error comparison between the five diverse am plifier types listed in Table 23, considering applicationspecific Vcm and Rs input values, with evaluation of voltage offsets, interference rejection, and gain nonlin earity. The individual error totals tabulated in Table 24 provide a performance summary expressed both as a referredtoinput (RTI) amplitude threshold uncer tainty in volts, and as a percent of the fullscale output signal Vo FS following ampli fication by AVdiff. Error totals are derived from respective amplifier input parameter contributions defined in equation (223), where barred quantities denote mean val ues and unbarred quantities systematic and random values combined as the root
 TABLE 23. Amplifier Input Parameters Define Interface Applications Low Offset Low Bias ThreeAmplifier HighVoltage Wideband Voltage Current Instrumentation Isolation Video Symbol OP07 OPA128 AD624 AD215 OPA646 Comment VOS 10 V 140 V 25 V 0.4 mV 1 mV Offset voltage dVOS 0.2 V/°C 5 V/°C 0.25 V/°C 2 V/°C 12 V/°C Offset voltage drift dT IOS 0.3 nA 30 fA 10 nA 300 nA 0.4 A Offset current dIOS 5 pA/°C Negligible 20 pA/°C 1 nA/°C 10 nA/°C Offset current drift dT Sr 0.3 V/ s 3 V/ s 5 V/ s 6 V/ s 180 V/ s Slew rate fhi 600 KHz 500 KHz 1 MHz 120 KHz 650 MHz Unity gain bandwidth 4 4 5 5 4 CMRR 10 10 10 10 10 AVdiff/AVcm VCM 10 V rms 10 V rms 10 V rms 1500 V rms 10 V rms Maximum applied volts Vn rms 10 nV/ Hz 27 nV/ Hz 4 nV/ Hz Negligable 7.5 nV/ Hz Voltage noise f (Av) 0.01% 0.01% 0.001% 0.0005% 0.025% Gain nonlinearity dAv 50 ppm/°C 50 ppm/°C 5 ppm/°C 15 ppm/°C 50 ppm/°C Gain drift dT Rdiff 8 × 107 1013 109 1012 15 K Differential resistance 11 13 9 Rcm 2 × 10 10 10 5 × 109 1.6 M Common mode resistance 43
 44 TABLE 24. Amplifier Error Comparison (Vdiff = 1 V, AVdiff = 1, VoFS = 1 V, dT = 10°C) OP07 OPA128 AD624 AD215 OPA646 Comment Rs 10 K 10 M 1K 50 75 Input group VCM ± 10 V ±10 V ± 10 V ± 1000 V ± 10 V VOS 10 V 140 V 25 V 4 00 V 1 000 V dVOS · dT 2 V 50 V 2.5 V 20 V 120 V Offset group dT IOS · Rs 3 V 0 .3 V 10 V 15 V 30 V 6.6 Vn fhi 51 V 126 V 26 V Negligible 1262 V Interference group VCM 1000 V 1000 V 100 V 10,000 V 1000 V CMRR VoFS f(Av) · 10 0 V 100 V 10 V 50 V 2 50 V AVdiff Nonlinearity group dAV VoFS · dT · 500 V 500 V 50 V 150 V 500 V dT AVdiff ampl RTI (113 + 1119) V (240 + 1126) V (45 + 115) V (465 + 10,003) V (1280 + 1690) V mean + RSSother AVdiff ampl%FS 0.123%FS 0.136%FS 0.016%FS 1.046%FS 0.297%FS × · 100% VoFS
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