Compression machine

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  • Sentence compression is a task of creating a short grammatical sentence by removing extraneous words or phrases from an original sentence while preserving its meaning. Existing methods learn statistics on trimming context-free grammar (CFG) rules. However, these methods sometimes eliminate the original meaning by incorrectly removing important parts of sentences, because trimming probabilities only depend on parents’ and daughters’ non-terminals in applied CFG rules. We apply a maximum entropy model to the above method. ...

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  • This paper introduces mNCD, a method for automatic evaluation of machine translations. The measure is based on normalized compression distance (NCD), a general information theoretic measure of string similarity, and flexible word matching provided by stemming and synonyms. The mNCD measure outperforms NCD in system-level correlation to human judgments in English. method. BADGER scores were directly compared against the scores of METEOR and word error rate (WER).

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  • CONTENTS CONTENTS 470 C H A P T E R n A Textbook of Machine Design 13 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Introduction. Types of Keys. Sunk Keys. Saddle Keys. Tangent Keys. Round Keys. Splines. Forces acting on a Sunk Key. Strength of a Sunk Key. Effect of Keyways. Shaft Couplings. Requirements of a Good Shaft Coupling. Types of Shaft Couplings. Sleeve or Muff Coupling. Clamp or Compression Coupling. Flange Coupling. Design of Flange Coupling. Flexible Coupling. Bushed Pin Flexible Coupling. Oldham Coupling. Universal Coupling. Keys and Coupling 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

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  • CONTENTS CONTENTS 820 C H A P T E R n A Textbook of Machine Design Springs 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 23 Introduction. Types of Springs. Material for Helical Springs. Standard Size of Spring Wire. Terms used in Compression Springs. End Connections for Compr ession Helical Springs. End Connections for Tension Helical Springs. Stresses in Helical Springs of Circular Wire. Deflection of Helical Springs of Circular Wire. Eccentric Loading of Springs. Buckling of Compression Springs. Surge in Springs.

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  • The benchmark guide for compressor technology pros You don't have to scour piles of technical literature for compressor answers any longer. The Compressor Handbook compiled by Paul Hanlon packs all the answers on design procedures, practical application, and maintenance of compressors—straight from top experts on these widely used machines.

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  • CONTENTS CONTENTS Simple Stresses in Machine Parts C H A P T E R n 87 Simple Stresses in Machine Parts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Introduction. Load. Stress. Strain. Tensile Stress and Strain. Compressive Stress and Strain. Young's Modulus or Modulus of Elasticity. Shear Stress and Strain Shear Modulus or Modulus of Rigidity. Bearing Stress. Stress-Strain Diagram. Working Stress. Factor of Safety. Selection of Factor of Safety. Stresses in Composite Bars. Stresses due to Change in Temperature—Thermal Stresses.

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  • A cotter is a flat wedge-shaped piece of steel as shown in figure- This is used to connect rigidly two rods which transmit motion in the axial direction, without rotation. These joints may be subjected to tensile or compressive forces along the axes of the rods. Examples of cotter joint connections are: connection of piston rod to the crosshead of a steam engine, valve rod and its stem etc.

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  • Conditions often arise in machines and mechanisms when stresses fluctuate between a upper and a lower limit. For example in figure-, the fiber on the surface of a rotating shaft subjected to a bending load, undergoes both tension and compression for each revolution of the shaft.

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  • This book on internal combustion engines brings out few chapters on the research activities through the wide range of current engine issues. The first section groups combustion-related papers including all research areas from fuel delivery to exhaust emission phenomena. The second one deals with various problems on engine design, modeling, manufacturing, control and testing. Such structure should improve legibility of the book and helps to integrate all singular chapters as a logical whole.

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  • Area of cross section Arbitrary constants Coefficients in series Distance from y and z axis, respectively, to outermost compressive fiber Eccentricity of axial load P Modulus of elasticity of material Tangent modulus for buckling outside of elastic range A function of x Shear modulus of material Height of cross section Horizontal (transverse) force on column Moment of inertia of cross section Moment of inertia with respect to y and z axis, respectively Torsion constant;

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  • Extension springs do not buckle or require guide pins when they are deflected, but they may vibrate laterally if loaded or unloaded suddenly. Clearance should be allowed in these cases to eliminate the potential for noise or premature failure. The load tolerances are the same as those given for compression springs.

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  • CHAPTER 24 SPRINGS Robert E. Joerres Applications Engineering Manager Associated Spring, Barnes Group, Inc. Bristol, Connecticut 24.1 INTRODUCTION / 24.2 24.2 GLOSSARY OF SPRING TERMINOLOGY / 24.2 24.3 SELECTION OF SPRING MATERIALS / 24.4 24.4 HELICAL COMPRESSION SPRINGS /24.10 24.5 HELICAL EXTENSION SPRINGS / 24.27 24.6 HELICAL TORSION SPRINGS / 24.34 24.7 BELLEVILLE SPRING WASHER / 24.38 24.8 SPECIAL SPRING WASHERS / 24.49 24.9 FLAT SPRINGS / 24.53 24.10 CONSTANT-FORCE SPRINGS / 24.56 24.11 TORSION BARS / 24.60 24.12 POWER SPRINGS / 24.61 24.13 HOT-WOUND SPRINGS / 24.64 REFERENCES / 24.

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  • Handling Machining Assembly Organisation Pneumatics Electronics Mechanics Sensorics Software Hesse 99 Examples of Pneumatic Applications Chinese English French German Russian Spanish Blue Digest on Automation 053 714 . Blue Digest on Automation © 2001 by Festo AG & Co. Ruiter Strasse 82 D-73734 Esslingen Federal Republic of Germany Tel. 0711 347-0 Fax 0711 347-2155 All texts, representations, illustrations and drawings included in this book are the intellectual property of Festo AG & Co., and are protected by copyright law....

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  • This volume is not intended to be a complete record of inventive genius and mechanical progress in the United States. A bare catalogue of notable American inventions in the nineteenth century alone could not be compressed into these pages. Nor is it any part of the purpose of this book to trespass on the ground of the many mechanical works and encyclopedias which give technical descriptions and explain in detail the principle of every invention.

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  • Industrial Safety and Health for Goods and Materials Servicesfocuses on the safety requirements of the wholesale and retail trades, including warehousing. This detailed text describes the hazards associated with chemicals, compressed gases, and fire.

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  • Information theory and inference, often taught separately, are here united in one entertaining textbook. These topics lie at the heart of many exciting areas of contemporary science and engineering - communication, signal processing, data mining, machine learning, pattern recognition, computational neuroscience, bioinformatics, and cryptography. This textbook introduces theory in tandem with applications. Information theory is taught alongside practical communication systems, such as arithmetic coding for data compression and...

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  • An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert energy into useful mechanical motion.[1][2] Heat engines, including internal combustion engines and external combustion engines (such as steam engines) burn a fuel to create heat which is then used to create motion. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air and others, such as clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors like myosins in muscles use chemical energy to create motion....

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  • Load. Stress. Strain. Tensile Stress and Strain. Compressive Stress and Strain. Young's Modulus or Modulus of Elasticity. Shear Stress and Strain Shear Modulus or Modulus of Rigidity. Bearing Stress. Stress-Strain Diagram. Working Stress. Factor of Safety. Selection of Factor of Safety. Stresses in Composite Bars. Stresses due to Change in Temperature—Thermal Stresses. Linear and Lateral Strain. Poisson's Ratio. Volumetric Strain. Bulk Modulus. Relation between Bulk Modul u s a n d Yo u n g ' s Modulus. Relation between Young's Modulus and Modulus of Rigidity. Impact Stress. Resilience.

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  • Columns and Struts 1. Introduction. 2. Failure of a Column or Strut. 3. Types of End Conditions of Columns. 4. Euler’s Column Theory. 5. Assumptions in Euler’s Column Theory. 6. Euler’s Formula. 7. Slenderness Ratio. 8. Limitations of Euler’s Formula. 9. Equivalent Length of a Column. 10. Rankine’s Formula for Columns. 11. Johnson’s Formula for Columns. 12. Long Columns Subjected to Eccentric Loading. 13. Design of Piston Rod. 14. Design of Push Rods. 15. Design of Connecting Rod. 16. Forces Acting on a Connecting Rod. 16.

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