This book is based on a course that I have been teaching for the past several years to
first year graduate students in the biological sciences at Duke University. These stu-
dents have not studied physical chemistry as undergraduates and typically have not
had more than a year of calculus. Many faculty believe that an understanding of the
principles of physical chemistry is important for all students in the biological sciences,
and this course ...
Chapter 6 - The second law of thermodynamics. In this chapter, the thermal energy reservoirs, reversible and irreversible processes, heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps are introduced first. Various statements of the second law are followed by a discussion of perpetualmotion machines and the thermodynamic temperature scale. The Carnot cycle is introduced next, and the Carnot principles are discussed. Finally, the idealized Carnot heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps are examined.
A mandate requiring all individuals to pur-
chase health insurance would be an unprece-
dented form of federal action. The government
has never required people to buy any good or
service as a condition of lawful residence in
the United States. An individual mandate
would have two features that, in combination,
would make it unique. First, it would impose
a duty on individuals as members of society.
Second, it would require people to purchase a
specific service that would be heavily regu-
lated by the federal government.