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kĩ năng viết trong các bài test 10

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  1. – GED SOCIAL STUDIES PRACTICE QUESTIONS – 37. Questions 39 and 40 are based on the following passage. “The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is, in extending our commercial Like so many other exploration stories, the relations to have with them as little political con- Lewis and Clark journey was shaped by the nection as possible. So far as we have already search for navigable rivers, inspired by the quest formed engagements let them be fulfilled with for Edens, and driven by competition for perfect good faith.” empire. Thomas Jefferson was motivated by —President George Washington, Farewell Address, 1796 these aspirations when he drafted instructions for his explorers, sending them up the Missouri a. isolationism River in search of a passage to the Pacific. Writ- b. nationalism ing to William Dunbar just a month after Lewis c. jingoism and Clark left Fort Mandan, Jefferson empha- d. pacifism sized the importance of rivers in his plan for e. regionalism western exploration and national expansion. “We shall delineate with correctness the great 38. “The free States alone, if we must go on alone, arteries of this great country.” River highways will make a glorious nation. Twenty millions in could take Americans into an Eden, Jefferson’s the temperate zone, stretching from the Atlantic vision of the West as the “Garden of the World.” to the Pacific, full of vigor, industry, inventive And those same rivers might be nature’s out- genius, educated, and moral; increasing by lines and borders for empire. “Future genera- immigration rapidly, and, above all, free—all tions would,” so the president told his friend, free—will form a confederacy of twenty States “fill up the canvas we begin.” scarcely inferior in real power to the unfortunate Union of thirty-three States which we had on the Source: Library of Congress, Exhibits, “Rivers, Edens, Empires: Lewis & Clark and the Revealing of America.” first of November.” —Rutherford Birchard Hayes, January 4, 1861 39. Which of the following was NOT one of Jeffer- a. isolationism son’s goals in sponsoring the Lewis and Clark b. nationalism expedition? c. jingoism a. finding a waterway to the Pacific Ocean d. pacifism b. mapping uncharted territory e. regionalism c. setting aside vast tracts of land for Native people d. discovery of unspoiled plant and animal life e. creation of an empire 40. Which historical idea best summarizes Jefferson’s attitude toward the West? a. Separation of Powers b. Manifest Destiny c. Pursuit of Happiness d. Good Neighbor Policy e. Separate but Equal 185
  2. – GED SOCIAL STUDIES PRACTICE QUESTIONS – Questions 41 and 42 refer to the following passage. Questions 43 through 45 refer to the following passage. About the time of World War I, sharp-eyed In January 1863 during the Civil War, President entrepreneurs began . . . to see ways to profit Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation from the motorist’s freedom . . . Shops could be freed more than three million slaves who lived set up almost anywhere the law allowed, and a in the Confederate states. Lincoln stated: wide variety of products and services could be “And by virtue of the power and for the pur- counted on to sell briskly in the roadside mar- pose aforesaid, I do order and declare that all ketplace. A certain number of cars passing by person held as slaves within said designated would always be in need of gas. Travelers even- states and parts of states are, and henceforward tually grew hungry, tired, and restless for diver- shall be, free; and that the Executive Govern- sions. Soon gas stations, produce booths, hot ment of the United States, including the military dog stands, and tourist camps sprouted up and naval authorities thereof, will recognize and along the nation’s roadsides to capitalize on maintain the freedom of said persons. these needs. As competition increased, mer- And I hereby enjoin upon the people so chants looked for new ways to snag the new declared to be free and abstain from all violence, market awheel. Each sign and building had to unless in necessary self-defense; and I recom- visually shout: “Slow down, pull in, and buy.” mend to them that, in all cases when allowed, Still more businesses moved to the highway— they labor faithfully for reasonable wages. supermarkets, motor courts, restaurants, minia- And I further declare and make known that ture golf courses, drive-in theaters. By the early such persons, of suitable condition, will be 1950s, almost anything could be bought along received into the armed service of the United the roadside. States to garrison forts, positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in Source: Excerpt from Chester H. Liebs, Main Street to said service.” Miracle Mile. Little, Brown and Company, 1985. Source: HistoryCentral.com. 41. What is the main idea of the passage? a. Miniature golf was a very popular sport in the 43. According to the passage, which of the following 1950s. was NOT one of Lincoln’s expectations for the b. Travelers were looking for sources of former slaves? entertainment. a. to fight for the Union army c. Some highway businesses were more success- b. to become free citizens ful than others. c. to join the paid workforce d. Flashy commercial enterprises sprouted along d. to defend themselves if necessary highways, eager to profit from travelers. e. to incite a rebellion among slaves in states that e. The first businesses to flourish along the high- were loyal to the Union ways were gas stations and hot dog stands. 44. Based on the values expressed in the Emancipa- 42. Given the information in this passage, what tion Proclamation, which of the following appeared to be an important post-World War II groups would have disapproved it? trend in the United States? a. nations like Great Britain and France where a. train travel there was strong antislavery sentiment b. car culture b. Confederate leaders c. historic preservation c. abolitionists d. downtown renewal d. Union armed forces e. environmentalism e. humanitarians 186
  3. – GED SOCIAL STUDIES PRACTICE QUESTIONS – 45. 46. Which of the following is the most likely reason According to the information given in this pas- that Lincoln did not emancipate all slaves? sage, it is most likely that President Kennedy a. Lincoln did not want to appease radical aboli- a. viewed this as a regional crisis solely between tionist groups. the United States and Cuba. b. He believed slavery was an economic b. trusted Soviet officials who said there weren’t necessity. any missiles in Cuba. c. He did not want to upset the slaveholding c. believed that the conflict was principally states that were loyal to the Union—Delaware, between the United States and the Soviet Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri. Union. d. Lincoln did not believe that the complete abo- d. viewed the situation as serious but felt it could lition of slavery was possible. be managed with diplomacy. e. He wanted to uphold the Supreme Court e. felt confident about how Khrushchev would decision in the Dred Scott case, which said that respond. Congress could not regulate slavery in new 47. Which of the conclusions can you make based territories. on the passage? a. Kennedy’s first concern during the crisis was World History the appeal of Communist ideas. b. Nuclear war is the only way to win a cold war. Questions 46 and 47 are based on the following passage. c. Kennedy knew that Khrushchev would back down. The Cuban Missile Crisis began in 1962 when d. Khrushchev’s popularity increased at home. U.S. spy planes spotted Soviet missile installa- e. The U.S. government did not know the full tions under construction in Cuba. The missiles extent of the Soviet threat at the time. were capable of carrying nuclear weapons and were within range of major U.S. cities. A Question 48 is based on the following passage. thirteen-day standoff began, during which President John F. Kennedy imposed a naval German printer Johannes Gutenberg is often blockade of Cuba and demanded that the Sovi- credited with the invention of the first printing ets remove the weapons. Kennedy stated that press to use movable type. He used handset type any missile attack from Cuba would be regarded to print the Gutenberg Bible in 1455. Although as an attack from the Soviet Union and would his invention greatly influenced printing in be responded to accordingly. Khrushchev later Europe, similar technologies were used earlier in conceded, agreeing to remove the weapons if, in China and Korea. Chinese printers used mov- return, the United States pledged not to invade able block prints and type made of clay as early the island. Details from U.S. and Soviet declassi- as 1040, and Korean printers invented movable fied files and participants in the crisis have sur- copper type about 1392. faced since the incident. Unknown to the U.S. government at the time, 40,000 Soviet soldiers 48. What is the purpose of the paragraph? were stationed in Cuba and armed with nuclear a. to praise the advances of printing technology weapons. Although Khrushchev’s actions helped b. to connect the early advances in printing with avert nuclear war, they made him appear weak today’s technological advances to younger Soviet leaders who ousted him from c. to show that technological advances can power. Historians regard the crisis as the world’s develop in different geographical areas over closest brush with the threat of nuclear war. periods of time d. to give credit to Gutenberg for the first movable-type printing press e. to show how Gutenberg’s invention made printed materials more widely available 187
  4. – GED SOCIAL STUDIES PRACTICE QUESTIONS – Questions 49 and 50 are based on the map below. 50. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson called the war one “to make the world safe for democracy.” 49. The United States maintained its neutrality in Based on the map and this quotation, what con- the war until Germany announced its intention clusion can be drawn? to use unrestricted submarine warfare in the a. Communist Russia was a threat to democracy seas. The U.S. Congress declared war on Ger- in 1917. many on April 6, 1917. By doing so, with what b. In 1917, Italy had become a fascist state that other nations was it siding? threatened democracy. a. Bulgaria and Turkey c. Spain did not have a representative govern- b. Albania and Andorra ment in 1917. c. Denmark and Sweden d. Germany and Austria-Hungary were not d. Morocco and Algeria democracies in 1917. e. Russia and Italy e. Great Britain was a constitutional monarchy in 1917. World War I European Powers Allied Powers Central Powers Neutral Nations Norway Finland Sweden Baltic Sea Denmark The Great Russia Netherlands Britain Germany Belgium Luxembourg Austria France Hungary Switzer- land Romania Black Sea Serbia Port- Bulgaria Spain ugal Monte- Italy negro Turkey Albania Mediterranean Sea Greece Morocco Algeria Cyprus 188
  5. – GED SOCIAL STUDIES PRACTICE QUESTIONS – Questions 51 and 52 are based on the following passage. Questions 53 and 54 refer to the following paragraph. Mohandas Gandhi, also known as Mahatma From 2000 B.C. until the twentieth century, a Gandhi, developed a policy of passive resistance succession of dynasties ruled China. The word in his civil rights struggle for Indian immigrants China comes from the Ch’in Dynasty (221–206 in South Africa, and later in the campaign for B.C.), which first unified the country by con- Indian independence from British rule. The quering warring land-owning feudal lords. King writings of the Russian author Leo Tolstoy and Cheng named himself Shih Huang-ti, or first the essay, “Civil Disobedience,” by nineteenth- emperor, and consolidated his empire by abol- century American Henry David Thoreau ishing feudal rule, creating a centralized monar- inspired Gandhi. Gandhi called acts of nonvio- chy, establishing a system of laws and a common lent resistance by the term satyagraha, Sanskrit written language, and building roads and canals for “truth and firmness.” The Salt Satyagraha of to the capital. Scholars speculate that construc- 1930 exemplified his policy. In protest against tion of the Great Wall or chang cheng, meaning the British government’s salt tax, he led tens of “long wall,” began during the Ch’in Dynasty in thousands of Indians on a 200-mile march to order to protect China’s northern border from the Arabian Sea, where they made salt from invaders. Shih Huang-ti ruled with absolute evaporated sea water. Thousands, including power, imposing strict laws and heavy taxes and Gandhi, were arrested. When the British con- doling out harsh punishments. He also is ceded to his demands, Gandhi stopped the cam- reputed to have burned books on topics that he paign. He was released from prison in 1931, and did not consider useful like agriculture or medi- that same year, he traveled to London as a repre- cine. Shih Huang-ti died in 210 B.C. His son suc- sentative of the Indian National Congress to ceeded him, but soon peasants and former negotiate reform measures. nobles revolted and overthrew the dynasty. The Han Dynasty replaced it, ruling China until 51. Which of the following would be the best title 220 A.D. for this passage? 53. a. “The Salt March of 1930” Which of the following is NOT a contribution of b. “How to Lead an Effective Protest” the Ch’in Dynasty? c. “Gandhi’s Acts of Nonviolent Resistance” a. unification of territory d. “Free India” b. feudal aristocracy e. “Mahatma Gandhi and Henry David c. road construction Thoreau” d. standardized written script e. regulations and penalties 52. Which of the following conclusions can be 54. drawn from the passage? Which of the following conclusions can you a. Gandhi’s nonviolent protests were effective make based on the passage? political tools. a. The Ch’in Dynasty enjoyed a stable and long- b. The British did not respond to the Salt lasting rule. Satyagraha. b. By abolishing feudalism, Ch’in Shih Huang-ti c. Satyagraha means “truth and firmness” in promoted democracy in China. Sanskrit. c. The Ch’in Dynasty was popular among peas- d. Gandhi refused to support the British govern- ants and displaced nobles. ment in World War II until it granted India its d. Disunity and disorder marked the Ch’in independence. Dynasty. e. India could not win its independence without e. The Ch’in Dynasty had long-lasting influence. resorting to violent revolution. 189
  6. – GED SOCIAL STUDIES PRACTICE QUESTIONS – E conomics 57. Cyclical unemployment is job loss caused by a recession or by fluctuations in the economy. Questions 55 and 56 are based on the following graph Which of the following is an example of cyclical and passage. unemployment? a. construction workers in the Northeast who The World’s Child Laborers are out of work during cold months b. agricultural workers who are unemployed Latin America 7% during nongrowing seasons 17.5 million c. employees who quit their jobs because they are dissatisfied d. airline employees who are laid off because slow economic times have discouraged people Asia 61% Africa 32% 153 million from traveling 80 million e. tradespeople who lose work because machines can perform a task faster and for less money 58. Capital gains tax is money paid to the federal Of the world’s 250 million child laborers, 186 million are government out of profits from the sale of finan- under age five, and 170 million perform hazardous work. cial assets, like property (land or buildings) or Most working children in rural areas labor in agriculture, stocks. For which of the following would you while urban children work in trade and services, with a need to pay capital gains tax? smaller percentage working in manufacturing, con- a. cigarettes struction, and domestic service. b. groceries Source: Data from the International Labor Organization c. your mortgage (ILO), www.ilo.org. d. your wages e. a profitable real estate sale 55. Based on the graph and passage, where would child-labor reform measures be the most effective? a. in Europe b. in rural areas c. in the developing world d. in areas where children are employed to work in mines e. in Latin America 56. Which conclusion can be drawn from the infor- mation provided in the chart? a. Eighty million African children work. b. Child labor is a worldwide problem. c. The problem of child labor has grown sub- stantially in recent decades. d. If children work, they are most likely not attending school. e. The majority of working children reside in Asia. 190
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