Frequently Misspelled Words

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Transition words and phrases help establish clear connections between ideas and ensure that sentences and paragraphs flow together smoothly, making them easier to read. Use the following words and phrases in the following circumstances.

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Nội dung Text: Frequently Misspelled Words

  1. Frequently Misspelled Words • absence • knowledge • address • leisure • advice • library • all right • license • arctic • maintenance • beginning • mathematics • believe • mediocre • bicycle • millennium • broccoli • miniature • bureau • miscellaneous • calendar • mischievous • camaraderie • misspell • ceiling • mysterious • cemetery • necessary • changeable • neighbor • conscientious • nuclear • conscious • occasion • decease • occurrence • deceive • odyssey • definite • piece • descent • pigeon • desperate • playwright • device • precede • disastrous • prejudice • ecstasy • privilege • embarrass • pumpkin • exercise • raspberry • fascinate • receive • February • rhythm • fiery • sacrilegious • fluorescent • science • foreign • scissors • government • separate • grateful • sincerely • guarantee • special • harass • thorough • height • through • humorous • truly • independent • until • jealous • Wednesday • jewelry • weird • judgment • you're • ketchup 1 : 12
  2. Writing Research Papers: Transition Words and Phrases Transition words and phrases help establish clear connections between ideas and ensure that sentences and paragraphs flow together smoothly, making them easier to read. Use the following words and phrases in the following circumstances. To indicate more information: To indicate an example: Besides For example Furthermore For instance In addition In particular Indeed Particularly In fact Specifically Moreover To demonstrate Second...Third..., etc. To illustrate To indicate a cause or reason: To indicate a result or an effect: As Accordingly Because Finally Because of Consequently Due to Hence For So For the reason that Therefore Since Thus To indicate a purpose or reason why: To compare or contrast: For fear that Although In the hope that However In order to In comparison So In contrast So that Likewise With this in mind Nevertheless On the other hand Similarly Whereas Yet To indicate a particular time frame or a shift from one time period to another: After Initially Before Lastly Currently Later During Meanwhile Eventually Next Finally Previously First,...Second,..., etc. Simultaneously Formerly Soon Immediately Subsequently
  3. To summarize: To conclude: Briefly Given these facts In brief Hence Overall In conclusion Summing up So To put it briefly Therefore To sum up Thus To summarize To conclude Easily Confused Words affect / effect Effect is usually a noun that means a result or the power to produce a result: “The sound of the falling rain had a calming effect, nearly putting me to sleep.” Affect is usually a verb that means to have an influence on: “His loud humming was affecting my ability to concentrate.” Note that effect can also be a verb meaning to bring about or execute: “The speaker's somber tone effected a dampening in the general mood of the audience.” all together / altogether All together is applied to people or things that are being treated as a group. “We put the pots and pans all together on the shelf.” All together is the form that must be used if the sentence can be reworded so that all and together are separated by other words: “We put all the pots and pans together on the shelf.” Altogether is used to mean entirely: “I am altogether pleased to be receiving this award.” allusion / illusion Allusion is a noun that means an indirect reference: “The speech made allusions to the final report.” Illusion is a noun that means a misconception: “The policy is designed to give an illusion of reform.” alternately / alternatively Alternately is an adverb that means in turn; one after the other: “We alternately spun the wheel in the game.” Alternatively is an adverb that means on the other hand; one or the other: “You can choose a large bookcase or, alternatively, you can buy two small ones.” a.m. / p.m. The abbreviation a.m. (from Latin ante meridiem, before noon) is used to refer to any hour between midnight and noon. Similarly, p.m. (from Latin post meridiem, after noon) is used to refer to any hour between noon and midnight. Midnight is 12 A.M. and noon is 12 P.M. beside / besides Beside is a preposition that means next to: “Stand here beside me.” Besides is an adverb that means also: “Besides, I need to tell you about the new products my company offers.” bimonthly / semimonthly Bimonthly is an adjective that means every two months: “I brought the cake for the bimonthly office party.” Bimonthly is also a noun that means a publication issued every two months: “The company publishes several popular bimonthlies.” Semimonthly is an adjective that means happening twice a month: “We have semimonthly meetings on the 1st and the 15th.” capital / capitol The city or town that is the seat of government is called the capital; the building in which the legislative assembly meets is the capitol. The term capital can also refer to an accumulation of wealth or to a capital letter.
  4. cite / site Cite is a verb that means to quote as an authority or example: “I cited several eminent scholars in my study of water resources.” It also means to recognize formally: “The public official was cited for service to the city.” It can also mean to summon before a court of law: “Last year the company was cited for pollution violations.” Site is a noun meaning location: “They chose a new site for the factory just outside town.” complement / compliment Complement is a noun or verb that means something that completes or makes up a whole: “The red sweater is a perfect complement to the outfit.” Compliment is a noun or verb that means an expression of praise or admiration: “I received many compliments about my new outfit.” comprise / compose According to the traditional rule, the whole comprises the parts, and the parts compose the whole. Thus, the board comprises five members, whereas five members compose (or make up) the board. It is also correct to say that the board is composed (not comprised) of five members. concurrent / consecutive Concurrent is an adjective that means simultaneous or happening at the same time as something else: “The concurrent strikes of several unions crippled the economy.” Consecutive means successive or following one after the other: “The union called three consecutive strikes in one year.” connote / denote Connote is a verb that means to imply or suggest: “The word ‘espionage’ connotes mystery and intrigue.” Denote is a verb that means to indicate or refer to specifically: “The symbol for ‘pi’ denotes the number 3.14159.” convince / persuade Strictly speaking, one convinces a person that something is true but persuades a person to do something. “Pointing out that I was overworked, my friends persuaded [not convinced] me to take a vacation. Now that I'm relaxing on the beach with my book, I am convinced [not persuaded] that they were right.” Following this rule, convince should not be used with an infinitive. council / councilor / counsel / counselor A councilor is a member of a council, which is an assembly called together for discussion or deliberation. A counselor is one who gives counsel, which is advice or guidance. More specifically, a counselor can be an attorney or a supervisor at camp. discreet / discrete Discreet is an adjective that means prudent, circumspect, or modest: “Their discreet comments about the negotiations led the reporters to expect an early settlement.” Discrete is an adjective that means separate or individually distinct: “Each company in the conglomerate operates as a discrete entity.” disinterested / uninterested Disinterested is an adjective that means unbiased or impartial: “We appealed to the disinterested mediator to facilitate the negotiations.” Uninterested is an adjective that means not interested or indifferent: “They seemed uninterested in our offer.” emigrant / immigrant Emigrant is a noun that means one who leaves one's native country to settle in another: “The emigrants spent four weeks aboard ship before landing in Los Angeles.” Immigrant is a noun that means one who enters and settles in a new country: “Most of the immigrants easily found jobs.” farther / further
  5. Farther is an adjective and adverb that means to or at a more distant point: “We drove 50 miles today; tomorrow, we will travel 100 miles farther.” Further is an adjective and adverb that means to or at a greater extent or degree: “We won't be able to suggest a solution until we are further along in our evaluation of the problem.” It can also mean in addition or moreover: “They stated further that they would not change the policy.” few / less Few is an adjective that means small in number. It is used with countable objects: “This department has few employees.” Less is an adjective that means small in amount or degree. It is used with objects of indivisible mass: “Which jar holds less water?” figuratively / literally Figuratively is an adverb that means metaphorically or symbolically: “Happening upon the shadowy figure, they figuratively jumped out of their shoes.” Literally is an adverb that means word for word or according to the exact meaning of the words: “I translated the Latin passage literally.” flammable / inflammable These two words are actually synonyms, both meaning easily set on fire. “The highly flammable (inflammable) fuel was stored safely in a specially built tank.” flaunt / flout To flaunt means to show off shamelessly: “Eager to flaunt her knowledge of a wide range of topics, Helene dreamed of appearing on a TV trivia show.” To flout means to show scorn or contempt for: “Lewis disliked boarding school and took every opportunity to flout the house rules.” foreword / forward Foreword is a noun that means an introductory note or preface: “In my foreword I explained my reasons for writing the book.” Forward is an adjective or adverb that means toward the front: “I sat in the forward section of the bus. Please step forward when your name is called.” Forward is also a verb that means to send on: “Forward the letter to the customer's new address.” founder / flounder In its primary sense founder means to sink below the surface of the water: “The ship foundered after colliding with an iceberg.” By extension, founder means to fail utterly. Flounder means to move about clumsily, or to act or proceed with confusion. A good synonym for flounder is blunder: “After floundering through the first half of the course, Amy finally passed with the help of a tutor.” hanged / hung Hanged is the past tense and past participle of hang when the meaning is to execute by suspending by the neck: “They hanged the prisoner for treason.” “The convicted killer was hanged at dawn.” Hung is the past tense and participle of hang when the meaning is to suspend from above with no support from below: “I hung the painting on the wall.” “The painting was hung at a crooked angle.” historic / historical In general usage, historic refers to what is important in history, while historical applies more broadly to whatever existed in the past whether it was important or not: “A historic summit meeting between the prime ministers; historical buildings torn down in the redevelopment.” it's / its It's is a contraction for it is, whereas its is the possessive form of it: “It's a shame that we cannot talk about its size.” laid / lain / lay
  6. Laid is the past tense and the past participle of the verb lay and not the past tense of lie. Lay is the past tense of the verb lie and lain is the past participle: “He laid his books down and lay down on the couch, where he has lain for an hour.” lend / loan Although some people feel loan should only be used as a noun, lend and loan are both acceptable as verbs in standard English: “Can you lend (loan) me a dollar?” However, only lend should be used in figurative senses: “Will you lend me a hand?” principal / principle Principal is a noun that means a person who holds a high position or plays an important role: “The school principal has 20 years of teaching experience.” It also means a sum of money on which interest accrues: “The investors did not lose their principal.” Principal is also an adjective that means chief or leading: “The necessity of moving to another city was the principal reason I turned down the job offer.” Principle is a noun that means a rule or standard: “They refused to compromise their principles.” stationary / stationery Stationary is an adjective that means fixed or unmoving: “They maneuvered around the stationary barrier in the road.” Stationery is a noun that means writing materials: “We printed the letters on company stationery.”
  7. Writing Skills How to Write a Five Paragraph Essay While the classic five paragraph essay is a form seldom if ever used by professional writers, it is commonly assigned to students to help them organize and develop their ideas in writing. It can also be a very useful way to write a complete and clear response to an essay question on an exam. It has, not surprisingly, five paragraphs: • an introduction • three main body paragraphs • a conclusion We'll look at each type of paragraph, and at transitions, the glue that holds them together. Introduction The introduction should start with a general discussion of your subject and lead to a very specific statement of your main point, or thesis. Sometimes an essay begins with a "grabber," such as a challenging claim, or surprising story to catch a reader's attention. The thesis should tell in one (or at most two) sentence(s), what your overall point or argument is, and briefly, what your main body paragraphs will be about. For example, in an essay about the importance of airbags in cars, the introduction might start with some information about car accidents and survival rates. It might also have a grabber about someone who survived a terrible accident because of an airbag. The thesis would briefly state the main reasons for recommending airbags, and each reason would be discussed in the main body of the essay. Main Body Paragraphs (3) Each main body paragraph will focus on a single idea, reason, or example that supports your thesis. Each paragraph will have a clear topic sentence (a mini thesis that states the main idea of the paragraph) and as much discussion or explanation as is necessary to explain the point. You should try to use details and specific examples to make your ideas clear and convincing. Conclusion Your conclusion begins with a restatement of your main point; but be sure to paraphrase, not just repeat your thesis sentence. Then you want to add some sentences that emphasize the importance of the topic and the significance of your view. Think about what idea or feeling you want to leave your reader with. The conclusion is the reverse of the introduction in that it starts out very specific and becomes a bit more general as you finish. Transitions Transitions connect your paragraphs to one another, especially the main body ones. It's not effective to simply jump from one idea to the next; you need to use the end of one paragraph and/or the beginning of the next to show the relationship between the two ideas. Between each paragraph and the one that follows, you need a transition. It can be built in to the topic sentence of the next paragraph, or it can be the concluding sentence of the first. It
  8. can even be a little of both. To express the relationship between the two paragraphs, think about words and phrases that compare and contrast. • Does the first paragraph tell us a pro and the second a con? ("on the other hand...") • Does the second paragraph tell us something of greater significance? ("more importantly.....") • An earlier historical example? ("even before [topic of paragraph 1] , [topic of paragraph 2]") • A different kind of consideration? (money versus time). Think about your paragraph topics and brainstorm until you find the most relevant links between them. Click here to see more suggestions for transition words. You'll also want some kind of transition from the last paragraph to your conclusion. One way is to sum up your third body paragraph with some reminders of your other paragraphs. You don't need to restate the topics fully (that comes in the conclusion) but you can refer to a detail, or example, or character as a way of pulling your ideas together and signaling that you are getting ready to conclude.
  9. Speaking & Listening Skills How to Give an Oral Report In many ways, planning an oral report is similar to planning a written report. • Choose a subject that is interesting to you. What do you care about? What would you like to learn more about? Follow your interests, and you'll find your topic. • Be clear about your purpose. Do you want to persuade your audience? Inform them about a topic? Or just tell an entertaining story? An oral report also has the same three basic parts as a written report. • The introduction should "hook" your audience. Catch their interest with a question, a dramatic tale or a personal experience that relates to your topic. • The body is the main part of your report, and will use most of your time. Make an outline of the body so that you can share information in an organized way. • The conclusion is the time to summarize and get across your most important point. What do you want the audience to remember? Research! It's important to really know your subject and be well organized. If you know your material well, you will be confident and able to answer questions. If your report is well organized, the audience will find it informative and easy to follow. Think about your audience. If you were listening to a report on your subject, what would you want to know? Too much information can seem overwhelming, and too little can be confusing. Organize your outline around your key points, and focus on getting them across. Remember—enthusiasm is contagious! If you're interested in your subject, the audience will be interested, too. Rehearse! Practicing your report is a key to success. At first, some people find it helpful to go through the report alone. You might practice in front of a mirror or in front of your stuffed animals. Then, try out your report in front of a practice audience-friends or family. Ask your practice audience: • Could you follow my presentation? • Did I seem knowledgeable about my subject? • Was I speaking clearly? Could you hear me? Did I speak too fast or too slow? If you are using visual aids, such as posters or overhead transparencies, practice using them while you rehearse. Also, you might want to time yourself to see how long it actually takes. The time will probably go by faster than you expect. Report!
  10. • Stand up straight. Hold your upper body straight, but not stiff, and keep your chin up. Try not to distract your audience by shifting around or fidgeting. • Make eye contact. You will seem more sure of yourself, and the audience will listen better, if you make eye contact during your report. • Use gestures. Your body language can help you make your points and keep the audience interested. Lean forward at key moments, and use your hands and arms for emphasis. • Use your voice effectively. Vary your tone and speak clearly. If you're nervous, you might speak too fast. If you find yourself hurrying, take a breath and try to slow it down. Nerves Almost everyone is nervous when speaking before a group. Many people say public speaking is their Number 1 fear. Being well prepared is the best way to prevent nerves from getting the better of you. Also, try breathing deeply before you begin your report, and remember to breathe during the report. Being nervous isn't all bad-it can help to keep you on your toes! One last thing Have you prepared and practiced your report? Then go get 'em! Remember: you know your stuff, and your report is interesting and important. Speaking & Listening Skills Listening Skills You probably spend more time using your listening skills than any other kind of skill. Like other skills, listening takes practice. What does it mean to really listen? Real listening is an active process that has three basic steps. 1. Hearing. Hearing just means listening enough to catch what the speaker is saying. For example, say you were listening to a report on zebras, and the speaker mentioned that no two are alike. If you can repeat the fact, then you have heard what has been said. 2. Understanding. The next part of listening happens when you take what you have heard and understand it in your own way. Let's go back to that report on zebras. When you hear that no two are alike, think about what that might mean. You might think, "Maybe this means that the pattern of stripes is different for each zebra." 3. Judging. After you are sure you understand what the speaker has said, think about whether it makes sense. Do you believe what you have heard? You might think, "How could the stripes to be different for every zebra? But then again, the fingerprints are different for every person. I think this seems believable." Tips for being a good listener 1. Give your full attention on the person who is speaking. Don't look out the window or at
  11. what else is going on in the room. 2. Make sure your mind is focused, too. It can be easy to let your mind wander if you think you know what the person is going to say next, but you might be wrong! If you feel your mind wandering, change the position of your body and try to concentrate on the speaker's words. 3. Let the speaker finish before you begin to talk. Speakers appreciate having the chance to say everything they would like to say without being interrupted. When you interrupt, it looks like you aren't listening, even if you really are. 4. Let yourself finish listening before you begin to speak! You can't really listen if you are busy thinking about what you want say next. 5. Listen for main ideas. The main ideas are the most important points the speaker wants to get across. They may be mentioned at the start or end of a talk, and repeated a number of times. Pay special attention to statements that begin with phrases such as "My point is..." or "The thing to remember is..." 6. Ask questions. If you are not sure you understand what the speaker has said, just ask. It is a good idea to repeat in your own words what the speaker said so that you can be sure your understanding is correct. For example, you might say, "When you said that no two zebras are alike, did you mean that the stripes are different on each one?" 7. Give feedback. Sit up straight and look directly at the speaker. Now and then, nod to show that you understand. At appropriate points you may also smile, frown, laugh, or be silent. These are all ways to let the speaker know that you are really listening. Remember, you listen with your face as well as your ears! Thinking fast Remember: time is on your side! Thoughts move about four times as fast as speech. With practice, while you are listening you will also be able to think about what you are hearing, really understand it, and give feedback to the speaker. Speaking & Listening Skills Conducting an Interview Books, magazines, and the Internet aren't the only sources for research. Conducting an interview can be a great way to learn about a subject, too! An interview can be a lot of fun. You may learn unexpected things, and you'll feel like a reporter. Before the Interview 1. Make a list of questions you plan to ask. What would you like to learn about? Let's say your subject is the assassination of President Kennedy. You could ask the person you are interviewing where they were when they heard the news. Who were they with? How did they feel? What concerns did they have for the country? 2. Call the person to set up a time and place for the interview. If you don't know the person yet, bring a parent along or do the interview over the phone. 3. Get together everything you will need to do the interview. Items might include a tape
  12. recorder, paper, and pens or pencils. During the Interview 1. If the person gives you permission, tape record the interview. If you tape record it, label the tape with the date and the name of the person. Even if you tape the interview, you should take notes so that you'll remember important points. 2. At the beginning of the interview, ask when and where the person was born. This will save you from having to backtrack and figure out dates later. 3. Don't interrupt or correct the person you are talking to. People sometimes remember things wrong. That's okay-you can check dates and facts later. The important thing is to hear about the person's impressions and feelings. 4. Listen carefully. Something the person says may inspire you to ask a question you hadn't planned. For example, let's say that the person you are talking to mentions that she will never forget seeing television footage of the Kennedy children at the president's funeral. You might ask why it was so unforgettable. What did the children do? How old were they? 5. Let the person have plenty of time to talk. But if they start to ramble, try to get them back on the subject by asking one of the questions you brought along. After the Interview 1. Thank your subject at the end of your meeting. Afterward, write a thank-you note. 2. If you recorded the interview, listen to the tape. Write down important points and interesting quotations. 3. Look back over the questions your prepared before the interview. Did the interview help to answer them? If you are going to do an oral report, think about how you will present your information. You might talk about what you had hoped to get out of the interview, and what you learned from it that was unexpected. You could also talk about the difference between reading a book and getting a personal view.




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