Rf transformers

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  • Various Components and Their System Parameters An RF and microwave system consists of many different components connected by transmission lines. In general, the components are classified as passive components and active (or solid-state) components. The passive components include resistors, capacitors, inductors, connectors, transitions, transformers, tapers, tuners, matching networks, couplers, hybrids, power dividers=combiners, baluns, resonators, filters, multiplexers, isolators, circulators, delay lines, and antennas. ...

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  • The passive components used in electronic circuits all make use of one or more of the three fundamental phenomena of resistance, capacitance and inductance. Some components depend for their operation on the interaction between one of these electrical properties and a mechanical property, e.g. crystals used as frequency standards, piezo-electric sounders, etc. The following sections look at components particularly in the light of their suitability for use at RFs, and at how they can be inter-connected for various purposes....

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  • Power amplifiers consist of an active device, biasing networks and input and output reactive filtering and transforming networks. These networks are effectively bandpass filters offering the required impedance transformation. They are also designed to offer some frequency shaping to compensate for the roll-off in the active device frequency response if broadband operation is required. However the function of each network is quite different. The input circuit usually provides impedance matching to achieve low input return loss and good power transfer. ...

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  • IMPEDANCE MATCHING NETWORKS One of the most critical requirements in the design of high-frequency electronic circuits is that the maximum possible signal energy is transferred at each point. In other words, the signal should propagate in a forward direction with a negligible echo (ideally, zero). Echo signal not only reduces the power available but also deteriorates the signal quality due to the presence of multiple re¯ections. As noted in the preceding chapter, impedance can be transformed to a new value by adjusting the turn ratio of a transformer that couples it with the circuit.

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  • A communication circuit designer frequently requires means to select (or reject) a band of frequencies from a wide signal spectrum. Resonant circuits provide such ®ltering. There are well-developed, sophisticated methodologies to meet virtually any speci®cation. However, a simple circuit suf®ces in many cases. Further, resonant circuits are an integral part of the frequency-selective ampli®er as well as of the oscillator designs. These networks are also used for impedance transformation and matching.

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  • IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMERS In the preceding chapter, several techniques were considered to match a given load impedance at a ®xed frequency. These techniques included transmission line stubs as well as lumped elements. Note that lumped-element circuits may not be practical at higher frequencies. Further, it may be necessary in certain cases to keep the re¯ection coef®cient below a speci®ed value over a given frequency band. This chapter presents transmission line impedance transformers that can meet such requirements....

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  • Basic Concepts and Theories of Filters This chapter describes basic concepts and theories that form the foundation for design of general RF/microwave filters, including microstrip filters. The topics will cover filter transfer functions, lowpass prototype filters and elements, frequency and element transformations, immittance inverters, Richards’ transformation, and Kuroda identities for distributed elements. Dissipation and unloaded quality factor of filter elements will also be discussed.

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  • Temperature measurement and control are vital in many industrial processes. Accurate control of the temperature is essential in nearly all chemical processes. In some applications, an accuracy of around 5-10~ may be acceptable. There are also some industrial applications which require better than 4-1 ~ accuracy.

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  • We study the Radon transform Rf of functions on Stiefel and Grassmann manifolds. We establish a connection between Rf and G˚ arding-Gindikin fractional integrals associated to the cone of positive definite matrices. By using this connection, we obtain Abel-type representations and explicit inversion formulae for Rf and the corresponding dual Radon transform. We work with the space of continuous functions and also with Lp spaces.

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