This is an insider's account of 50 years of genetic studies of the soil-inhabiting microbes that produce most of the antibiotics used to treat infections, as well as anti-cancer, anti-parasitic and immunosuppressant drugs. The book begins by describing how these microbes - the actinomycetes - were discovered in the latter part of the nineteenth century, but remained a 'Cinderella' group until, in the 1940s, they shot to prominence with the discovery of streptomycin, the first effective treatment for tuberculosis and only the second antibiotic after penicillin to become a medical marvel.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Trichoderma viride cellulase induces resistance to the antibiotic pore-forming peptide alamethicin associated with changes in the plasma membrane lipid composition of tobacco BY-2 cells
Hospitals, by their very nature, are dangerous places. Sick and infected patients
are clustered together in one institution, often in close proximity to those who are
immunosuppressed due to recent surgery, chemotherapy or transplantation. Contact
between these various patient groups is easily achieved via the hands of healthcare
workers (HCWs), use of shared equipment or the hospital’s air handling system.
UDP-N-acetylglucosamineenolpyruvyl transferase (MurA),
catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan,
involving the transfer of the intactenolpyruvyl moiety from
phosphoenolpyruvate to the 3¢-hydroxyl group of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDPNAG). The enzyme is irreversibly
inhibited by the antibiotic fosfomycin. The inactivation is
caused by alkylation of a highly conserved cysteine residue
(C115) that participates in the binding of phos-phoenolpyruvate.
Mấy ngày nay bạn bị cái nhọt ở tay hành, đau nhức quá. Đi bác sĩ, bác sĩ biên cái toa cho bạn dùng trụ sinh (còn gọi kháng sinh). Trước khi đưa viên thuốc vào miệng, bạn tò mò nhìn ngắm viên thuốc be bé.
Đời là trường tranh đấu, khắp nơi đều bãi chiến trường. Đúng đấy, chiến tranh đang xảy ra ngay ở chỗ tay bạn có cái nhọt. Cơ thể bạn đang huy động súng ống, xe tăng, bộ binh đến để bao vây quân thù vi trùng, bảo vệ cơ thể bạn. (Nếu cái nhọt có...
Tham khảo sách 'antibiotic resistant bacteria – a continuous challenge in the new millennium edited by marina pana', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
For more than two decades, Bank of America has aspired to environmental leadership in the financial
services sector. In 2007, we announced a 10-year, $20 billion business initiative to address climate
change through our lending, investing, products and services, and our own operations. This initiative
is far more than doing good for its own sake — it has proven to be a long-term, compelling business
opportunity for our clients, our company and our shareholders.
In resolution WHA63.14, the World Health Assembly
urges Member States to identify the most suitable policy
approach given national circumstances, and to develop
new policies or strengthen those existing that aim to
reduce the impact on children of marketing of foods high
in saturated fats, trans-fatty acids, free sugars, or salt.
This section proposes steps that may facilitate the policy
development process. Firstly, it is advisable for Member
States to seek consensus across government on the need
for policy development.
Basidiomycetes constitute a natural source of biologically
active metabolites. Many basidiomycetes have
been classified by the National Cancer Institute of the
United States as antitumor agents exhibiting an immunomodulatory
activity.1 The therapeutic activity is
mainly related to polysaccharides or protein-bound
polysaccharides, such as glucans, heterogalactans, and
glucanproteins, which are present either in the mycelium
or in the fruit body.2–6 Among these polysaccharides are
b-D-glucans, which are of particular interest because of
their pharmacological properties.
European society and the European economy do not yet exploit the full potential for resource
efficiency. Much recyclable waste is either exported or sent to landfill. A lack of long-term
frameworks holds back planning and investment, most obviously on a climate and energy
framework beyond 2020, but also on long term sustainable use of key resources such as air,
soil, energy, water, fish and biomass. At the same time, such frameworks can help to
galvanise the innovation needed to exploit the potential of the transition to a low-carbon
economy in areas like transport, energy and agriculture....
We ¯nd that when the hypothetical benchmarks are recognized as being unavailable
for investment, there need not exist close substitutes for them in the universe of mutual
funds. For an investor who believes completely in the accuracy of the Fama-French model
and precludes managerial skill, the perceived maximum Sharpe ratio is only 66 percent of
what could be achieved by direct investment in that model's benchmarks. For a believer
in the Carhart four-factor model, the corresponding value is 54 percent.
As the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision has pointed out, it has become
increasingly important to look beyond the traditional earnings and economic
value effects and assess indirect interest rate effects as well. Taking a broader
view of the potential earnings impact of changing interest rates, banks also
need to take into consideration the growing share of (interest-sensitive) fee-
based ﬁ nancial services (loan servicing, asset securitization programs, pay-
The best practice today is to read data into the SAS environment for processing. For highly repeatable processes, this
might not be efficient because it takes time to transfer the data and resources are used to temporarily store in the
SAS environment. In some cases, the results of the SAS processing must be transferred back to the DBMS for final
storage, which further increases the cost. Addressing this challenge can result in improved resource utilization and
enable companies to answer business questions more quickly. ...
Adjunctive treatments may reduce morbidity and mortality and include dexamethasone for bacterial meningitis; intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) for TSS and necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A Streptococcus; low-dose hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone for septic shock; and drotrecogin alfa (activated), also known as recombinant human activated protein C, for meningococcemia and severe sepsis.
For the last 60 or so years the chemotherapy of bacterial infections has been dominated
by natural products and their semi-synthetic variants. Although the term antibiotic
was initially used exclusively to describe those anti-bacterials of natural or
semi-synthetic origin, it has become broadened in common usage to include antibacterial
agents of purely synthetic origin as well. The emphasis of this chapter will be
on the discovery of novel prototype structures that represent the different classes of
The second set of assumptions is contained in the ﬁrm’s marketing model. This contains managers’ analysis of which
customers the ﬁrm can most proﬁtably target and knowledge about what their wants are. It also contains the analysis
of the competition: what strategies competitors are likely to follow, what their strengths and weaknesses are, and
what capabilities are needed to create a competitive advantage. Next is the operations model, which contains the
analysis of the best way to structure the ﬁrm’s value chain to produce and deliver products and service to customers.
A database is any collection of related data. The files on your hard drive and the piles
of paper on your desk all count as databases. What distinguishes a relational data-
base from other kinds of databases is the mechanism by which the database is orga-
nized—the way the data is modeled. A relational database is a collection of data
organized in accordance with the relational model to suit a specific purpose.
Relational principles are based on the mathematical concepts developed by Dr. E. F.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Antibiotic guidelines 2015-2016" presents the following contents: Introduction, johns Hopkins Hospital formulary and restriction status, agent-specific guidelines, organism-specific guidelines, microbiology information, guidelines for the treatment of various infections.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Antibiotic guidelines 2015-2016" presents the following contents: Informational guidelines (Approach to the patient with a history of penicillin allergy), informational guidelines (Hospital epidemiology & infection control, infection control precautions, disease specific infection control recommendations), appendix.
The Acutely Ill Patient: Treatment
In the acutely ill patient, empirical antibiotic therapy is critical and should be administered without undue delay. Increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance in community-acquired bacteria must be considered when antibiotics are selected. Table 115-1 lists first-line treatments for infections considered in this chapter. In addition to the rapid initiation of antibiotic therapy, several of these infections require urgent surgical attention.