Reference electrodes, liquid - junction potential, indicator electrodes,... As the main contents of the document "Chapter 6: Electrodes and Potentiometry". Invite you to consult the text book for more documents serving the academic needs and research.
An ion-selective electrode (ISE) is an example of an electrochemical sensor utilizing the principle of potentiometry, or measurement of the cell potential (i.e., ISE against a standard reference electrode) at near-zero current. Under these conditions, the boundary potential at the ISE–solution interface is governed by the laws of electrochemical thermodynamics or is compliant with the famous Nernst equation.
Oxidation/Reduction Reactions Reactions in which electrons are transferred from one reactant to another.
Cu2+ + Zn (s) Cu (s) + Zn2+
Cu2+ has undergone reduction and is reduced.
Oxidizing reagent: Cu2+.
Reducing agent: Zn. Zn has undergone oxidation and is oxidized.
Electrochemical systems—e.g., batteries, capacitors, and fuel cells—are an integral
part of modern technology. Electrochemical techniques, especially potentiometry
and voltammetry, are indispensable for state-of-the-art analysis, and also for fundamental
studies of the properties of solution species and solid phases and materials.
Last, but not least, electrochemical concepts for understanding charge transfer reactions
entered the fields of biochemistry and biophysics.
This study on human cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) presents a com-prehensive analysis of the thermodynamic and kinetic effects of pH and
solvent on two- and four-electron reduction in this diflavin enzyme.
pH-dependent redox potentiometry revealed that the thermodynamic
equilibrium between various two-electron reduced enzyme species
; FMN,FADH2; FMNH2
,FAD) is independent of pH.
A comparative study of thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of Cu(II) and Ni(II) binding at the N-terminal binding site of human and bovine serum albumins (HSA and BSA, respectively) and short peptide analogues was performed using potentiometry and spectroscopic techniques. It was found that while qualitative aspects of interaction (spectra and structures of complexes, order of reactions) could be reproduced, the quantitative parameters (stability and rate constants) could not.
Human novel reductase 1 (NR1) is an NADPH dependent
diflavin oxidoreductase related to cytochrome P450reduc-tase (CPR). The FAD/NADPH- and FMN-binding
domains of NR1 have been expressed and purified and their
redox properties studied by stopped-flow and steady-state
kinetic methods, and by potentiometry.