The neurosciences have experienced tremendous and wonderful progress in many areas, and the spectrum encompassing the neurosciences is expansive. Suffice it to mention a few classical fields: electrophysiology, genetics, physics, computer sciences, and more recently, social and marketing neurosciences. Of course, this large growth resulted in the production of many books.
Tham khảo sách 'keep your brain alive: 83 neurobic exercises to help prevent memory loss and increase mental fitness', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
The Occipitotemporal Network for Face and Object Recognition: Prosopagnosia and Object Agnosia Perceptual information about faces and objects is initially encoded in primary (striate) visual cortex and adjacent (upstream) peristriate visual association areas. This information is subsequently relayed first to the downstream visual association areas of occipitotemporal cortex and then to other heteromodal and paralimbic areas of the cerebral cortex.
Stroke This occurs when interruption of blood supply from the posterior cerebral artery to the visual cortex is prolonged. The only finding on examination is a homonymous visual field defect that stops abruptly at the vertical meridian. Occipital lobe stroke is usually due to thrombotic occlusion of the vertebrobasilar system, embolus, or dissection. Lobar hemorrhage, tumor, abscess, and arteriovenous malformation are other common causes of hemianopic cortical visual loss.
Factitious (Functional, Nonorganic) Visual Loss
This is claimed by hysterics or malingerers.
Lateral (top) and medial (bottom) views of the cerebral hemispheres. The numbers refer to the Brodmann cytoarchitectonic designations. Area 17
.corresponds to the primary visual cortex, 41–42 to the primary auditory cortex, 1– 3 to the primary somatosensory cortex, and 4 to the primary motor cortex. The rest of the cerebral cortex contains association areas.
In this chapter, students will be able to understand: Describe the events involved in the stimulation of photoreceptors by light, and compare and contrast the roles of rods and cones in vision; compare and contrast light and dark adaptation; trace the visual pathway to the visual cortex, and briefly describe the steps in visual processing.
Other types of reports can now be extracted from the PCA database, such as the age and gender of
the patients involved in MIRs reported, or the locations where the incidents occurred. The ability to
extract this type of data is important to the PCA Committee as it moves forward with efforts to
identify and address quality and patient issues statewide. For example, recent database query shows
that 280 Major Incident Reports list the operating room as the location where the incident occurred.
Additional analysis of these statistics is needed, but it is a start towards a review of...
In addition to visual art, the conference also covered a topic of
special interest in visual neuroaesthetics: facial beauty. Other peo-
ple’s faces constitute highly relevant stimuli for humans, and face
perception is mediated by distributed neural regions (Ishai, 2007),
including the extrastriate cortex, which is specially dedicated to
processing individual identity, and the superior temporal sulcus,
which processes facial movements involved in speech and direct-
Pure Alexia Without Agraphia
This is the visual equivalent of pure word deafness. The lesions (usually a combination of damage to the left occipital cortex and to a posterior sector of the corpus callosum—the splenium) interrupt the flow of visual input into the language network. There is usually a right hemianopia, but the core language network remains unaffected. The patient can understand and produce spoken language, name objects in the left visual hemifield, repeat, and write.
Although research in neuroaesthetics has tended to focus on vi-
sual art, independent research on music and dance is now begin-
ning to make signiﬁcant contributions to the ﬁeld. In fact, several
presentations at the conference focused on perception of visual
motion in dance. This research is based on the neuroscience of
body posture and movement perception, which has uncovered
two specialized routes for processing human bodies.
The diagnosis? Eye-ear dissociation. The cause? Inappropriate training
of the auditory brain cortex (see the previous Listening chapter). People
can be perfect readers, but, at the same time, poor listeners. (The
contrary – the ears understand, but the eyes cannot read – exists too:
illiteracy.) To neuroscientists, this is not surprising; eyes and ears are
different entry ports for distinct elaboration and storage sites in the
brain. Training the visual brain areas at the back of the head (see Figure
3.3) has little influence on the performance of the auditory brain areas.