Vẽ kỹ thuật với Autocad 2002 P1

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The AutoCAD 2002 Bible should be part of every user’s immediate environment.” —from the Foreword by Wayne Hodgins, Strategic Futurist, Director, Worldwide Learning Strategies, Autodesk, Inc.

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  1. 100% “The AutoCAD 2002 Bible should be part of every user’s immediate environment.” —from the Foreword by Wayne Hodgins, Strategic Futurist, Director, ONE HUNDRED PERCENT Worldwide Learning Strategies, Autodesk, Inc. COMPREHENSIVE AUTHORITATIVE WHAT YOU NEED ONE HUNDRED PERCENT Conquer the AutoCAD learning curve and create top-quality drawings Master 3D modeling, AutoLISP programming, and other advanced techniques Harness the new Web publishing and collaboration features AutoCAD 2002 ® BONUS CD-ROM! • AutoCAD 2002 trial version • 160+ sample drawings files Ellen Finkelstein
  2. AutoCAD 2002 ® Bible Ellen Finkelstein Best-Selling Books • Digital Downloads • e-Books • Answer Networks • e-Newsletters • Branded Web Sites • e-Learning New York, NY ✦ Cleveland, OH ✦ Indianapolis, IN
  3. AutoCAD® 2002 Bible Computer Publishing Corporation, Inc., for the Published by Philippines; by Contemporanea de Ediciones for Hungry Minds, Inc. Venezuela; by Express Computer Distributors for the 909 Third Avenue Caribbean and West Indies; by Micronesia Media New York, NY 10022 Distributor, Inc. for Micronesia; by Chips www.hungryminds.com Computadoras S.A. de C.V. for Mexico; by Editorial Norma de Panama S.A. for Panama; by American Copyright © 2002 Hungry Minds, Inc. All rights Bookshops for Finland. reserved. No part of this book, including interior design, cover design, and icons, may be reproduced For general information on Hungry Minds’ products or transmitted in any form, by any means (electronic, and services please contact our Customer Care photocopying, recording, or otherwise) without the department within the U.S. at 800-762-2974, outside prior written permission of the publisher. the U.S. at 317-572-3993 or fax 317-572-4002. Library of Congress Control Number: 2001092890 For sales inquiries and reseller information, including discounts, premium and bulk quantity sales, and ISBN: 0-7645-3611-7 foreign-language translations, please contact our Printed in the United States of America Customer Care department at 800-434-3422, fax 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 317-572-4002 or write to Hungry Minds, Inc., Attn: 1B/QR/RQ/QR/IN Customer Care Department, 10475 Crosspoint Distributed in the United States by Hungry Minds, Boulevard, Indianapolis, IN 46256. Inc. For information on licensing foreign or domestic Distributed by CDG Books Canada Inc. for Canada; by rights, please contact our Sub-Rights Customer Care Transworld Publishers Limited in the United department at 212-884-5000. Kingdom; by IDG Norge Books for Norway; by IDG For information on using Hungry Minds’ products Sweden Books for Sweden; by IDG Books Australia and services in the classroom or for ordering Publishing Corporation Pty. Ltd. for Australia and examination copies, please contact our Educational New Zealand; by TransQuest Publishers Pte Ltd. for Sales department at 800-434-2086 or fax 317-572-4005. Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and Hong For press review copies, author interviews, or other Kong; by Gotop Information Inc. for Taiwan; by ICG publicity information, please contact our Public Muse, Inc. for Japan; by Intersoft for South Africa; by Relations department at 317-572-3168 or fax Eyrolles for France; by International Thomson 317-572-4168. Publishing for Germany, Austria, and Switzerland; by For authorization to photocopy items for corporate, Distribuidora Cuspide for Argentina; by LR personal, or educational use, please contact International for Brazil; by Galileo Libros for Chile; by Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Ediciones ZETA S.C.R. Ltda. for Peru; by WS Danvers, MA 01923, or fax 978-750-4470. LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE PUBLISHER AND AUTHOR HAVE USED THEIR BEST EFFORTS IN PREPARING THIS BOOK. THE PUBLISHER AND AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS BOOK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THERE ARE NO WARRANTIES WHICH EXTEND BEYOND THE DESCRIPTIONS CONTAINED IN THIS PARAGRAPH. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES REPRESENTATIVES OR WRITTEN SALES MATERIALS. THE ACCURACY AND COMPLETENESS OF THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HEREIN AND THE OPINIONS STATED HEREIN ARE NOT GUARANTEED OR WARRANTED TO PRODUCE ANY PARTICULAR RESULTS, AND THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY INDIVIDUAL. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR ANY LOSS OF PROFIT OR ANY OTHER COMMERCIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR OTHER DAMAGES. Trademarks: All other trademarks are property of their respective owners. Hungry Minds, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. is a trademark of Hungry Minds, Inc.
  4. About the Author Ellen Finkelstein learned AutoCAD in Israel, where she always got to pore over the manual because she was the only one who could read it in English. After returning to the United States, she started consulting and teaching AutoCAD as well as other computer programs, including Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint. Ellen has written books on Word, PowerPoint, and Flash (Flash 5 For Dummies, published by Hungry Minds, Inc.). Her first book was AutoCAD For Dummies Quick Reference. She was a contributing author to AutoCAD 13 Secrets, also published by Hungry Minds, Inc. Previous editions of this book were AutoCAD 14 Bible, appearing in 1997, and AutoCAD 2000 Bible, which was published in 1999. To MMY for teaching me that there’s more to life than meets the eye.
  5. Credits Acquisitions Editor Project Coordinator Tom Heine Regina Snyder Project Editor Graphics and Production Specialists Melba Hopper Joyce Haughey LeAndra Johnson Technical Editor Betty Schulte Darren Young Brian Torwelle Julie Trippetti Copy Editor Erin Zeltner Roxane Marini Quality Control Technicians Editorial Manager David Faust Rev Mengle Susan Moritz Permissions Editor Proofreading and Indexing Carmen Krikorian TECHBOOKS Production Services Media Development Specialist Cover Image Angie Denny Kate Shaw Media Development Coordinator Marisa Pearman
  6. Foreword W e at Autodesk understand better each day that while we are obviously a software developer and publisher, we are really in the “Customer Performance Improvement” business. This is the value proposition that you, our customer, ultimately seek. Don’t we all? Delivering on this proposition requires that we provide two key deliverables to you: 1. Great software technology with the right features. 2. The support you need so you can use Autodesk software effectively in your job with improved performance and productivity. Our product designs have always been user-centric and driven by what you need to continuously improve productivity. AutoCAD 2002 sets a new standard for user pro- ductivity. This is the AutoCAD that users and managers alike asked for — and more. Most of the new features and enhancements came from the ultimate source, cus- tomer requests, and for the ultimate purpose: improving the performance and pro- ductivity of you and your team. But creating great software based solely on your feedback is not enough. Autodesk’s commitment to increasing productivity requires that we go beyond what our customers ask. We’re always searching for new performance-enhancing innovations — even if they fall outside the scope of current software features, and even if you haven’t thought to ask for them. Our focus, like yours, is on results. If it works, if it enables you to be more successful and achieve better results, we’ll go there. So in addition to specific software enhancements, we are focusing more on supporting the entire process of collaborative design. We are “digitizing the design process” and enabling more effective use of the Web in order to simplify the com- plexities of collaborative design. Yet, introducing these innovations also poses new challenges, namely learning how to use and effectively apply these enhancements. We have done much to address these challenges both within AutoCAD 2002 and with new offerings such as AutoCAD Today and Autodesk Point A Web resources. However, the real solution must be more than what Autodesk alone can provide, hence the critical role of the Autodesk virtual community. We are therefore particularly grateful to Ellen Finkelstein for having written such a comprehensive and reliable guide to AutoCAD 2002, and to the good people at Hungry Minds for making this so widely available. Following the great success of the AutoCAD 2000 Bible, this new book draws upon lessons learned through constructive feedback from readers.
  7. vi AutoCAD 2002 Bible At Autodesk we prefer to think of more than just software, but rather the whole environment of an AutoCAD 2002 user. The AutoCAD 2002 Bible should be part of every user’s immediate environment. Work with it. Refer to it each time you have a question. Use it to augment the digital learning resources that come with AutoCAD 2002: AutoCAD Learning Assistance, AutoCAD Today, the Help system, and the online resources of Autodesk Point A, which is seamlessly integrated into AutoCAD 2002. Keep the AutoCAD 2002 Bible handy and browse through it whenever you need a break or have some spare time. You’ll discover myriad capabilities to AutoCAD 2002 you probably weren’t aware even existed. You’ll learn new and better ways to accomplish tasks, and continuously improve your overall performance using AutoCAD 2002. Wayne Hodgins Strategic Futurist Director, Worldwide Learning Strategies Autodesk, Inc.
  8. Preface W elcome to the AutoCAD 2002 Bible. AutoCAD 2002 is the most powerful CAD software product available for PCs today. It can perform nearly any drawing task you can give it. This book is designed to be your comprehensive guide to the entire AutoCAD program. AutoCAD 2002 is the fastest, smoothest AutoCAD yet. Certain features have been added that are not even mentioned in this book because you never see them — you just notice that fewer regenerations occur, drawings load faster, and you spend less time waiting while drawing and editing. In addition to these refinements, of course, are the many new features covered in this book that will make your drawing easier and faster. The new features include both those introduced with 2000i, an interim release, and 2002. This book covers every major AutoCAD feature. If you’re a beginning AutoCAD user, you’ll find everything you need to start out; if you’re already using AutoCAD regu- larly, the book covers advanced material as well. It provides a solid reference base to come back to again and again, as well as short tutorials to get you drawing. Sidebar profiles show how companies out in the real world use AutoCAD. Finally, the CD-ROM is chock full of drawings, a trial version of AutoCAD 2002, and AutoLISP programs. This book should be all you need to make full use of that expensive pro- gram called AutoCAD. Is This Book for You? The AutoCAD 2002 Bible covers all the essential features of AutoCAD and includes clear, real-life examples and tutorials that you can adapt to your needs. Although I fully cover AutoCAD basics, I have also included material on the many advanced features, such as external database connectivity, AutoLISP, Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), 3D modeling, rendering, and customization. The following categories should help you decide if this book is for you. If you are a new AutoCAD user If you are new to AutoCAD, the AutoCAD 2002 Bible guides you through all you need to know to start drawing effectively, whatever your field.
  9. viii AutoCAD 2002 Bible If you are upgrading to AutoCAD 2002 This book highlights all the new features of AutoCAD 2002 and helps you make the upgrade transition as seamless as possible. If you are switching from another CAD program You already know what CAD is all about. This book clearly explains the AutoCAD way of drawing the models you have already been drawing. In addition, you’ll find a great deal of essential information about transferring information from other for- mats. How This Book Is Organized This book is divided into seven parts and five appendixes. Part I: AutoCAD Basics Part I provides the background information you need to start drawing. It starts with a “quick tour” that gets you drawing right away, and then covers how to start a drawing, use commands, specify coordinates, and set up a drawing. Part II: Drawing in Two Dimensions Part II covers all the commands and procedures for drawing and editing in two dimensions. In addition, I discuss how to control the drawing process with layers, zooming, and panning. Also included in this part is information about dimensioning, plotting, and printing. Part III: Working with Data Part III covers the many ways to organize and share data, including blocks, attributes, external references, and external databases. Part IV: Drawing in Three Dimensions Part IV explains everything you need to know to draw in three dimensions. It also discusses how to present 3D drawings using hiding, shading, and rendering tech- niques. Part V: Organizing and Managing Drawings Part V helps you incorporate AutoCAD into your work world by explaining how to set standards, manage drawings, and work with other applications. It concludes with a chapter on AutoCAD and the Internet.
  10. Preface ix Part VI: Customizing AutoCAD Part VI introduces the tools you need to customize commands, toolbars, linetypes, hatch patterns, shapes, fonts, and menus. You’ll also find a chapter on script files, which you can use to create macros. Part VII: Programming AutoCAD Part VII introduces you to programming AutoCAD. It includes three chapters on AutoLISP and Visual LISP and one chapter on Visual Basic for Applications. Appendixes Appendix A gives instructions for installing and configuring AutoCAD. Appendix B covers all the ways to get help on AutoCAD, and Appendix C explains what you’ll find on the CD-ROM. Cross- The CD-ROM contains a complete copy of this book in PDF format. The book in Reference that format includes two bonus appendixes. Appendix D displays all the menus and submenus as well as the toolbars and their flyouts. Appendix E lists new, changed, and discontinued commands and system variables as well as a list of system variables often used on the command line. How to Use This Book You can use this book in two ways: as a reference or as a learning tool or tutorial. As a reference The AutoCAD 2002 Bible is organized as a reference that you can refer to whenever you get stuck or when you try to do something for the first time. Each chapter cov- ers a topic completely, making it easy to find what you’re looking for. Each Step-by- Step exercise (with a few exceptions) can be done on its own without doing the other exercises in the chapter. You can easily look up a topic and complete a related exercise without having to go through the entire chapter. A complete index at the back of the book can also help you look up features and topics. As a tutorial The overall organization of the book goes from simple to complex, and each chap- ter has several Step-by-Step sections. This enables you to use the book as a tutorial — from beginning to end. You can then go back and redo any exercise when you need to refresh your memory on a particular feature.
  11. x AutoCAD 2002 Bible For newcomers to AutoCAD, Parts I and II are essential. After that, you can refer to chapters that interest you. Parts III and V are also useful for beginners. Intermediate users will probably be familiar with most of the material in Part I and will be more likely to skip around looking for the specific topics they need. However, don’t forget that many of the new features for AutoCAD 2002 are introduced in Part I. Enough material appears in this book to bring intermediate users up to a fairly advanced level. I have designed this book to be comprehensive and to include every significant fea- ture of AutoCAD. Therefore, do not be concerned if some of the material seems too advanced. It will be there when you are ready for it. Doing the Exercises AutoCAD is a very customizable program. This book assumes that you are working with the default setup. However, a number of changes may have been made to your system that could result in menus, toolbars, and drawings appearing differently from those shown in this book. If you installed AutoCAD yourself and made some adjustments, you know what changes you made. However, if you are using a com- puter that was set up by someone else, it may help to talk to that person first, to see what changes were made. In addition, as you work through some of the exercises in this book, you will make certain changes in AutoCAD’s setup. Most of these are minor changes that any user would make while drawing. Cautions and Tips accompany all changes that could have serious consequences, such as customizing the menu, for safety. For example, when customizing the menu, you will be instructed to copy the menu template file under a new name, and you will then work with the new menu file, not the original one. Nevertheless, if you are working on a network or sharing AutoCAD with some- one else, it is proper computer etiquette to consult with others who may be affected by the changes you make. If you do the exercises, I recommend that you do them from the beginning. Important instructions are given during earlier exercises that may affect your sys- tem later. For example, one of the first exercises is to create a new folder to hold your drawings from the exercises. This folder keeps your exercise drawings sepa- rate from other drawings created in your office. However, each exercise stands on its own so you can go back and do only the exercise you need. Cross- You can create your own AutoCAD configuration that helps ensure that changes Reference you make will not affect others. Instructions for doing this appear in Appendix A under the heading “Creating Multiple Configurations.” The exercises in the AutoCAD 2002 Bible have been carefully checked by a technical editor to ensure accuracy. However, we cannot anticipate all situations, either due
  12. Preface xi to varying hardware/software configurations or customization within AutoCAD. If you have a problem with an exercise, contact me at the e-mail address listed at the end of this Preface so I can correct the problem in the book’s next edition. Conventions Used in This Book Given all the ways in which you can execute a command in AutoCAD, you’ll find it useful to read through this section, which describes this book’s typographical con- ventions. You will find this section helpful for doing the Step-by-Step exercises as well. AutoCAD commands AutoCAD uses standard Windows conventions for menus and toolbars. To indicate that you should choose a command from the menu, for example, I say, “Choose View ➪ Viewports,” which means that you should click the View menu with your mouse or puck/stylus and then click the Viewports menu item. Some of AutoCAD’s toolbar buttons have flyouts, which are equivalent to submenus. They are called flyouts because they fly out when you click and hold the button on the main tool- bar, displaying even more buttons. Therefore, to indicate which button to choose, I may need to tell you to choose (or click) Zoom Extents from the Zoom flyout of the Standard toolbar. Although I haven’t found a good alternative, this is not completely satisfactory for two reasons. First, it’s a mouthful! Second, the flyout names do not appear, making it hard to know which is the Zoom flyout. However, you can check Appendix D, which is on the CD-ROM. It shows each toolbar and flyout along with its name. Also, in most cases it will be obvious which flyout I’m talking about. AutoCAD is unique in that every command also has a command name that you can type on the command line, which appears at the bottom of your screen. Command names are shown in capital letters, as in CIRCLE. AutoLISP functions are shown in small capital letters, as in COMMAND. AutoCAD prompts, your input, and instructions In the Step-by-Step exercises, most instructions are presented in the same font and style you are reading now. However, when I reproduce the AutoCAD command line, AutoCAD’s prompts appear in a nonproportional font and the input you should type in appears in bold. Other instructions (such as “Type in the first coordinate”) are shown in italic. Here’s a sample Step-by-Step section. In this exercise, you click the proper toolbar button, type in the X,Y coordinates shown in bold, and press Enter where indicated by the bent arrow (↵) symbol.
  13. xii AutoCAD 2002 Bible 1. With your left mouse button (also called the pick button), choose Line from the Draw toolbar. Notice that the command name is repeated on the com- mand line. Command: _line Specify first point: 0,0 ↵ (This arrow means to press Enter) Specify next point or [Undo]: 10,0 ↵ Specify next point or [Undo]: 10,7 ↵ Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: 0,7 ↵ Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: 0,0 ↵ Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: ↵ Often I make references to specific elements in a drawing. References to these ele- ments appear in the text as numbers in circles, such as 1, 2, 3, and so on. You’ll find the corresponding number in the figure to which the text refers. Mouse and keyboard terms You can draw in AutoCAD using a mouse or a puck. The mouse is familiar to all users. A puck (or sometimes a stylus) is used with a digitizing tablet. Because most AutoCAD users do not have a digitizing tablet, I do not directly refer to it in this book. If you have one, follow the instructions for using the mouse in the same way, using your puck. A mouse can have two or more buttons. Many AutoCAD users like using a mouse with at least three buttons because you can customize the buttons to suit your needs. However, because many mice have only two buttons, I assume only two. The left mouse button is used to choose commands and toolbar buttons and to pick points in your drawing. For this reason, it is sometimes called the pick button. The right button usually opens a shortcut menu. If I say one of the following ✦ Choose Tools ➪ Options ✦ Click Line on the Draw toolbar ✦ Select the circle in your drawing it means to use the left button of your mouse. When I say to press Enter, it means to press the key that is marked Enter, Return, or ↵ on your keyboard. Often I use the bent arrow symbol (↵) to indicate that you should press Enter. I also use the mouse terms listed in the following table.
  14. Preface xiii AutoCAD Mouse Terms Term Description Cursor The shape on your screen that shows you where the mouse is pointed. It can take a number of shapes, such as crosshairs, pickbox, or arrow. Also known as the mouse pointer. Pickbox A type of cursor consisting of a small box, used to select drawing objects. Crosshairs A type of cursor consisting of intersecting lines. Pick Point to a drawing object and click the left mouse button. Click Press the left mouse button once and release it. Double-click Press the left mouse button twice in rapid succession. Click and drag Click the left mouse button and hold it down while you move the mouse, dragging an object on your screen with it. Choose Click a menu item, toolbar button, or dialog box item. You can sometimes choose an item using the keyboard as well. Right-click Press the right mouse button once and release it. Shift and click While holding down the Shift key, press the left mouse button once and release it. Select Highlight an object in a drawing by picking it or using another object selection method, or highlight text in a dialog box or text document. What the Icons Mean The AutoCAD 2002 Bible is liberally sprinkled with icons — small symbols in the left margin that call your attention to noteworthy points. New The New Feature icon means that a feature is new to AutoCAD 2000i or 2002, or Feature features that existed in Release 2000 but have been significantly changed. Note A Note icon alerts you to some important point that requires special attention or additional information that may be helpful.
  15. xiv AutoCAD 2002 Bible Tip A Tip shows you a way to accomplish a task more efficiently or quickly. You’ll find plenty of practical advice here. Cross- Cross-References refer you to a related topic elsewhere in the book. Because you Reference may not read this book straight through from cover to cover, use cross-references to quickly find just the information you need. On the The On the CD-ROM icon highlights references to related material on the CD-ROM CD-ROM. Caution The Caution icon means you should pay special attention to the information or instructions because a possibility exists that you could cause a problem otherwise. About the CD-ROM The CD-ROM contains all the drawings you need to do the exercises in this book. These drawings save you time as you learn AutoCAD’s features. In addition, the CD-ROM includes the drawings that result once you finish an exercise or tutorial. In this way, you can check what you have done if you wish. The CD-ROM is also chock-full of resource material that I hope you will find useful for many years to come. Appendix C lists the contents of the CD-ROM. I am espe- cially pleased to include a 15-day trial version of AutoCAD 2002 on the CD-ROM as well as the entire book in PDF format. Other Information If you are an advanced AutoCAD user but need tips and secrets for getting the most out of AutoCAD, this book will probably not add too much to your already great store of knowledge. If you want to learn about Windows, look for a book that focuses on Windows. This book assumes that you know the basics of Windows, although the instructions you’ll read here are usually detailed enough to get you through any task. For more information about Windows, try Windows 98 For Dummies or Microsoft Windows Me For Dummies by Andy Rathbone; or try Alan Simpson’s Windows 98 Bible or Alan Simpson’s Microsoft Windows Me Millennium Edition Bible (all published by Hungry Minds, Inc.). For Windows NT, try Teach Yourself Windows NT 4 VISUALLY or Teach Yourself Windows 2000 Professional VISUALLY, both by Ruth Maran; or Windows NT 4
  16. Preface xv For Dummies or Windows 2000 Professional For Dummies by Andy Rathbone and Sharon Crawford (all also published by Hungry Minds, Inc.). If you want just the basics, AutoCAD LT might serve your needs better. However, if you do have AutoCAD and want a more basic book, I recommend AutoCAD 2002 For Dummies, by Bud Smith and Mark Middlebrook. The AutoCAD 2002 Bible covers AutoCAD 2000i and 2002. However, most of the information also applies to Release 2000. I have used AutoCAD in Windows 98, but almost everything also applies to Windows ME and NT (4 and 2000), although some of the screens may look slightly different. Contacting the Author I would be happy to hear any comments you have about this book. The best way to contact me is by e-mail at ellenfinkl@bigfoot.com. You can also use the United States postal service (aka snail mail) and write to me in care of Hungry Minds. Please note that I can’t provide AutoCAD technical support for my readers.
  17. Acknowledgments I would like to offer special thanks to Tom Heine, my acquisitions editor, who was very supportive throughout the writing of this book. Special thanks go to Melba Hopper, whose infinite organizing power kept the book on track. Melba kept up with seemingly infinite number of versions of text docu- ments, and images, coordinating the writing editing, and production of the enire book. Also, thanks to Darren Young for his extremely knowledgeable and thorough technical editing. Darren’s comments improved the book throughout. I also thank Roxane Marini for her precise and careful editing and all the people at Hungry Minds who helped with the production of this book and its CD-ROM. Bill Plante, an AutoCAD and AutoPLANT consultant, spent many hours helping me connect over the Internet via the MeetNow feature. Leonid Nemirovsky created two AutoLISP routines for managing single-line text (on the CD-ROM) at my request. Alan Praysman sent me an AutoLISP routine to break an object at an object snap point (also on the CD-ROM). Thanks to Wayne Hodgins, Autodesk’s strategic director for worldwide learning and training, for writing the Foreword for this book. I also want to express my great appreciation to the members of Autodesk’s beta team who were very supportive throughout the alpha and beta period. Many people contributed drawings for this book. I’d like to thank all of them. They have helped make this book the most comprehensive book on AutoCAD available. Finally, I would like to thank my husband, Evan, and two kids, Yeshayah and Eliyah, who helped out around the house while I was writing, writing, and writing (and who wanted to see their names in print). Without their support, I could not have com- pleted this book.
  18. Contents Foreword. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii Part I: AutoCAD Basics 1 Chapter 1: Starting to Draw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Getting Acquainted with AutoCAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Starting AutoCAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Creating a New Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Working with AutoCAD Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Using AutoCAD Today to create a new drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Using the AutoCAD Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 The drawing area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 The menus and toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 The command line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 The status bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Creating Your First Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Drawing a rectangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Saving a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Closing a Drawing and Exiting from AutoCAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Chapter 2: Opening a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Creating a New Drawing from a Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Working with Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Customizing the default template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Creating your own templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Opening a Drawing with Default Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Opening an Existing Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Opening a drawing from AutoCAD Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Opening an existing drawing within AutoCAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Using dialog boxes to open drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Using an Existing Drawing as a Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Saving a Drawing Under a New Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
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