Mistletoe extracts have immunomodulatory activity. We
show that nontoxic concentrations ofViscumalbumextracts
increase natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing of tumor
cells but spare nontarget cells from NK lysis. The com-pounds responsible for this bioactivity were isolated from
mistletoe and characterized. They have low molecular mass
and are thermostable and protease-resistant.
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Actinoporins are a family of sea anemone proteins that bind to membranes
and produce functional pores which result in cell lysis. Actinoporin vari-ants with decreased lytic activity usually show a reduced affinity for mem-branes.
Infection of epithelium with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 is generally
prolonged, suggesting an ineffective virus-specific immune response, and
prolonged infection promotes anogenital cancer. To determine whether
poor antigen presentation by HPV-infected keratinocytes (KCs) contributes
to prolonged HPV infection
The ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel couples glucose metabolism
to insulin secretion in pancreatic b-cells. It comprises regulatory sulfonyl-urea receptor 1 and pore-forming Kir6.2 subunits. Binding and⁄or hydro-lysis of Mg-nucleotides at the nucleotide-binding domains of sulfonylurea
receptor 1 stimulates channel opening and leads to membrane hyperpolari-zation and inhibition of insulin secretion.
To facilitate the process of proteindesign and learn the basic
rules that control the structure and stability of proteins,
combinatorial methods have been developed to select or
screen proteins with desired properties from libraries of
mutants. One such method uses phage-display and proteo-lysis to select stably folded proteins. This method does not
rely on specific properties of proteins for selection. There-fore, in principle it can be applied to any protein.
The sensitive to lysis D (SlyD) protein fromEscherichia coliis related to
the FK506-binding protein family, and it harbours both peptidyl-prolyl
cis–transisomerase (PPIase) and chaperone-like activity, preventing aggre-gation and promoting the correct folding of other proteins. Whereas a
functional role of SlyD as a protein-folding catalyst in vivo remains
unclear, SlyD has been shown to be an essential component for [Ni–Fe]-hydrogenase metallocentre assembly in bacteria.
The role of vertebrate histone proteins or histone derived
peptides as innate immune effectors has only recently been
appreciated. In this study, high levelsof corehistoneproteins
H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 were found in hemocytes from the
Pacific white shrimp,Litopenaeus vannamei. The proteins
were identified by in-gel digestion, mass spectrometry ana-lysis, and homology searching. The L. vannameihistone
proteins were found to be highly homologous to histones of
Ribosomes position their substrate at stereochemistry suitable for
peptide bond formation, and promote substrate-mediated cata-lysis. The linkage between substrate orientation, dominated by
remote interactions, and a sizable symmetrical region identified in
all known ribosome structures indicates a guided rotatory motion
of aminoacylated-tRNAs along a ribosomal path leadings to the
advance of nascent peptides into the protein exit tunnel at an
Plasmin(ogen) kringles 1 and 4 are involved in anchorage of plasmin(ogen)
to fibrin and cells, an essential step in fibrinolysis and pericellular proteo-lysis. Their contribution to these processes was investigated by selective
neutralization of their lysine-binding function. Blocking the kringle 1 lysine-binding site with monoclonal antibody 34D3 fully abolished binding and
activation of Glu-plasminogen and prevented both fibrinolysis and plasmin-induced cell detachment-induced apoptosis.
Recently, the CPS biosynthetic loci for several strains ofCampylobacter
jejuni were sequenced and revealed evidence for multiple mechanisms of
structural variation. In this study, the CPS structure for the HS:1 serostrain
of C. jejuni was determined using mass spectrometry and NMR at
600 MHz equipped with an ultra-sensitive cryogenically cooled probe. Ana-lysis of CPS purified using a mild enzymatic method revealed a teichoic
acid-like [-4)-a-d-Galp-(1–2)-(R)-Gro-(1-P]n, repeating unit, where Gro is
Inhibition of Cell-Wall Synthesis
One major difference between bacterial and mammalian cells is the presence in bacteria of a rigid wall external to the cell membrane. The wall protects bacterial cells from osmotic rupture, which would result from the cell's usual marked hyperosmolarity (by up to 20 atm) relative to the host environment. The structure conferring cell-wall rigidity and resistance to osmotic lysis in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria is peptidoglycan, a large, covalently linked sacculus that surrounds the bacterium.