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Bài giảng Computer Architecture: Chapter 1 - Prof. Jerry Breecher

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Bài giảng Computer Architecture: Chapter 1 - Prof. Jerry Breecher

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Cùng tìm hiểu Introduction; the Task of a Computer Designer; technology and Computer Usage Trends; cost and Trends in Cost; measuring and Reporting Performance;... được trình bày cụ thể trong "Bài giảng Computer Architecture: Chapter 1 - Prof. Jerry Breecher".

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  1. Computer Architecture Chapter 1 Fundamentals Prof. Jerry Breecher CSCI 240 Fall 2003 Chapter 1 ­ Fundamentals 1
  2. Introduction 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The Task of a Computer Designer 1.3 Technology and Computer Usage Trends 1.4 Cost and Trends in Cost 1.5 Measuring and Reporting Performance 1.6 Quantitative Principles of Computer Design 1.7 Putting It All Together: The Concept of Memory Hierarchy Chapter 1 ­ Fundamentals 2
  3. Art and Architecture What’s the difference between Art and Architecture? Lyonel Feininger, Marktkirche in Halle Chapter 1 ­ Fundamentals 3
  4. Art and Architecture Notre Dame de Paris What’s the difference between Art and Architecture? Chapter 1 ­ Fundamentals 4
  5. What’s Computer Architecture? The attributes of a [computing] system as seen by the programmer, i.e., the conceptual structure and functional behavior, as distinct from the organization of the data flows and controls the logic design, and the physical implementation. Amdahl, Blaaw, and Brooks, 1964 SOFTWARE Chapter 1 ­ Fundamentals 5
  6. What’s Computer Architecture? • 1950s to 1960s: Computer Architecture Course Computer Arithmetic. • 1970s to mid 1980s: Computer Architecture Course Instruction Set Design, especially ISA appropriate for compilers. (What we’ll do in Chapter 2) • 1990s to 2000s: Computer Architecture Course Design of CPU, memory system, I/O system, Multiprocessors. (All evolving at a tremendous rate!) Chapter 1 ­ Fundamentals 6
  7. The Task of a Computer Designer 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The Task of a Computer Designer 1.3 Technology and Computer Usage Trends Evaluate Existing 1.4 Cost and Trends in Cost Implementation Systems for 1.5 Measuring and Reporting Complexity Bottlenecks Performance 1.6 Quantitative Principles of Computer Design Benchmarks 1.7 Putting It All Together: The Concept of Memory Technology Hierarchy Trends Implement Next Simulate New Generation System Designs and Organizations Workloads Chapter 1 ­ Fundamentals 7
  8. Technology and Computer Usage Trends 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The Task of a Computer Designer When building a Cathedral numerous 1.3 Technology and Computer Usage very practical considerations need to Trends be taken into account: 1.4 Cost and Trends in Cost 1.5 Measuring and Reporting Performance • available materials 1.6 Quantitative Principles of Computer • worker skills Design • willingness of the client to pay the 1.7 Putting It All Together: The Concept of Memory Hierarchy price. Similarly, Computer Architecture is about working within constraints: • What will the market buy? • Cost/Performance • Tradeoffs in materials and processes Chapter 1 ­ Fundamentals 8
  9. Trends Gordon Moore (Founder of Intel) observed in 1965 that the number of transistors that could be crammed on a chip doubles every year. This has CONTINUED toTransistors Per be true since Chip then. 1.E+08 Pentium 3 Pentium Pro 1.E+07 Pentium II Pentium Power PC G3 486 Power PC 601 1.E+06 386 80286 1.E+05 8086 1.E+04 4004 1.E+03 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Chapter 1 ­ Fundamentals 9
  10. Trends Processor performance, as measured by the SPEC benchmark has also risen dramatically. 5000 Alpha 6/833 4000 3000 2000 DEC Alpha 5/500 DEC 1000 Sun MIPS IBM AXP/ RS/ 500 DEC Alpha 4/266 DEC Alpha 21264/600 -4/ M 6000 260 2000 0 2000 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Chapter 1 ­ Fundamentals 10
  11. Trends Memory Capacity (and Cost) have changed dramatically in the last 20 years. size 1000000000 100000000 year size(Mb) cyc time 10000000 1980 0.0625 250 ns 1983 0.25 220 ns 1000000 Bits 1986 1 190 ns 100000 1989 4 165 ns 1992 16 145 ns 10000 1996 64 120 ns 1000 2000 256 100 ns 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year Chapter 1 ­ Fundamentals 11
  12. Trends Based on SPEED, the CPU has increased dramatically, but memory and disk have increased only a little. This has led to dramatic changed in architecture, Operating Systems, and Programming practices. Capacity Speed (latency) Logic 2x in 3 years 2x in 3 years DRAM 4x in 3 years 2x in 10 years Disk 4x in 3 years 2x in 10 years Chapter 1 ­ Fundamentals 12
  13. Measuring And Reporting Performance 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The Task of a Computer Designer 1.3 Technology and Computer Usage Trends 1.4 Cost and Trends in Cost 1.5 Measuring and Reporting Performance This section talks about: 1.6 Quantitative Principles of Computer Design 1. Metrics – how do we describe 1.7 Putting It All Together: The Concept of Memory Hierarchy in a numerical way the performance of a computer? 2. What tools do we use to find those metrics? Chapter 1 ­ Fundamentals 13
  14. Metrics Throughput Plane DC to Paris Speed Passengers (pmph) Boeing 747 6.5 hours 610 mph 470 286,700 BAD/Sud 3 hours 1350 mph 132 178,200 Concodre • Time to run the task (ExTime) – Execution time, response time, latency • Tasks per day, hour, week, sec, ns … (Performance) – Throughput, bandwidth Chapter 1 ­ Fundamentals 14
  15. Metrics - Comparisons "X is n times faster than Y" means ExTime(Y) Performance(X) --------- = --------------- ExTime(X) Performance(Y) Speed of Concorde vs. Boeing 747 Throughput of Boeing 747 vs. Concorde Chapter 1 ­ Fundamentals 15
  16. Metrics - Comparisons Pat has developed a new product, "rabbit" about which she wishes to determine performance. There is special interest in comparing the new product, rabbit to the old product, turtle, since the product was rewritten for performance reasons. (Pat had used Performance Engineering techniques and thus knew that rabbit was "about twice as fast" as turtle.) The measurements showed: Performance Comparisons Product Transactions / second Seconds/ transaction Seconds to process transaction Turtle 30 0.0333 3 Rabbit 60 0.0166 1 Which of the following statements reflect the performance comparison of rabbit and turtle? o Rabbit is 100% faster than turtle. o Rabbit takes 200% less time than turtle. o Rabbit is twice as fast as turtle. o Turtle is 50% as fast as rabbit. o Rabbit takes 1/2 as long as turtle. o Turtle is 50% slower than rabbit. o Rabbit takes 1/3 as long as turtle. o Turtle takes 200% longer than rabbit. o Rabbit takes 100% less time than turtle. o Turtle takes 300% longer than rabbit. Chapter 1 ­ Fundamentals 16
  17. Metrics - Throughput Application Answers per month Operations per second Programming Language Compiler (millions) of Instructions per second: MIPS ISA (millions) of (FP) operations per second: MFLOP/s Datapath Control Megabytes per second Function Units Transistors Wires Pins Cycles per second (clock rate) Chapter 1 ­ Fundamentals 17
  18. Methods For Predicting Performance • Benchmarks, Traces, Mixes • Hardware: Cost, delay, area, power estimation • Simulation (many levels) – ISA, RT, Gate, Circuit • Queuing Theory • Rules of Thumb • Fundamental “Laws”/Principles Chapter 1 ­ Fundamentals 18
  19. Benchmarks SPEC: System Performance Evaluation Cooperative • First Round 1989 – 10 programs yielding a single number (“SPECmarks”) • Second Round 1992 – SPECInt92 (6 integer programs) and SPECfp92 (14 floating point programs) • Compiler Flags unlimited. March 93 of DEC 4000 Model 610: spice: unix.c:/def=(sysv,has_bcopy,”bcopy(a,b,c)= memcpy(b,a,c)” wave5: /ali=(all,dcom=nat)/ag=a/ur=4/ur=200 nasa7: /norecu/ag=a/ur=4/ur2=200/lc=blas • Third Round 1995 – new set of programs: SPECint95 (8 integer programs) and SPECfp95 (10 floating point) – “benchmarks useful for 3 years” – Single flag setting for all programs: SPECint_base95, SPECfp_base95 Chapter 1 ­ Fundamentals 19
  20. Benchmarks CINT2000 (Integer Component of SPEC CPU2000): Program Language What Is It 164.gzip C Compression 175.vpr C FPGA Circuit Placement and Routing 176.gcc C C Programming Language Compiler 181.mcf C Combinatorial Optimization 186.crafty C Game Playing: Chess 197.parser C Word Processing 252.eon C++ Computer Visualization 253.perlbmk C PERL Programming Language 254.gap C Group Theory, Interpreter 255.vortex C Object-oriented Database 256.bzip2C Compression 300.twolf C Place and Route Simulator http://www.spec.org/osg/cpu2000/CINT2000/ Chapter 1 ­ Fundamentals 20
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