Cancer occurrence

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  • Significant progress has been made in the reduction of cancer incidence and mortality rates. Delay-adjusted incidence rates for all low-income, racial, and ethnic groups combined decreased by 0.7% per year from 1999 to 2007, after stabilizing from 1989 to 1999 and increasing by 1.2% per year from 1975 to 1989. The decline in overall mortality rates accelerated from 1.1% per year from 1993 to 2001 to 1.6% per year from 2001 to 2007 (Jemal et al., 2008). This is real progress. However, very real and widening gaps are masked by these statistics.

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  • Accurate statistics on cancer occurrence and outcome are essential both for the purposes of research and for planning and evaluation programmes for cancer control (Parkin, 2006). Although tumours of thyroid account for only 1% of the overall human cancer burden, they represent the most common malignancies of the endocrine system and pose a significant challenge to pathologists, surgeons and endocrinologists. Among epithelial tumors, carcinomas of follicular cell origin far outnumber those of C-cell origin.

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  • Death and Dying The most common causes of death in patients with cancer are infection (leading to circulatory failure), respiratory failure, hepatic failure, and renal failure. Intestinal blockage may lead to inanition and starvation. Central nervous system disease may lead to seizures, coma, and central hypoventilation. About 70% of patients develop dyspnea preterminally. However, many months usually pass between the diagnosis of cancer and the occurrence of these complications, and during this period the patient is severely affected by the possibility of death. ...

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  • Health and Quality of Life Outcomes BioMed Central Research Open Access Impact of cancer occurrence on health-related quality of life: A longitudinal pre-post assessment Stéphanie Boini1,2, Serge Briançon*1,2, Francis Guillemin1,2, Pilar Galan3 and Serge Hercberg3 Address: 1EA 3444 – Ecole de Santé Publique, Faculté de médecine, Université Henry Poincaré de Nancy, 9 avenue de la forêt de Haye, BP 184, 54500 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France, 2Centre d'Epidémiologie Clinique – INSERM, Hôpital Marin, 92 avenue du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, C.O.

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  • The population of Western countries is aging, and cancer in older aged persons is becoming increasingly common. The management of these neoplasms is a novel problem. Direct information on the outcome of cancer prevention and of cytotoxic chemotherapy in older individuals is scarce, especially for those aged 80 and over, and it is not clear whether the same process should direct medical decisions in younger and older persons. It is reasonable to assume that the benefits of cancer prevention and treatment diminish and the dangers increase with age.

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  • The occurrence of DNA double-strand breaks in the nucleus provokes in its structural organization a large-scale alteration whose molecular basis is still mostly unclear. Here, we show that double-strand breaks trigger pref-erential assembly of nucleoproteins in human cellular fractions and that they mediate the separation of large protein–DNA aggregates from aque-ous solution.

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  • Laboratory for Phytopathology and Plant Protection, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium; 2Institut de Pharmacologie et Biologie Structurale, UMR-CNRS 5089, Toulouse Cedex, France; 3Rega Institute, Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Fruits of elderberry (Sambucus nigra) express small quantities of a type-2 ribosome-inactivating protein with an exclusive specificity towards the NeuAc(a2,6)Gal/GalNAc disaccharide and a unique molecular structure typified by the occurrence of a disulfide bridge between the B-chains of two adjacent protomers....

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  • Apoptosis in the developing nervous system results in naturally occurring cell death (NOCD), a necessary and desirable process. NOCD effectively eliminates neurons that have made faulty synapses or have not reached appropriate targets. 1 In the rest of the organism, apoptosis is essential for organogenesis, sculpts digits and extremities, and plays a role in determining polarity of structures by contributing to directional growth of cell populations. 2 Failure of carefully orchestrated and effective apoptosis in the developing fetus can have serious and long-lasting effects in the adult.

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  • Non-visible prostate cancer on TRUS has been increased because of the advances in PSA screening. (Ohori, et al.2003) However, there are still occurrences of hypoechoic lesions suspicious for cancer. To obtain an appropriate tissue sample from suspicious lesions, it is better to make the needle tip facing the rectum (Figure 1, 2). Otherwise, the needle tip slips away from the prostate so that it may result in inappropriate samples and missing lesions. This is particularly true when the biplane ultrasound probe is used which is close to parallel to the rectum.

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  • An option of longstanding interest is prevention—interventions that prevent or delay the occurrence of the very diseases that drive these costs. There are three kinds of prevention. Primary prevention can be accomplished by modifying unhealthy behaviors (e.g., smoking, physical inactivity), which cause many diseases and account for 38% of all deaths in the United States, 6 administering immunizations to prevent infectious diseases, and reducing exposure to harmful environmental factors.

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  • In the early 1990's when systematic biopsy of prostate using transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) had just begun, there was enthusiasm for identifying abnormalities and obtaining appropriate samples. Since the occurrences of early small prostate cancer are increasing and identifying tumors using TRUS are somewhat subjective, the efficiency of the method in detecting and staging prostate cancer has decreased. (Ohori, et al. 2003) Instead, many physicians discuss about where and how many biopsy cores should be taken in order to improve the detection-rate of cancer.

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  • Childhood obesity and asthma have increased dramatically in the last two decades (21, 2692) and are exacerbated by factors in the modern built environment. In addition, recent reductions in childhood injury are directly linked to the introduction of safety measures to housing construction and community and roadway planning. This section summarizes the trends in occurrence of these diseases and their links to risk factors in the built environment.

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