CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN ADHD RESEARCH

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CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN ADHD RESEARCH

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The chapter on the incidence, clinical features, pathophysiology, signs, symptoms, and current management of the Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ), reviews how AS affects this joint. TMJ is involved in 4% to 32% of cases, and ranges from mild disease to ankylosis which is exceptional. The non-surgical treatment of TMJ in AS is the most effective way of managing over 80% of patients. Non-pharmacological treatment includes fabrication of intra oral splints, physiotherapy, and patient education. The pharmacological treatment includes NSAIDS, Coxibs, corticosteroids, and anti-TNF agents. The surgical treatment – injection of steroids, joint lavage and total joint replacement -, is indicated...

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