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Lecture Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World - Chapter 1: The World of the Modern Systems Analyst

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Lecture Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World - Chapter 1: The World of the Modern Systems Analyst

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Learning objectives for chapter 1 include: Explain the key role of a systems analyst in business; describe the various types of systems an analyst might work on; explain the importance of technical, people, and business skills for an analyst; explain why ethical behavior is crucial for a systems analyst’s career,...

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  1. 1 1 Learning Objectives Chapter 1:  Explain the key role of a systems analyst in The World of the business Modern Systems Analyst  Describe the various types of systems an analyst might work on Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing  Explain the importance of technical, people, and World, 3rd Edition business skills for an analyst  Explain why ethical behavior is crucial for a systems analyst’s career Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 2 1 1 Learning Objectives (continued) Overview  Describe the many types of technology an  Information Systems analyst needs to understand  Crucial to success of modern business organizations  Describe various job titles and places of employment where analysis and design work is  Constantly being developed to make business done more competitive  Discuss the analyst’s role in strategic planning  Impact productivity and profits for an organization  Keys to successful systems development  Describe the analyst’s role in a system  Thorough systems analysis and design development project  Understanding what business requires Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 3 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 4 1 1 Overview (continued) The Analyst as a Business Problem Solver  Systems analysis – what system should do  Has computer technology knowledge and programming expertise  Systems design – how components of  Understands business problems information system should be physically implemented  Uses logical methods for solving problems  Has fundamental curiosity  Systems analyst – uses analysis and design  Wants to make things better techniques to solve business problems with information technology  Is more of a business problem solver than technical programmer Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 5 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 6
  2. 1 1 Analyst’s Approach to Problem Solving Systems That Solve Business Problems Research and understand the problem  System – interrelated components functioning Verify that the benefits of solving the problem outweigh the costs together to achieve outcome  Information systems – collection of interrelated Define the requirements for solving the problem components that collect, process, store, and Develop a set of possible solutions (alternatives) provide as output information needed to complete tasks Decide which solution is best, and make a recommendation  Subsystems – part of larger system Define the details of the chosen solution  Supersystem – larger system contains Implement the solution subsystem Monitor to make sure that you obtain the desired results  Functional decomposition – dividing system into smaller subsystems and components Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 7 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 8 1 1 Information Systems and Component Information Systems and Subsystems Parts Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 9 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 10 1 1 System Boundary vs. Automation Types of Information Systems Boundary  Transaction processing systems (TPS)  Capture and record information about organization’s transactions  Management information systems (MIS)  Take information captured by TPS  Produce reports for planning and control  Executive information systems (EIS)  Monitoring competitive environment and strategic planning Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 11 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 12
  3. 1 1 Types of Information Systems (continued) Types of Information Systems (continued)  Decision support systems (DSS)  Explore impact of available options or decisions (What-if scenarios)  Communication support systems  Facilitate communication internally and with customers and suppliers  Office support systems  Help employees create and share documents Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 13 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 14 1 1 Required Skills of the Systems Analyst Technical Knowledge and Skills  Analyst uses tools:  An analyst should have fundamental technology knowledge of:  Software productivity packages (MS Office)  Computers / peripheral devices (hardware)  Integrated development environments (IDEs) for programming languages  Communication networks and connectivity  CASE tools / coding, testing, and documentation  Database and database management systems support packages (DBMS)  Analyst understands SDLC phase techniques:  Programming languages (for example: VB.NET or  Project planning Java)  Systems analysis, systems design  Operating systems and utilities  Construction, implementation, systems support Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 15 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 16 1 1 Business Knowledge and Skills People Knowledge and Skills  Analyst must understand:  Systems analysts need to understand how people:  Business functions performed by organization  Think  Organizational structure  Learn  Organization management techniques  React to change  Functional work processes  Communicate  Systems analysts typically study business administration in college  Work (in a variety of jobs and levels) Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 17 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 18
  4. 1 1 People Knowledge and Skills (continued) Integrity and Ethics  Interpersonal and communication skills are  Analyst has access to confidential information crucial to: such as salary, an organization’s planned projects, security systems, etc.  Obtaining information  Must keep information private  Motivating people  Any impropriety can ruin an analyst’s career  Getting cooperation  Analyst plans security in systems to protect  Understanding the complexity and workings of an confidential information organization in order to provide necessary support Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 19 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 20 1 1 Required Skills of the Systems Analyst The Environment Surrounding the Analyst  Types of Technology Encountered  Desktop  Networked desktops  Client-server  Mainframe  Internet, intranet, and extranet  Wireless, PDAs, Cell Phones (mobile workers) Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 21 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 22 1 1 Typical Job Titles and Places of Employment The Analyst’s Role in Strategic Planning  Job titles of systems analyst vary greatly, but  Special projects affecting executives entail same thing  Business process reengineering – radical improvements to existing processes  Places of employment vary from small businesses to large corporations  Strategic planning development process  Analysts can be internal employees or outside  Information systems strategic planning consultants  Application architecture plan (business focus)  Analysts can be developing solutions for internal  Technology architecture plan (infrastructure focus) business managers or for external clients and  Enterprise resource planning (ERP) integrated customers systems Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 23 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 24
  5. 1 1 Components of an information systems Rocky Mountain Outfitters (RMO) and Its strategic plan Strategic Information Systems Plan  RMO sports clothing manufacturer and distributor about to begin customer support system project  First understand: nature of the business, approach to strategic planning, and objectives for customer support system  RMO systems development project used to demonstrate analysis and design concepts  Reliable Pharmaceutical Service (RPS) is a second case study for classroom purposes Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 25 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 26 1 1 Introduction to Rocky Mountain Outfitters Early RMO Catalog Cover (Spring, 1978) (RMO) business  Began Park City, Utah in 1978 supplying winter sports clothes to local ski shops  Expanded into direct mail-order sales with small catalog – as catalog interest increased, opened retail store in Park City  Became large, regional sports clothing distributor by early 2000’s in Rocky Mountain and Western states  Currently $100 million in annual sales and 600 employees and two retail stores  Mail-order revenue to $60 million, phone-order revenue is $30 million Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 27 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 28 1 1 Current RMO Catalog Cover (Fall 2005) RMO Strategic Issues  Innovational clothing distributor, featured products on Web site ahead of competitors  Original Web site functions:  Enhance image, request copy of catalog, portal to Outdoor sports Web sites  Enhanced Web site functions:  Add specific product information, weekly specials, and all product offerings  Detailed IS strategic plan  Supply chain management  Customer relationship management Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 29 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 30
  6. 1 1 RMO’s Organizational Structure RMO Locations  Managed by original (married) owners  John Blankens – President  Liz Blankens – Vice president of merchandising and distribution  William McDougal – Vice president of marketing and sales  JoAnn White – Vice president of finance and systems  Background in finance and accounting Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 31 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 32 1 1 RMO Information Systems Department RMO IS Department Staffing  Mac Preston: Assistant vice-president and chief information officer (CIO)  Recent promotion made after IS strategic plan created  CIO reports to finance and systems VP  CIO is Increasingly important to future of RMO  IS department will report directly to the CEO … if CIO can successfully implement new strategic IS plan Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 33 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 34 1 1 Existing RMO Systems Existing RMO Systems (continued)  Small mainframe-based system  RMO informational Website  Supports inventory, mail-order, accounting and  Hosted by Internet service provider (ISP) human resources  Merchandising/Distribution  Has dedicated connectivity to distribution and  12 year old mainframe COBOL/CICS, DB2, VSAM mail-order sites application  LANs and file servers  Mail order  Supports central office functions, distribution  14 year old mainframe COBOL application centers, and manufacturing centers  Phone order  Manufacturing has dial-up capability  Oracle and Visual Basic system built 6 years ago Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 35 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 36
  7. 1 1 Existing RMO Systems (continued) The Information Systems Strategic Plan  Retail store systems  Supports RMO strategic objectives  8 Year old point-of-sale and batch inventory  Build more direct customer relationships package, overnight update with mainframe  Expand marketing beyond Western states  Office systems  LAN with office software, Internet, email  Plan calls for a series of information system development and integration projects over  Human resources several years  13 year old mainframe-based payroll and benefits  Project launch: new customer support system to  Accounting/Finance integrate phone orders, mail orders, direct  Mainframe package bought from leading vendor customer orders via Internet Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 37 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 38 1 1 RMO Technology Architecture Plan RMO Application Architecture Plan  Distribute business applications  Supply chain management (SCM)  Across multiple locations and systems  Product development, product acquisition, manufacturing, inventory management  Reserve mainframe for Web server, database, and telecommunications  Customer support system (CSS)  Allow incremental and rapid growth in capacity  Integrate order-processing and fulfillment system with SCM  Strategic business processes via Internet  Support customer orders (mail, phone, web)  Supply chain management (SCM)  Strategic information management system  Direct customer ordering via dynamic Web site  Extract and analyze SCM and CSS information for  Customer relationship management (CRM) strategic and operational decision making and  Web-based intranet for business functions control Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 39 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 40 1 1 RMO Application Architecture Plan Timetable for RMO Application (continued) Architecture Plan  Retail store system (RSS)  Replace existing retail store system with system integrated with CSS  Accounting/Finance system  Purchase intranet application to maximize employee access to financial data for planning and control  Human resource (HR) system  Purchase intranet application to maximize employee access to human resource forms, procedures, and benefits information Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 41 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 42
  8. 1 1 The Customer Support System Analyst as a System Developer  RMO core competency is their ability to develop  Part 1: The modern systems analyst and maintain customer loyalty  Supply chain management (SCM) must be  Chapter 1: Nature of the analyst’s work defined before CSS can begin  CSS is a core system supporting customer  Chapter 2: Systems development life cycle relationship management (SDLC)  Systems analysis phase will define system requirements in detail  Chapter 3: How projects are planned and managed  Strategic plan’s stated objectives will form guidelines as project proceeds Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 43 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 44 1 1 Analyst as a System Developer (continued) Analyst as a System Developer (continued)  Part 2: Systems analysis tasks  Part 3: Systems design tasks  Chapter 4: Investigating systems requirements  Chapter 9: Overview of systems design and information gathering  Chapter 10: Traditional approach to design  Chapter 5: Modeling system requirements  Chapter 11: Object approach to design  Chapter 6: Traditional approach to requirements  Chapter 12: Object-oriented development  Chapter 7: Object-oriented approach to  Chapter 13: Database design requirements  Chapter 14: User interface design  Chapter 8: Evaluating alternatives for requirements, environment, and implementation  Chapter 15: System interfaces and controls Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 45 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 46 1 1 Analyst as a System Developer (continued) Summary  Part 4: Implementation and support  Systems analyst solves business problems using  Chapter 16: Making the system operational information systems technology  Current Trends  Chapter 17: Spiral model, extreme programming  Problem solving means looking into business (XP), unified process (UP), prototyping, problem in great detail, completely component-based development understanding problem, and choosing best  Chapter 18: Software packages and enterprise solution resource planning (ERP)  Appendices:  Information systems development is much more  Project management, planning, interviewing than writing programs Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 47 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 48
  9. 1 1 Summary (continued) Summary (continued)  System - collection of interrelated components  Systems analyst has broad knowledge and that function together to achieve some outcome variety of skills, including technical, business, and people  Information systems outcome: solution to a  Integrity and ethical behavior are crucial to business problem success for the analyst  Information systems, subsystems, and  Systems analyst encounters a variety of rapidly components interact with and include hardware, changing technologies software, inputs, outputs, data, people, and procedures  System analyst works on strategic plans and then systems development projects Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 49 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition 50
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