Deductive reasoning

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  • The 'traditional' approach to building artificially intelligent systems, known as symbolic AI, suggests that intelligent behaviour can be generated in a system by giving that system a symbolic representation of its environment and its desired behaviour, and syntactically manipulating this representation. This chapter focus on the apotheosis of this tradition, in which these symbolic representations are logical formulae, and the syntactic manipulation corresponds to logical deduction, or theorem-proving.

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  • Another way people accept or process facts is through deductive reasoning. When you mentor people whose minds work this way, you must make things logical. These people prefer linear, analytical explanations — point A to point B. You have to go into detail … sometimes almost defending your own thought processes. These people have to understand each step. When you stop and say, “Okay, now you go ahead and do it,” they’ll probably say, “Can you run through that one more time, please?”...

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  • Provide fun math practice that goes beyond the facts! With Brainteasers, students use higherlevel thinking and processing skills to solve problems. Not only will students be expected to make connections, analyze data, use deductive reasoning, and represent numbers in alternate ways, they will have opportunities to utilize skills that are prerequisites to other learning skills such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, fractions, geometry, measurement, and money.

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  • Project Gutenberg’s The Mathematical Analysis of Logic, by George Boole This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: The Mathematical Analysis of Logic Being an Essay Towards a Calculus of Deductive Reasoning Author: George Boole Release Date: July 28, 2011

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  • This quotation serves as the guiding rationale for this book and, I hope, provides an outlook for teaching and learning about statistics. From the main content to the ped- agogical aids and end-of-the-chapter exercises, this textbook fosters learning and dis- covery. As students learn how to perform calculations and interpret the results, they will discover new ways to think about the world around them, uncover previously unrec- ognized relationships among disparate variables, and make better judgments about how and why people behave the way they do. ...

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  • Chapter 1 - Introduction: Themes in the study of life. In this chapter, you should now be able to: Briefly describe the unifying themes that characterize the biological sciences; distinguish among the three domains of life, and the eukaryotic kingdoms; distinguish between the following pairs of terms: discovery science and hypothesis-based science, quantitative and qualitative data, inductive and deductive reasoning, science and technology.

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  • 18 Understanding the Numbers • Cash Equivalents are near-cash securities such as U.S. Treasury bills maturing in three months or less. • Accounts Receivable are amounts owed by customers and should be reported on the balance sheet at “realizable value,” which means “the amount reasonably expected to be collected in cash.” Any accounts whose collectibility is in doubt must be reduced to realizable value by deducting an allowance for doubtful debts. • Inventories in some cases may not be liquid in a crisis (except at fire-sale prices).

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  • Chapter I. Of The Necessity Of Commencing With An Analysis Of Language. Chapter II. Of Names. Chapter III. Of The Things Denoted By Names. Chapter IV. Of Propositions. Chapter V. Of The Import Of Propositions. Chapter VI. Of Propositions Merely Verbal. Chapter VII. Of The Nature Of Classification, And The Five Predicables. Chapter VIII. Of Definition.  Book II. On Reasoning.        Chapter I. Of Inference, Or Reasoning, In General. Chapter II. Of Ratiocination, Or Syllogism. Chapter III. Of The Functions And Logical Value Of The Syllogism. Chapter IV.

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  • If an exception to the gross proceeds limit applies to your deduction or if you are claiming a deduction of $500 or less, you will need to determine your vehicle’s fair market value as of the date of the contribution. Generally, fair market value is the price a willing buyer would pay and a willing seller would accept for the vehicle, when neither party is compelled to buy or sell, and both parties have reasonable knowledge of the relevant facts. If you use a vehicle pricing guide to determine fair mar­ ket value, be sure that the sales price listed...

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  • This paper demonstrates that generating arguments in natural language requires planning at an abstract level, and that the appropriate abstraction cannot be captured by approaches based solely upon coherence relations. An abstraction based planning system is presented which employs operators motivated by empirical study and rhetorical maxims. These operators include a subset of traditional deductive rules of inference, argumentation theoretic rules of refutation, and inductive reasoning patterns. ...

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  • Mathematicians seek out patterns[9][10] and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932), David Hilbert (1862–1943), and others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions.

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  • Further, Mamede and Schmidt (2004) found that reflective practice in medicine in their study had a five-factor structure: deliberate induction, which involves the physician taking time to reflect upon an unfamiliar problem; deliberate deduction, which occurs when a physician logically deduces the consequences of a number of possible hypotheses; testing, which involves evaluating predictions against the problem being explored; openness to reflection, occurring when a physician is willing to engage in such constructive activity when faced with an unfamiliar situation; and, meta-reas...

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