CompTIA Network+ Study Guide

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  1. Using Your Sybex Electronic Book To realize the full potential of this Sybex electronic book, you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader with Search installed on your computer. To find out if you have the correct version of Acrobat Reader, click on the Edit menu—Search should be an option within this menu file. If Search is not an option in the Edit menu, please exit this application and install Adobe Acrobat Reader with Search from this CD (double- click on rp500env.exe in the Adobe folder). Navigation Navigate throught the book by clicking on the headings that appear in the left panel; the corresponding page from the book displays in the right panel. Search To search, click the Search Query button on the toolbar or choose Edit >Search > Query to open the Search window. In the Adobe Acrobat Search dialog’s text field, type the text you want to find and click Search. Use the Search Next button (Control+U) and Search Previous button (Control+Y) to go to other matches in the book. The Search command also has powerful tools for limiting and expanding the definition of the term you are searching for. Refer to Acrobat's online Help (Help > Plug-In Help > Using Acrobat Search) for more information. Click here to begin using your Sybex Elect ronic Book!
  2. Network+™ Study Guide Third Edition David Groth San Francisco • London Copyright ©2002 SYBEX, Inc., Alameda, CA
  3. Associate Publisher: Neil Edde Acquisitions and Developmental Editor: Elizabeth Hurley Editors: Donna Crossman, Susan Berge Production Editor: Mae Lum Technical Editors: Andre Paree-Huff, Louis DiPaola Book Designer: Bill Gibson Graphic Illustrator: Tony Jonick Electronic Publishing Specialists: Stacey Loomis, Jim Link of Interactive Composition Corporation Proofreaders: Emily Hsuan, Yariv Rabinovitch, Laurie O’Connell, David Nash, Nancy Riddiough, Amey Garber Indexer: Ted Laux CD Coordinator: Christine Detlefs CD Technician: Kevin Ly Cover Designer: Archer Design Cover Photographer: Natural Selection Copyright © 2002 SYBEX Inc., 1151 Marina Village Parkway, Alameda, CA 94501. World rights reserved. No part of this publication may be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or reproduced in any way, including but not limited to photo- copy, photograph, magnetic, or other record, without the prior agreement and written permission of the publisher. First edition copyright © 1999, SYBEX Inc. Second edition copyright © 2001, SYBEX Inc. Library of Congress Card Number: 2001094587 ISBN: 0-7821-4014-9 SYBEX and the SYBEX logo are either registered trademarks or trademarks of SYBEX Inc. in the United States and/or other countries. Screen reproductions produced with Collage Complete. Collage Complete is a trademark of Inner Media Inc. Screen reproductions of Mac OS X courtesy of Apple Computer, Inc. The CD interface was created using Macromedia Director, COPYRIGHT 1994, 1997–1999 Macromedia Inc. For more information on Macromedia and Macromedia Director, visit Internet screen shot(s) using Microsoft Internet Explorer 5 reprinted by permission from Microsoft Corporation. The logo of the CompTIA Authorized Quality Curriculum Program and the status of this or other training material as “Authorized” under the CompTIA Authorized Curriculum Program signifies that, in CompTIA’s opinion, such training material covers the content of the CompTIA’s related certification exam. CompTIA has not reviewed or approved the accuracy of the contents of this training material and specifically disclaims any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. CompTIA makes no guarantee concerning the success of persons using any such “Authorized” or other training material in order to prepare for any CompTIA certification exam. The contents of this training material were created for the CompTIA Network+ exam covering CompTIA certification exam objectives that were current as of June 2001. Copyright ©2002 SYBEX, Inc., Alameda, CA
  4. How to Become CompTIA Certified: This training material can help you prepare for and pass a related CompTIA certification exam or exams. In order to achieve CompTIA certification, you must register for and pass a CompTIA certification exam or exams. In order to become CompTIA certified, you must: • Select a certification exam provider. For more information, please visit test_locations.htm. • Register for and schedule a time to take the CompTIA certification exam(s) at a convenient location. • Read and sign the Candidate Agreement, which will be presented at the time of the exam(s). The text of the Candidate Agreement can be found at • Take and pass the CompTIA certification exam(s). For more information about CompTIA’s certifications, such as their industry acceptance, benefits, or program news, please visit CompTIA is a non-profit information technology (IT) trade association. CompTIA’s certifications are designed by subject matter experts from across the IT industry. Each CompTIA certification is vendor-neutral, covers multiple technologies, and requires demonstration of skills and knowledge widely sought after by the IT industry. To contact CompTIA with any questions or comments: Please call + 1 630 268 1818 TRADEMARKS: SYBEX has attempted throughout this book to distinguish proprietary trademarks from descriptive terms by following the capitalization style used by the manufacturer. The author and publisher have made their best efforts to prepare this book, and the content is based upon final release soft- ware whenever possible. Portions of the manuscript may be based upon pre-release versions supplied by software manu- facturer(s). The author and the publisher make no representation or warranties of any kind with regard to the completeness or accuracy of the contents herein and accept no liability of any kind including but not limited to performance, merchant- ability, fitness for any particular purpose, or any losses or damages of any kind caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly from this book. Manufactured in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Copyright ©2002 SYBEX, Inc., Alameda, CA
  5. Software License Agreement: Terms and Conditions The media and/or any online materials accompanying this If you discover a defect in the media dur- book that are available now or in the future contain pro- ing this warranty period, you may obtain a replacement of grams and/or text files (the “Software”) to be used in connec- identical format at no charge by sending the defective media, tion with the book. SYBEX hereby grants to you a license to postage prepaid, with proof of purchase to: use the Software, subject to the terms that follow. Your pur- chase, acceptance, or use of the Software will constitute your SYBEX Inc. acceptance of such terms. Product Support Department 1151 Marina Village Parkway The Software compilation is the property of SYBEX unless Alameda, CA 94501 otherwise indicated and is protected by copyright to SYBEX Web: or other copyright owner(s) as indicated in the media files (the “Owner(s)”). You are hereby granted a single-user After the 90-day period, you can obtain replacement media license to use the Software for your personal, noncommercial of identical format by sending us the defective disk, proof of use only. You may not reproduce, sell, distribute, publish, purchase, and a check or money order for $10, payable to circulate, or commercially exploit the Software, or any por- SYBEX. tion thereof, without the written consent of SYBEX and the specific copyright owner(s) of any component software Disclaimer included on this media. SYBEX makes no warranty or representation, either In the event that the Software or components include specific expressed or implied, with respect to the Software or its con- license requirements or end-user agreements, statements of tents, quality, performance, merchantability, or fitness for a condition, disclaimers, limitations or warranties (“End-User particular purpose. In no event will SYBEX, its distributors, License”), those End-User Licenses supersede the terms and or dealers be liable to you or any other party for direct, indi- conditions herein as to that particular Software component. rect, special, incidental, consequential, or other damages Your purchase, acceptance, or use of the Software will con- arising out of the use of or inability to use the Software or its stitute your acceptance of such End-User Licenses. contents even if advised of the possibility of such damage. In By purchase, use or acceptance of the Software you further the event that the Software includes an online update feature, agree to comply with all export laws and regulations of the SYBEX further disclaims any obligation to provide this fea- United States as such laws and regulations may exist from ture for any specific duration other than the initial posting. time to time. The exclusion of implied warranties is not permitted by some states. Therefore, the above exclusion may not apply to you. Software Support This warranty provides you with specific legal rights; there Components of the supplemental Software and any offers may be other rights that you may have that vary from state to associated with them may be supported by the specific state. The pricing of the book with the Software by SYBEX Owner(s) of that material, but they are not supported by reflects the allocation of risk and limitations on liability con- SYBEX. Information regarding any available support may be tained in this agreement of Terms and Conditions. obtained from the Owner(s) using the information provided in the appropriate files or listed elsewhere on the Shareware Distribution media. This Software may contain various programs that are distrib- Should the manufacturer(s) or other Owner(s) cease to offer uted as shareware. Copyright laws apply to both shareware support or decline to honor any offer, SYBEX bears no and ordinary commercial software, and the copyright responsibility. This notice concerning support for the Soft- Owner(s) retains all rights. If you try a shareware program ware is provided for your information only. SYBEX is not the and continue using it, you are expected to register it. Individ- agent or principal of the Owner(s), and SYBEX is in no way ual programs differ on details of trial periods, registration, responsible for providing any support for the Software, nor is and payment. Please observe the requirements stated in it liable or responsible for any support provided, or not pro- appropriate files. vided, by the Owner(s). Copy Protection Warranty The Software in whole or in part may or may not be copy- SYBEX warrants the enclosed media to be free of physical protected or encrypted. However, in all cases, reselling or defects for a period of ninety (90) days after purchase. redistributing these files without authorization is expressly The Software is not available from SYBEX in any other forbidden except as specifically provided for by the Owner(s) form or media than that enclosed herein or posted to therein. Copyright ©2002 SYBEX, Inc., Alameda, CA
  6. To Our Valued Readers: CompTIA’s Network+ certification program has established itself as the premier general networking certification in the IT industry. Sybex is proud to have helped thousands of Network+ candidates prepare for their exam, and we are excited about the opportunity to continue to provide people with the skills they’ll need to succeed in the highly competitive IT industry. CompTIA recently revised the Network+ exam, updating the objectives set, expanding the question pool, and adding select-and-place questions formats, all in an effort to prevent the dreaded paper- certification syndrome, one in which individuals obtain a certification without a thorough under- standing of the technology. Sybex supports this philosophy, as we have always advocated a compre- hensive instructional approach to certification courseware. It has always been Sybex’s mission to teach exam candidates how new technologies work in the real world, not to simply feed them answers to test questions. We’re especially excited about this third edition of our best-selling Network+ Study Guide, as it now sports the new CompTIA Authorized Quality Curriculum (CAQC) logo on the cover. CompTIA developed the CAQC program to help exam candidates make better decisions about which training materials to use, and has established rigorous standards that courseware developers must meet in order to display the CAQC logo. The book you hold in your hands went through a review process that checked for exam objective correlation and instructional design integrity, and we are happy to say that we passed with flying colors! We’re confident that this book will help you, the Network+ exam candidate, succeed in your endeavors. Good luck in pursuit of your Network+ certification! Neil Edde Associate Publisher—Certification Sybex, Inc. SYBEX Inc. 1151 Marina Village Parkway, Alameda, CA 94501 Tel: 510/523-8233 Fax: 510/523-2373 HTTP:// Copyright ©2002 SYBEX, Inc., Alameda, CA
  7. To my wonderful book team members. Thanks for your help in making our book a success. —David Groth Copyright ©2002 SYBEX, Inc., Alameda, CA
  8. Acknowledgments It takes many people to put a book together. This will be the third edition of this book, so I can safely say that these people know what they’re doing and that I can count on working with talented people. This book would not exist if it weren’t for my acquisitions and develop- mental editor, Elizabeth Hurley. Thank you for all of your encouragement, support, and continued friendship. I appreciate all of the hard work you con- tribute to each one of my book projects. Additionally, many thanks go to Mae Lum, our book team’s tireless production editor. Kudos to you for jug- gling all sorts of deadlines spanning many projects, for organizing new schedules around new beta release dates, and for basically keeping your eye on the ball for me all of the time. Kudos should also go to Donna Crossman, editor extraordinaire. Thank you for wading through various versions of these chapters each time objectives were changed, added, or eliminated. Additionally, many thanks should go to ICC’s Stacey Loomis and Jim Link, our electronic publishing specialists, for laying out the very pages you see before you. Finally, one last cheer for the proofreaders who checked every last detail before sending the pages to the printer: Emily Hsuan, Laurie O’Connell, David Nash, Nancy Riddiough, Amey Garber and Yariv Rabinovitch. I must also take a moment to recognize the unwavering good work of this book’s technical editor, Andre Paree-Huff. He has faithfully watched over this book from its first edition and is responsible for maintaining its accu- racy. For each edition, including this one, a pool of top-notch technical edi- tors helped out Andre by completing a second full technical edit just before the book was sent to the printer. Bob Gradante, Jutta VanStean, and Louis DiPaola should also be gratefully acknowledged for their fine expertise. I would also like to recognize my wife, family, and friends. My wife, Linda, tirelessly wrote and edited the appendices and kept me on the right track. She was a real trooper because she managed to do that while watching our daughter, Alison, who can be a handful. Thank you to my family and friends who understood when I couldn’t go out or help them with projects because I had to work on the book. I really appreciate that. Finally, thank you, the reader, for purchasing this book. I know that it has all the information in it to help you pass the test. If you have questions about Network+ or this book, feel free to e-mail me at All of us involved in the book project have worked very hard to make it the best Network+ Study Guide available. I hope you feel the same. Copyright ©2002 SYBEX, Inc., Alameda, CA
  9. Contents at a Glance Introduction xx Assessment Test xxxiii Chapter 1 Network Fundamentals 1 Chapter 2 The OSI Model 51 Chapter 3 TCP/IP Fundamentals 105 Chapter 4 TCP/IP Utilities 163 Chapter 5 Major Network Operating Systems 207 Chapter 6 Network Installation and Upgrades 251 Chapter 7 WAN and Remote Access Technologies 315 Chapter 8 Network Access and Security 347 Chapter 9 Fault Tolerance and Disaster Recovery 405 Chapter 10 Network Troubleshooting 455 Glossary 511 Index 558 Copyright ©2002 SYBEX, Inc., Alameda, CA
  10. Introduction If you are like the rest of the networking community, you probably have many certifications. Certification is one of the best things you can do for your career in the computer or networking field. It proves that you know what you’re talking about when it comes to the area in which you are certified. In this book, you’ll find out what the Network+ exam is all about. Each chapter covers a part of the exam. At the end of each chapter, there are review questions to help you prepare for the exam. What Is the Network+ Certification? N etwork+ is a certification developed by the Computing Technology Industry Association (CompTIA). This organization exists to provide resources and education for the computer and technology community. This is the same body that developed the A+ exam for computer technicians. Back in 1995, they convened to develop a new certification that tests skills for Information Technology (IT). To ensure industry-wide support, it was sponsored by many IT industry leaders, including: Compaq Computers Digital Equipment Corporation (a part of Compaq) IBM Lotus Microsoft Novell TSS U.S. Robotics US West Wave Technologies Copyright ©2002 SYBEX, Inc., Alameda, CA
  11. Introduction xxi The Network+ exam was designed to test the skills of network technicians with 18 to 24 months of experience in the field. It tests areas of networking technologies such as the definition of a protocol, the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) model and its layers, and the concepts of network design and implementation—such as which items are required for a network and the prerequisites for installation. In addition, it covers troubleshooting concepts and how-tos. Why Become Network+ Certified? T he Network+ certification is a relatively new certification, but it is the next certification in a line of CompTIA certifications starting with the A+ certification. Because CompTIA is a well-respected developer of vendor- neutral industry certifications, getting Network+ certified indicates that you are competent in the specific areas tested by Network+. Three major benefits are associated with becoming Network+ certified: Proof of professional achievement Opportunity for advancement Fulfillment of training requirements Proof of Professional Achievement Networking professionals are competing these days to see who can get the most certifications. And because the Network+ certification is broad and it covers the entire field of networking, technicians want this certification rather than only Microsoft or only Novell, for example. Thus, it can be a challenge to prepare for the Network+ exam. Passing the exam, however, certifies that you have achieved a certain level of knowledge about vendor- independent networking-related subjects. Opportunity for Advancement We all like to get ahead in our careers. With advancement comes more responsibility, to be sure, but usually it means more money and greater opportunities. In the information technology area, this usually can be accomplished by obtaining multiple technology certifications, including Network+. Copyright ©2002 SYBEX, Inc., Alameda, CA
  12. xxii Introduction Network+, because of its wide-reaching industry support, is recognized as a baseline of networking information. Some companies specify that Net- work+ certification will result in a pay raise at review time. And some com- panies specify that Network+ certification, in conjunction with A+ certification, is required either before an employee’s next review or as a con- dition of employment. Fulfillment of Training Requirements A training requirement can be mandated by your employer, as just men- tioned, or it can be required as part of another certification. There has been talk of using the Network+ certification as a prerequisite to, or as part of, other vendors’ certifications. And I think it’s a natural fit. For example, training for both the Novell and the Microsoft certification programs (CNE and MCSE) includes a course in the essential networking technologies. Because the Network+ exam covers network fundamentals and is vendor neutral, it may be a good replacement for the Microsoft or the Novell exam. How to Become Network+ Certified T he simplest way to find out how to become Network+ certified is to take the exam. It is administered by Prometric, with which most of you are familiar if you have taken other computer certification exams, and it is administered by computer. To register to take the exam, call Prometric (not the testing center) at 888-895-6116. You must pay for the exam at registra- tion time with a major credit card (for example, Visa or MasterCard). The standard cost is $185; check CompTIA’s website, as prices may vary. You can also register on the Internet through Prometric at or The exam itself consists of approximately 65 questions. You have two- and-a-half hours for the test. At the end of the exam, your score report will be displayed on the screen and printed so that you have a hard copy. Copyright ©2002 SYBEX, Inc., Alameda, CA
  13. Introduction xxiii Who Should Buy This Book? If you are one of the many people who want to pass the Network+ exam, and pass it confidently, then you should buy this book and use it to study for the exam. The Network+ exam is designed to measure the technical knowledge of networking professionals with 18–24 months of experience in the IT industry. This book was written with one goal in mind: not to just pre- pare you for passing the Network+ exam, but to prepare to you for the chal- lenges of the real IT world. This study guide will do that by describing in detail the concepts on which you’ll be tested. How to Use This Book and CD T his book includes several features that will make studying for the Network+ exam easier. At the beginning of the book (right after this introduction, in fact) is an assessment test that you can use to check your readiness for the actual exam. Take this exam before you start reading the book. It will help you to determine the areas you may need to “brush up” on. You can then focus on these areas while reading the book. The answers to this test appear on a separate page after the last question. Each answer also includes an explanation and a note telling you in which chapter this material appears. In addition, there are review questions at the end of each chapter. As you finish each chapter, answer the questions and then check your answers, which appear on the page after the last question. You can go back and reread the section in the chapter that deals with each question you got wrong to ensure that you know your stuff. On the CD-ROM that is included with this book, there are several “extras” you can use to bolster your exam readiness: Electronic “Flashcards” You can use these 150 flashcard-style ques- tions to review your knowledge of Network+ concepts not only on your PC, but also on your handheld devices. You can download the questions right into your Palm device for quick and convenient reviewing anytime, anywhere, without your PC! Test Engine This portion of the CD-ROM includes all of the questions that appear in this book: the assessment questions at the end of this intro- duction, all of the chapter review questions, and two bonus exams. The Copyright ©2002 SYBEX, Inc., Alameda, CA
  14. xxiv Introduction book questions will appear similarly to the way they did in the book, and they will also be randomized. The randomized test will allow you to pick a certain number of questions, and it will simulate the actual exam. Combined, these test engine elements will allow you to test your readiness for the real Network+ exam. Full Text of the Book in PDF If you are going to travel but still need to study for the Network+ exam—and you have a laptop with a CD-ROM drive—you can take this entire book with you on the CD-ROM. This book is in PDF (Adobe Acrobat) format so it can be easily read on any computer. Exam Objectives In this section, we are going to look at the objectives that the Network+ exam is designed to test. These objectives were developed by a group of networking-industry professionals through the use of an industry-wide job task analysis. CompTIA asked groups of IT professionals to fill out a survey rating the skills they felt were important in their job. The results were grouped into objectives for the exam. Each of these objectives is divided into four domains. The following table indicates the extent to which they are represented in the actual examination. Network+ Certification Domain Areas % of Examination 1.0 Media & Topologies 20% 2.0 Protocols & Standards 25% 3.0 Network Implementation 23% 4.0 Network Support 32% Total 100% This section includes the outline of the exam objectives for the Network+ exam and the weighting of each objective category. The objectives and weighting percentages given in this section can change at any time. Check CompTIA’s website at for a list of the most current objectives. Copyright ©2002 SYBEX, Inc., Alameda, CA
  15. Introduction xxv Domain 1.0 Media and Topologies (20%) The objectives for this domain are as follows: 1.1 Recognize the following logical or physical network topologies given a schematic diagram or description (3%): Star/hierarchical Bus Mesh Ring Wireless 1.2 Specify the main features of 802.2 (LLC), 802.3 (Ethernet), 802.5 (Token Ring), 802.11b (wireless), and FDDI networking technologies, including (3%): Speed Access Method Topology Media 1.3 Specify the characteristics (e.g., speed, length, topology, cable type, etc.) of the following (3%): 802.3 (Ethernet) standards 10BaseT 100BaseTX 10Base2 10Base5 100BaseFX Gigabit Ethernet 1.4 Recognize the following media connectors and/or describe their uses (3%): RJ-11 RJ-45 Copyright ©2002 SYBEX, Inc., Alameda, CA
  16. xxvi Introduction AUI BNC ST SC 1.5 Choose the appropriate media type and connectors to add a client to an existing network. (3%) 1.6 Identify the purpose, features, and functions of the following network components (5%): Hubs Switches Bridges Routers Gateways CSU/DSU Network interface cards/ISDN adapters/system area network cards Wireless access points Modems Domain 2.0 Protocols and Standards (25%) The objectives for this domain are as follows: 2.1 Given an example, identify a MAC address. (1%) 2.2 Identify the seven layers of the OSI model and their functions. (2%) 2.3 Differentiate between the following network protocols in terms of routing, addressing schemes, interoperability, and naming conven- tions (2%): TCP/IP IPX/SPX Copyright ©2002 SYBEX, Inc., Alameda, CA
  17. Introduction xxvii NetBEUI AppleTalk 2.4 Identify the OSI layers at which the following network compo- nents operate (2%): Hubs Switches Bridges Routers Network interface cards 2.5 Define the purpose, function and/or use of the following protocols within TCP/IP (2%): IP TCP UDP FTP TFTP SMTP HTTP HTTPS POP3/IMAP4 Telnet ICMP ARP NTP 2.6 Define the function of TCP/UDP ports. Identify well-known ports. (2%) 2.7 Identify the purpose of the following network services: DHCP/ bootp, DNS, NAT/ICS, WINS, and SNMP. (2%) Copyright ©2002 SYBEX, Inc., Alameda, CA
  18. xxviii Introduction 2.8 Identify IP addresses (Ipv4, Ipv6) and their default subnet masks. (2%) 2.9 Identify the purpose of subnetting and default gateways. (2%) 2.10 Identify the differences between public vs. private networks. (2%) 2.11 Identify the basic characteristics (e.g., speed, capacity, media) of the following WAN technologies. (2%) Packet switching vs. circuit switching ISDN FDDI ATM Frame relay SONET/SDH T1/E1 T3/E3 Oc-x 2.12 Define the function of the following remote access protocols and services (2%): RAS PPP PPTP ICA 2.13 Identify the following security protocols and describe their purpose and function (2%): IPSec L2TP SSL Kerberos Copyright ©2002 SYBEX, Inc., Alameda, CA
  19. Introduction xxix Domain 3.0 Network Implementation (24%) The objectives for this domain are as follows: 3.1 Identify the basic capabilities (i.e. client support, interoperability, authentication, file and print services, application support, and security) of the following server operating systems (4%): Unix/Linux NetWare Windows Macintosh 3.2 Identify the basic capabilities of client workstations (i.e., client connectivity, local security mechanisms, and authentication). 3.3 Identify the main characteristics of VLANs. (2%) 3.4 Identify the main characteristics of network attached storage. (2%) 3.5 Identify the purpose and characteristics of fault tolerance. (2%) 3.6 Identify the purpose and characteristics of disaster recovery. (2%) 3.7 Given a remote connectivity scenario (e.g., IP, IPX, dial-up, PPPoE, authentication, physical connectivity, etc.), configure the connection. (2%) 3.8 Identify the purpose, benefits, and characteristics of using a firewall. (2%) 3.9 Identify the purpose, benefits, and characteristics of using a proxy. (2%) 3.10 Given a scenario, predict the impact of a particular security implementation on network functionality (e.g., blocking port numbers, encryption, etc.). (2%) 3.11 Given a network configuration, select the appropriate NIC and network configuration settings (DHCP, DNS, WINS, protocols, NetBIOS/host name, etc.). (2%) Copyright ©2002 SYBEX, Inc., Alameda, CA
  20. xxx Introduction Domain 4.0 Network Support (32%) The objectives for this domain are as follows: 4.1 Given a troubleshooting scenario, select the appropriate TCP/IP utility from among the following (3%): Tracert Ping ARP Netstat Nbstat Ipconfig/Ifconfig Winipcfg Nslookup 4.2 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a small office/home office network failure (e.g., xDSL, cable, home satellite, wireless, POTS), identify the cause of the failure. (2%) 4.3 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a remote connectivity problem (e.g., authentication failure, protocol configuration, physical connectivity), identify the cause of the problem. (2%) 4.4 Given specific parameters, configure a client to connect to the following servers (2%): Unix/Linux NetWare Windows Macintosh 4.5 Given a wiring task, select the appropriate tool (e.g., wire crimper, media tester/certifier, punchdown tool, tone generator, optical tester, etc.). (2%) Copyright ©2002 SYBEX, Inc., Alameda, CA
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