Bladder infections

Xem 1-9 trên 9 kết quả Bladder infections
  • Urinary Tract Infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) account for as many as 40–45% of nosocomial infections; up to 3% of bacteriuric patients develop bacteremia. Although UTIs contribute only 10–15% to prolongation of hospital stay and to extra costs, these infections are important reservoirs and sources for spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospitals. Almost all nosocomial UTIs are associated with preceding instrumentation or indwelling bladder catheters, which create a 3–10% risk of infection each day.

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  • Renal and Ureteral Infections Infections of the urinary tract are common among patients whose ureteral excretion is compromised (Table 82-1). Candida, which has a predilection for the kidney, can invade either from the bloodstream or in a retrograde manner (via the ureters or bladder) in immunocompromised patients. The presence of "fungus balls" or persistent candiduria suggests invasive disease. Persistent funguria (with Aspergillus as well as Candida) should prompt a search for a nidus of infection in the kidney. Certain viruses are typically seen only in immunosuppressed patients.

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  • Candida spp. can cause renal abscesses. This fungus may spread to the kidney hematogenously or by ascension from the bladder. The hallmark of the latter route of infection is ureteral obstruction with large fungal balls. The presentation of perinephric and renal abscesses is quite nonspecific. Flank pain and abdominal pain are common. At least 50% of patients are febrile. Pain may be referred to the groin or leg, particularly with extension of infection.

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  • Each condition is examined using the following protocol: The alphabetical listing of conditions includes environment, exercise/movement, herbs/essential oils, mindset, nutrition (what to eat, drink, and avoid), stress management, supplements, and touch. If current research-based evidence was not available from a search of www.pubmed.com or a Google search, that element was omitted (e.g., herbs/essential oils or stress management may not appear for certain conditions, even if practitioners do use them)....

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  • Conventional treatments of hemorrhagic cystitis are hyper-hydration, diuresis and bladder irrigation to wash out viral particles and clots, and to prevent retrograde infection to kidneys and post-renal failure due to urethral obstruction caused by clots. High titer γ- globulin to specific adenovirus serotype is also administrated. In particular, serotype 35 specific antibody was present only at a very low titer in pooled gamma globulin (Flomenberg et al., 1987).

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  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common neoplastic condition afflicting men and constitutes a major health factor impacting patients in every part of the world. Bladder neck obstruction secondary to BPH can result in significant medical complications including renal failure, urinary retention, recurrent urinary tract infection, bladder stones, significant hematuria, and marked and disruptive bladder symptoms

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  • Benign Disease Symptoms Benign proliferative disease may produce hesitancy, intermittent voiding, a diminished stream, incomplete emptying, and postvoid leakage. The severity of these symptoms can be quantitated with the self-administered American Urological Association Symptom Index (Table 91-2), although the degree of symptoms does not always relate to gland size. Resistance to urine flow reduces bladder compliance, leading to nocturia, urgency, and, ultimately, urinary retention.

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  • Granulocytosis Approximately 30% of patients with solid tumors have granulocytosis (granulocyte count 8000/µL). In about half of patients with granulocytosis and cancer, the granulocytosis has an identifiable nonparaneoplastic etiology (infection, tumor necrosis, glucocorticoid administration, etc.). The other patients have proteins in urine and serum that stimulate the growth of bone marrow cells.

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  • Vaccine Patients recovering from tetanus should be actively immunized (see below) because immunity is not induced by the small amount of toxin required to produce disease. Additional Measures Like all patients receiving ventilatory support, patients with tetanus require attention to hydration; nutrition; physiotherapy; prophylactic anticoagulation; bowel, bladder, and renal function; decubitus ulcer prevention; and treatment of intercurrent infection.

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