In this chapter we examine various types of term debt as well as lease financing. After studying chapter 21, you should be able to: Describe various types of term loans and discuss the costs and benefits of each; explain the nature and the content of loan agreements, including protective (restrictive) covenants; discuss the sources and types of equipment financing; understand and explain lease financing in its various forms.
In this chapter we continue our discussion of debt, but we now turn our attention to liabilities arising in connection with leases. Leases that produce such debtor/creditor relationships are referred to as finance leases by the lessee and as either direct financing or sales type leases by the lessor. We also will see that some leases do not produce debtor/creditor relationships, but instead are accounted for as rental agreements. These are designated as operating leases.
In this chapter we continue our discussion of debt, but we now turn our attention to liabilities arising in connection with leases. Leases that produce such debtor/creditor relationships are referred to as capital leases by the lessee and as either direct financing or sales-type leases by the lessor. We also will see that some leases do not produce debtor/creditor relationships, but instead are accounted for as rental agreements.
In response to such changes we need a multifaceted, multi-agency
approach based on strengthening individuals, families and
communities, while at the same time improving the infrastructure and
access to services. Midwives and midwifery services have a particular
part to play in this. We could go a long way to achieving improvements
in health and social outcomes by giving more people, particularly
women and children, better life chances8.
A non–financial variable not specific to a party to the contract includes, for example,
an index of earthquake losses in a particular region and an index of temperatures in
a particular city. A non–financial variable specific to a party would be, for example,
the occurrence or non-occurrence of a fire that damages or destroys an asset of a
party to the contract.
The U.S. newspaper industry is suffering through what could be its worst financial crisis since the
Great Depression. Advertising revenues have plummeted due in part to the severe economic
downturn, while readership habits have changed as consumers turn to the Internet for free news
and information. Some major newspaper chains are burdened by heavy debt loads.
This brochure in the AIGA Design Business and Ethics series provides
designers and other graphic communications professionals with an
introduction to design and print production practices that demonstrate
respect for the challenges of one of the truly critical issues of our age:
the balance between economic gain and environmental degradation.
For design to be responsive to a client’s needs, it should be responsible
and appropriate. Appropriateness, in the 21st century, will entail
respect for resource constraints....
Residential leases are regulated by provincial legislation. In some
cases, the applicable legislation will override the terms of the lease
agreement, regardless of the intention of the parties. In some
provinces, the ability of the landlord to increase residential rents
is limited by provincial regulation.
Most real estate !nancing is arranged through institutional lenders
such as banks, trust companies, pension funds, credit unions and
The Furniture Factory program is a proof-of-concept working prototype built to explore how to
help designers construct physical prototypes using rapid prototyping and manufacturing
machines. It provides a sketch-based design interface that a designer can use to draw furniture in
3-D. The design is then displayed in an isometric viewing window where the designer can view it
and edit it. The program then decomposes the 3-D model into flat panels that are displayed in the
Although some maize is consumed in the forest
zone, it is not a leading food staple and much of the crop
is sold. The major cash crop in the forest is cocoa. Annual
rainfall in the forest zone averages about 1,500 mm; maize
is planted both in the major rainy season (beginning in
March) and in the minor rainy season (beginning in
(3) Transition zone. Moving further north, the forest zone
gradually gives way to the transition zone.
The model describes the behaviour of consumers, which are heterogeneous in terms
of age, income and ¯nancial assets. They maximize the utility from consumption sub-
ject to the life-cycle budget constraint. Their savings are remunerated at the deposit
interest rate and the cost of borrowing is given by the lending rate. When young, con-
sumers work and receive wages that depend on an idiosyncratic, stochastic component
and a deterministic life-cycle pro¯le of productivity. When old, they are on a manda-
tory retirement and receive pensions.
We have defined and described different types of PMO that exist across various organisations, the
type of activity undertaken by these PMOs and the degree of influence they can have on key aspects
of project, programme and portfolio management.
To conclude, we would like to reinforce the fact that “Establishing a PMO is not a simple solution to
a complex problem”. Having a PMO does not, by itself, increase project success.
This back-and-forth iteration in building a model is like sculpting: you are chipping
away a little bit here, and a little bit there, hoping to nd what's really inside that stubborn
block of marble. I choose the analogy with sculpting purposely: like sculpture most of the
work in building a model doesn't consist of adding things, it consists of subtracting them.
This is the most fun part of modeling, and it can be very exciting when the form of the
idea really begins to take shape. I normally walk around in a bit of a daze at this stage;
and I try not to get too...
As seen above, the leasing sector is new but growing and leases are written for three-to-five
year terms. The banking sector is consolidating, assets are growing, deposits are on the
increase, and the sector is liquid. However, the banks perceive the rewards of short-term
lending utilizing highly liquid assets and long-term loans utilizing real estate as collateral are
greater than the risks of long-term lending to the agriculture or industrial sectors secured by
Whether you are a tenant or a landlord, when you sign a lease agreement, you
sign a contract. You are contractually obligated to perform certain duties and
assume certain responsibilities. You are also granted certain rights and protections
under the lease agreement.
Rental-housing law is complex. I am grateful to the faculty and students of the
MSU College of Law Housing Law Clinic for their detailed work and assistance in
compiling the information for this booklet.
Many childcare providers who care for children in their own homes have
pets. Pets can be excellent companions for children. Pets can meet
emotional needs of children for love and affection. Caring for pets also
gives children an opportunity to learn how to treat and be responsible for
others. However, some guidelines for protecting the health and safety of
the children should be followed. Delaware childcare licensing allows pets
if there is proof of rabies vaccination from each dog or cat 6-months or
older. Animals shall be free from disease and shall be cared...
This study extends the existing empirical evidence, which suggests that the degree of bank competition
may have a significant effect on both the level of bank rates and on the pass-through of market rates to
bank interest rates. Understanding this pass-through mechanism is crucial for central banks. However,
most studies that analyse the relationship between competition and banks’ pricing behaviour apply a
concentration index such as the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI) as a measure of competition. We
question the suitability of such indices as measures to capture competition.
This article reviews the current status of the market for catastrophic risk (CAT)
bonds and other risk-linked securities. CAT bonds and other risk-linked securities
are innovative financial vehicles that have an important role to play in financing
mega-catastrophes and other types of losses. The vehicles are especially
important because they access capital markets directly, exponentially expanding
risk-bearing capacity beyond the limited capital held by insurers and reinsurers.
Florida law requires both the landlord and tenant to exercise “good faith” and
honesty in their dealings (Fla.Stat. §§ 83.43(8) and 83.44). An unconscionable
clause in a lease is one that is far beyond what is considered reasonable to an
ordinary person. Naturally, the law prohibits unconscionable lease clauses, and
the court may invalidate the clause or the entire lease agreement. (Fla.Stat. §