Large molecules

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  • At the beginning of the 19th century the description of matter attained, what one would call today, a scientific basis. Dalton1 supported the atomic theory with experiments permitting the development of modern chemistry. The book “A New System of Chemical Philosophy,” describes this new approach. In Fig. 1.1, an excerpt is displayed. Chapters I and II give a summary of the contemporary understanding of nature by analyzing heat and mass, the two basic building-blocks of any material. Chapter I displays the theory of the caloric as it was generally...

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  • Chemical precipitation and complexation are primarily important for the inorganic species. The formation of coordination complexes is typical behaviour of transition metals, which provide the cation or central atom. Ligands include common inorganic anions such as Cl - , F- , Br - , SO4 2- , PO4 3- and CO3 2- as well as organic molecules such as amino acids. Such complexation may facilitate the transport of metals. Biodegradation is a reaction process mediated by microbial activity (a biotic reaction).

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  • Twenty-five years ago, Georges Köhler and César Milstein invented a means of cloning individual antibodies, thus opening up the way for tremendous advances in the fields of cell biology and clinical diagnostics (1). However, in spite of their early promise, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were largely unsuccessful as therapeutic reagents resulting from insufficient activation of human effector functions and immune reactions against proteins of murine origin.

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  • Nomenclature: Plastic (adjective), plastics (noun), plastic materials engineered materials, thermoplastics, thermosets, all plastics are polymers, polymer (poly + mer) = many + units. Poly(many) Mer(parts): A large molecule made up of one or more repeating units(mers) linked together by covalentchemical bonds

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  • Chapter 22 - Condensations and alpha substitutions of carbonyl compounds. In this chapter, we consider two more types of reactions: substitution at the carbon atom next to the carbonyl group (called alpha substitution) and carbonyl condensations. Carbonyl condensations are among the most common biological methods for building up and breaking down large molecules.

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  • Talins are large adaptor proteins that link the integrin family of adhesion molecules to F-actin. In vertebrates, there are two talin genes.Talin 1is essential for integrin-mediated cell adhesion; the role oftalin 2 is unclear. Here we report a detailed analysis of mammaliantalin 2.

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  • The unique ability of mammals to detect and discriminate between thou-sands of different odorant molecules is governed by the diverse array of olfactory receptors expressed by olfactory sensory neurons in the nasal epithelium. Olfactory receptors consist of seven transmembrane domain G protein-coupled receptors and comprise the largest gene superfamily in the mammalian genome.

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  • Chapter 5 - The structure and function of large biological molecules. In this chapter, you should be able to: List and describe the four major classes of organic molecules; Explain: monomers, polymers, dehydration synthesis with the type of covalent bond for each; distinguish between monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides;...

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  • Chapter 5 - The dynamic cell membrane. In this chapter, we will address the following questions: What is the structure of a biological membrane? How is the plasma membrane involved in cell adhesion and recognition? What are the passive processes of membrane transport? How do substances cross membranes against a concentration gradient? How do large molecules enter and leave a cell? What are some other functions of membranes?

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  • The previous chapter presents methods for representing a class of dynamic systems with relatively small numbers of components, such as a harmonic resonator with one mass and spring. The results are models for deterministic mechanics, in which the state of every component of the system is represented and propagated explicitly. Another approach has been developed for extremely large dynamic systems, such as the ensemble of gas molecules in a reaction chamber.

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  • Phenolic compounds represent a large group of molecules with a variety of functions in plant growth, development, and defense. Phenolic compounds include signaling molecules, pigments and flavors that can attract or repel, as well as compounds that can protect the plant against insects, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Most phenolic compounds are present as esters or glycosides rather than as free compounds. Tannins and lignin are phenolic polymers.

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  • Recent advances in mass spectrometry have rendered it an attractive and versatile tool in industrial and academic research laboratories. As a part of this rapid growth, a considerable body of literature has been devoted to the application of mass spectrometry in clinical studies. In concert with separation techniques such as liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry allows the rapid characterization and quantitative determination of a large array of molecules in complex mixtures.

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  • Genetics is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms.[37][38] Genes encode the information necessary for synthesizing proteins, which in turn play a large role in influencing (though, in many instances, not completely determining) the final phenotype of the organism. In modern research, genetics provides important tools in the investigation of the function of a particular gene, or the analysis of genetic interactions. Within organisms, genetic information generally is carried in chromosomes, where it is represented in the chemical structure of particular DNA molecules....

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  • Calorimetry, as a technique for thermal analysis, has a wide range of applications which are not only limited to studying the thermal characterisation (e.g. melting temperature, denaturation temperature and enthalpy change) of small and large drug molecules, but are also extended to characterisation of fuel, metals and oils.

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  • Fujiki et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:347 http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/6/1/347 NANO EXPRESS Open Access STM-induced light emission from thin films of perylene derivatives on the HOPG and Au substrates Aya Fujiki1*, Yusuke Miyake1, Yasushi Oshikane1, Megumi Akai-Kasaya1, Akira Saito1,2 and Yuji Kuwahara1 Abstract We have investigated the emission properties of N,N’-diheptyl-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide thin films by the tunneling-electron-induced light emission technique.

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  • The field of medical imaging is advancing at a rapid pace. Imaging modalities like x-ray radiography, x-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, nuclear imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and optical imaging have been used in biology and medicine to visualize anatomical structures as large as the lung and liver and as small as molecules. Ultrasound is considered the most cost-effective among them. It is used routinely in hospitals and clinics for diagnosing a variety of diseases.

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  • Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field which addresses biological problems using computational techniques, and makes the rapid organization and analysis of biological data possible. The field may also be referred to as computational biology, and can be defined as, "conceptualizing biology in terms of molecules and then applying informatics techniques to understand and organize the information associated with these molecules, on a large scale.

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  • Most traditional pharmaceutical drugs are relatively small molecules that bind to particular molecular targets and either activate or deactivate biological processes. Small molecules are typically manufactured through traditional organic synthesis, and many can be taken orally.[citation needed] In contrast, Biopharmaceuticals are large biological molecules such as proteins that are developed to address targets that cannot easily be addressed by small molecules.

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  • von Willebrand Disease vWD is the most common inherited bleeding disorder. Estimates from laboratory data suggest a prevalence of approximately 1%, but data based on symptomatic individuals suggest that it is closer to 0.1% of the population. vWF serves two roles: (1) as the major adhesion molecule that tethers the platelet to the exposed subendothelium; and (2) as the binding protein for FVIII, resulting in significant prolongation of the FVIII half-life in circulation.

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  • The great pace of biomolecular structure determination has provided a plethora of protein structures, but not as many structures of nucleic acids or of their complexes with proteins. The recognition of DNA and RNA molecules by proteins may produce large and relatively stable assemblies (such as the ribosome) or transient complexes (such as DNA clamps sliding through the DNA).

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