Microscopic measurement

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  • Perhaps quantum mechanics is viewed as the most remarkable development in 20th century physics. Each successful theory is exclusively concerned about "results of measurement". Quantum mechanics point of view is completely different from classical physics in measurement, because in microscopic world of quantum mechanics, a direct measurement as classical form is impossible. Therefore, over the years of developments of quantum mechanics, always challenging part of quantum mechanics lies in measurements.

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  • With the advent of the atomic force microscope (AFM) came an extremely valuable analytical resource and technique, useful for the qualitative and quantitative surface analysis with sub-nanometer resolution. In addition, samples studied with an AFM do not require any special pretreatments that may alter or damage the sample, and permit a three dimensional investigation of the surface.

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  • Tools shape how we think; when the only tool you have is an axe, everything resembles a tree or a log. The rapid advances in instrumentation in the last decade, which allow us to measure and manipulate individual molecules and structures on the nanoscale, have caused a paradigm shift in the way we view molecular behavior and surfaces. The microscopic details underlying interfacial phenomena have customarily been inferred from in situ measurements of macroscopic quantities. Now we can see and “finger” physical and chemical processes at interfaces.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'laboratory exercises in microbiology, fifth edition', khoa học tự nhiên, công nghệ sinh học phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Today, an individual would be hard-pressed to find any science field that does not employ methods and instruments based on the use of fine focused electron and ion beams. Well instrumented and supplemented with advanced methods and techniques, SEMs provide possibilities not only of surface imaging but quantitative measurement of object topologies, local electrophysical characteristics of semiconductor structures and performing elemental analysis.

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  • In 1959, Richard P. Feynman, Professor of Physics at the California Institute of Technology and Nobel Laureate, delivered an address at the American Physical Society, which is given the credit for inspiring the field of nanotechnology. Published in Engineering and Science, Feynman’s address entitled “Plenty of Room at the Bottom” described a new field of science dealing with “the problem of manipulating and controlling things on a small scale.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp Original article đề tài: Measurement of free shrinkage at the tissue level using an optical microscope with an immersion objective: results obtained for Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and spruce (Picea abies)...

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  • NMR and visible spectroscopy coupled to redox measurements were used to determine the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of the four haems in cytochrome c3 under conditions in which the protein was bound to lig-ands, the small anion phosphate and the protein rubredoxin with the iron in the active site replaced by zinc.

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  • Containers for collecting live hosts may include any type of cage that prevents escape, including plastic vials with pinholes in the lids or with cotton plugs for air circulation and prevention of condensation. The addition of a drying agent, such as silica gel, to the container used for temporary storage will slow or prevent germination of entomopathogenic fungi and bacteria, and help eliminate the growth of saprobic fungi on specimens (Figure 1.3). Aquatic invertebrates and specimens containing nematodes and certain protistan parasites should not be allowed to dry.

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  • Is a branch of polymer science dealing with analysis and characterisation of polymers. üThe complication of macromolecular chains, the dispersion in molecular weight, tacticity, crystallinity, orientation, composition of polymers etc. and complex morphological systems ⇒ analysis of polymer ≠ the small organic materials ⇒ Focus on viscoelastic properties, dynamic mechanical testing.

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  • History of Tribology and Its Significance to Industry Origins and Significance of Micro/Nanotribology Measurement Techniques Scanning Tunneling Microscope • Atomic Force Microscope • Friction Force Microscope • Surface Force Apparatus • Vibration Isolation

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  • Classical physics breaks down to the level of atoms and molecules. This was made possible by the invention of a new apparatus that enabled the introduction of measurements in microscopic area of physics. There were two revolutions in the way we viewed the physical world in the twentieth century: relativity and quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics was born in 1924, through the work of Einstein, Rutherford and Bohr, Schrödinger and Heisenberg, Born, Dirac, and many others. The principles of quantum mechanics that were discovered then are the same as we know them today....

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  • Bhushan, B. “Introduction - Measurement Techniques and Applications” Handbook of Micro/Nanotribology. Ed. Bharat Bhushan Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 1999 Part I Basic Studies © 1999 by CRC Press LLC Introduction — Measurement Techniques and Applications Bharat Bhushan 1.1 1.2 1.3 History of Tribology and Its Significance to Industry Origins and Significance of Micro/Nanotribology Measurement Techniques Scanning Tunneling Microscope • Atomic Force Microscope • Friction Force Microscope • Surface Force Apparatus • Vibration Isolation 1 1.4 1.

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  • Israelachvil, J. N. et al.“Surface Forces and Microrheology of ...” Handbook of Micro/Nanotribology. Ed. Bharat Bhushan Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 1999 © 1999 by CRC Press LLC Surface Forces and Microrheology of Molecularly Thin Liquid Films Jacob N. Israelachvili and Alan D. Berman 9.1 9.2 Introduction Methods for Measuring Static and Dynamic Surface Forces Adhesion Forces • Force Laws • The Surface Force Apparatus and the Atomic Force Microscope 9 9.3 9.

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  • The effect of lignin, which is an important additive for the negative electrode in lead±acid batteries, is studied on lead electrodes in sulfuric acid by means of potentiostatic transient measurements and in situ electrochemical atomic force microscope (EC-AFM) observations. During oxidation of the electrodes, it is con®rmed that the current transition in electrolyte with 20 ppm lignin gives a broad, hill-like curve, while that in electrolyte without lignin is a sharp peak.

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  • This report has been prepared as a result of a request to the National Council on Radiation Protedion and Measurements (NCRP) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In recent years, nuclear utilities have identified the potential for a limited number of employees to come in contact with microscopic particles that are radioactive. These particles have been given the generic name, independent of their source and particular chemical and radioactive content, of "hot particles."

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  • Polymer blends containing nylon-6 and polypropylene (PP) were prepared by using a single screw extruder. Three different types of maleic anhydride modified PP (PPMA06, PPMA1and PPMA05) were used as compabilizers to examine their effects. The properties included tensile strength, Izod impact strength, torque rheometry and extent of water absorption of the resulting blends were measured and the morphology was characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The crystallization behavior of blends was analyzed by monitoring differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction.

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  • In the Pt/-Al2O3 catalysts, the distribution of uniform, small particle-size Pt metal on the carrier with high surface area of metal will result in high catalytic activities and will economize noble metals. The distribution of metal depends on the technology of preparation and postpreparation. The influences of the impregnating, drying, calcining and reducing on the distribution of metal have been studied using by physic methods, scan electronic microscope (SEM), transmission electronic microscope (TEM), and the hydrogen distribution has been measured by the method of hydrogen absorption.

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  • Influence of heat treatment on structure and Giant Magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect of permalloy thin films (80Ni20Fe) electrodeposited on insulating substrates was investigated using electron scanning microscope (SEM), X-ray Diffraction and GMI ratio measurement. Results showed that annealing reduced lattice defects of electrodeposited films and facilitated the development of texture, thereby enhanced magnetic properties of the obtained films. The increasing temperature resulted to the increase of maximum GMI ratio (GMIRmax) due to the higher defect reduction.

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