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Managing and tabulating data in Excel

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Managing and tabulating data in Excel

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I teach the writing of formulas and associated topics in volume 3: Excel- Beyond the basics. I show, in a step- by- step exposition, the proper way for writing cell references in a formula.

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  1. Managing & Tabulating Data in Excel Learn the Power Features of Excel Excel for Professionals  2002 VJ Books. All rights reside with the author.
  2. Managing & Tabulating Data in Excel M Maan naaggiin ngg & &TTaab buullaattiin ngg D Daattaa iin nEExxcceell Exxcceell ffoorr P Volume 4 of the series E naallss Prrooffeessssiioon Volume 1: Excel For Beginners Volume 2: Charting in Excel Volume 3: Excel-- Beyond The Basics Volume 4: Managing & Tabulating Data in Excel Volume 5: Statistical Analysis with Excel Volume 6: Financial Analysis using Excel Published by VJ Books Inc All rights reserved. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher except in the case of brief quotations embodied in reviews, articles, and research papers. Making copies of any part of this book for any purpose other than personal use is a violation of United States and international copyright laws. First year of printing: 2002 Date of this copy: Monday, December 16, 2002 This book is sold as is, without warranty of any kind, either express or implied, respecting the contents of this book, including but not limited to implied warranties for the book's quality, performance, merchantability, or fitness for any particular purpose. Neither the author, the publisher and its dealers, nor distributors shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss, or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the book. This book is based on Excel versions 97 to XP. Excel, Microsoft Office, Microsoft Word, and Microsoft Access are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Publisher: VJ Books Inc, Canada Author: Vijay Gupta 2
  3. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Vijay Gupta has taught statistic, econometrics, and finance to institutions in the US and abroad, specializing in teaching technical material to professionals. He has organized and held training workshops in the Middle East, Africa, India, and the US. The clients include government agencies, financial regulatory bodies, non-profit and private sector companies. A Georgetown University graduate with a Masters degree in economics, he has a vision of making the tools of econometrics and statistics easily accessible to professionals and graduate students. His books on SPSS and Regression Analysis have received rave reviews for making statistics and SPSS so easy and “non-mathematical.” The books are in use by over 150,000 users in more than 140 nations. He is a member of the American Statistics Association and the Society for Risk Analysis. In addition, he has assisted the World Bank and other organizations with econometric analysis, survey design, design of international investments, cost-benefit, and sensitivity analysis, development of risk management strategies, database development, information system design and implementation, and training and troubleshooting in several areas. Vijay has worked on capital markets, labor policy design, oil research, trade, currency markets, and other topics. 3
  4. Managing & Tabulating Data in Excel VISION Vijay has a vision for software tools for Office Productivity and Statistics. The current book is one of the first tools in stage one of his vision. We now list the stages in his vision. Stage one: Books to Teach Existing Software He is currently working on books on word-processing, and report production using Microsoft Word, and a booklet on Professional Presentations. The writing of the books is the first stage envisaged by Vijay for improving efficiency and productivity across the world. This directly leads to the second stage of his vision for productivity improvement in offices worldwide. Stage two: Improving on Existing Software The next stage is the construction of software that will radically improve the usability of current Office software. Vijay’s first software is undergoing testing prior to its release in Jan 2003. The software — titled “Word Usability Enhancer” — will revolutionize the way users interact with Microsoft Word, providing users with a more intuitive interface, readily accessible tutorials, and numerous timesaving and annoyance-removing macros and utilities. He plans to create a similar tool for Microsoft Excel, and, depending on resource constraints and demand, for PowerPoint, Star Office, etc. 4
  5. Stage 3: Construction of the first “feedback-designed” Office and Statistics software Vijay’s eventual goal is the construction of productivity software that will provide stiff competition to Microsoft Office. His hope is that the success of the software tools and the books will convince financiers to provide enough capital so that a successful software development and marketing endeavor can take a chunk of the multi- billion dollar Office Suite market. Prior to the construction of the Office software, Vijay plans to construct the “Definitive” statistics software. Years of working on and teaching the current statistical software has made Vijay a master at picking out the weaknesses, limitations, annoyances, and, sometimes, pure inaccessibility of existing software. This 1.5 billion dollar market needs a new visionary tool, one that is appealing and inviting to users, and not forbidding, as are several of the current software. Mr. Gupta wants to create integrated software that will encompass the features of SPSS, STATA, LIMDEP, EViews, STATISTICA, MINITAB, etc. Other He has plans for writing books on the “learning process.” The books will teach how to understand one’s approach to problem solving and learning and provide methods for learning new techniques for self- learning. 5
  6. CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 SAVING (OPENING) IN (FROM) DIFFERENT FILE FORMATS 23 1.1 Spreadsheet, Database, Text & Statistical Software 23 Excel worksheet versions 2.0 to 4.0. 25 1.1.a Lotus 1–2–3 versions 1.0 to 4.0, Quattropro and dBase versions I to IV 26 1.1.b Text 26 1.1.c Many formats save only one worksheet 27 1.1.d Many formats cannot store information on cell formatting, comments, etc 27 1.1.e Statistical application files: SPSS, SAS, STATA, etc 28 1.1.f Database applications: Access, Oracle, MS SQL Server, FoxPro, Paradox, other 28 1.2 Special Formats: Adobe PDF, Html, Web Archive, XML 28 1.3 Workspace— “I Have To Work On Several Files Together Each Day…Can't I Open Them All At One Time?” 29 Creating a workspace 29 Using the workspace— Opening several files together 30 1.4 New In The XP Version Of Excel: Document Recovery And Safe Mode 30 CHAPTER 2 DATA ENTRY FORM 33 2.1 An Easier Way To Type In Data Plus A Multi-Series “Find” Utility (Data /Form) 33 2.2 Form Based Data Entry 33 2.2.a New data 34 2.3 Using The Form As A “Find” Or “Search” Utility 34 A Summary Of The Two Roles Of Data/Form 38 CHAPTER 3 REDUCING ERRORS IN DATA ENTRY— VALIDATION AND AUTOCORRECT 40 3.1 Validating Data During Data-Entry 40 3.1.a Validation for numeric data 42 3.1.b Message shown to person entering the data into cells that have “data validation” criteria 46 3.1.c Error Alert 47 3.1.d The validation rule in action 48
  7. Contents 3.1.e Validation for text entry 50 3.1.f Testing the validation 52 3.1.g Ensuring that only a string from a set can be entered 52 3.2 Removing Validation Rules From A Range 55 3.3 Copying And Pasting Validation Rules 56 3.4 Selecting All Cells With The Same Data Validation Rule 56 3.5 Using “Forms” And “Data Validation” 56 3.6 Autocorrect 57 CHAPTER 4 USING FILL AND OTHER TOOLS TO SAVE ON TYPING TIME 59 4.1 Making Excel Fill In Numbers And Dates 60 4.1.a Filling years/integers 60 4.1.b Filling in every alternate year 62 4.2 Auto Fill — Filling From Pre-Defined Lists Of Days, Months, Other 63 4.2.a Filling weekdays 66 4.3 Creating A New “Custom List” 67 4.4 Filling Missing Values 72 4.4.a Using constant increase in values 73 4.4.b Using constant growth rates 74 4.5 Filling Formats 76 4.6 Copying The Active Cell 76 4.7 Using A Right-Click-On-Mouse For Quick-Filling 76 4.8 Placing Data Entry Icons Onto The Toolbar 77 4.9 “Speech To Text” 78 CHAPTER 5 “CONDITIONAL FORMATTING”— COLOR–CODING DATA PATTERNS 80 5.1 Understanding The Dialog 80 5.2 Defining The Condition 81 5.3 Step 1: Defining The Condition/Criteria 81 5.4 Step 2: Defining the format to use for Cells that satisfy the condition 82 5.5 Understanding The “Conditional Format” 84 Step 3: Adding more conditional formats 84 5.6 Defining A “Dynamic” Condition 85 5.7 Deleting Conditional Formats 87 5.8 Selecting All Cells With The Same Conditional Format Rule 87 7
  8. Managing & Tabulating Data in Excel CHAPTER 6 SORTING 89 6.1 Basic sorting 89 6.2 Names of series or columns 91 6.3 Case sensitivity 92 6.4 Sorting by rows 93 6.5 Sorting ranges that do not cover entire columns or rows 95 6.6 Choosing the entire worksheet 95 CHAPTER 7 FILTER (“HIDING THE DATA YOU DO NOT WANT TO VIEW”) 97 7.1 By one criterion on one column 98 7.1.a The Filtering arrows 99 7.1.b Choosing the value to use as the Filtering criterion 99 7.1.c The result: a Filtered worksheet 100 7.1.d Copying and pasting the Filtered rows 101 7.2 Removing the Filter 102 7.3 Custom Filtering — using multiple criterion, logical conditions, etc 102 7.3.a Example of a Filter that has two criteria over one series/column 103 7.3.b Using the wildcard asterisk (*) 103 7.4 Filtering using criteria from more than one column/series 104 7.5 New in the XP version of Excel 107 7.6 Icons for Sorting and Filtering 107 CHAPTER 8 SELECTING ALL CELLS/CONTENT ACROSS THE WORKSHEET THAT SATISFY A CRITERION 109 8.1 The “GO TO” option 109 8.1.a Selecting cells with comments, empty cells, unhidden cells, cells in the contiguous region of the currently active cell 111 8.2 Conditional Formatting 112 8.3 Selecting based on Data Validation 113 8.4 Selecting based on formulae 114 8.4.a Constants 114 8.4.b Formula Results 115 8.5 Selecting based on cell references in formulas 116 8.5.a Selecting all cells whose formulas reference the active cell (directly or/and indirectly) 116 8.5.b Selecting all cells referenced (directly or/and indirectly) by the formula in the active cell 117 8
  9. Contents 8.6 GO TO / SPECIAL as a search tool 118 CHAPTER 9 SUBTOTALS 119 9.1 Basics 119 9.2 Before making subtotals 120 9.3 Obtaining subtotals 120 9.3.a Choosing the subtotaling formula: average, sum, etc 122 9.4 Viewing only those rows that have subtotals 123 9.5 Removing subtotals 123 9.6 The “Consolidation” tool 124 CHAPTER 10 PIVOT REPORTS 126 10.1 The four steps in making a two-dimensional Pivot Report 127 10.1.a Step 1: Opening the Pivot Report wizard 128 10.1.b Step 2: Choosing the data for tabulation 130 10.1.c Step 3a: Designing the Pivot Report 131 10.1.d Step 3b: Choosing the formula for aggregation/tabulation 133 10.1.e Step 4a: Options 135 Format options: 137 Data options 138 External data options 138 10.1.f Step 4b: Wrapping it up — creating the Pivot Report 139 10.2 Modifying/editing a Pivot Report 140 10.2.a Modifying the structure of a Pivot Report 142 10.2.b Adding a new function (and thus a new row series) 143 10.2.c Editing fields 148 Selecting a field 148 Viewing the options available for modifying/editing a field 149 10.2.d Deleting a field 152 10.3 Refreshing the Report 152 10.4 Pivot Report example with a third dimension (row, column and page) 152 10.4.a Viewing different “pages” 154 10.4.b Making a new worksheet for each “page” 155 10.4.c Making a new chart for each “page” 156 10.5 Pivot reports from Scenarios 156 10.6 OLAP: New feature in the XP version of Excel 157 10.7 Icons for Pivoting 157 CHAPTER 11 “IF-THEN” ANALYSIS: SCENARIOS AND GOAL SEEK 159 9
  10. Managing & Tabulating Data in Excel 11.1 Scenarios (for “If this assumption-then this result”) 159 11.1.a Defining the Scenarios 160 Using the Scenarios 163 Scenario summary 164 Using the “Group and Outline” tool 166 Scenario-based Pivot Tables 168 11.2 Goal Seek (“If I want this cell to have a certain result, what value should that cell take) 170 11.2.a Setting the desired value for the “target” cell (the one with the formula that references the “solution” cell) 171 11.2.b Choosing the “solution” cell 171 Running the utility 172 CHAPTER 12 LINKING TO A DATABASE 174 Important definition: “Query” 175 12.1 Understanding the structure of a database file 176 Analogy between the structures of a database file and an Excel file 177 12.2 Linking to data from a database (or, “creating and executing a data query”) 177 12.2.a Step 1: Choosing the Database File from which data will be imported 178 12.2.b Step 2: Choosing the Columns/Fields/Variables to Import 180 Selecting fields for import into Excel 182 12.2.c Step 3: (Pre–) Filtering the data to be imported 184 12.2.d Step 4: Pre–sorting the data to be imported 190 12.2.e Step 5: Saving the Query (that is, saving steps 1–4) 191 12.2.f Step 6: Wrapping it up— getting the data into Excel 192 12.3 Refreshing the link between the Excel range and data in the database file 193 12.4 Editing an existing query 194 12.5 Using “External data source” to create a Pivot Report 195 12.6 New in the XP version of Excel: OLAP 195 12.6.a Data from the Internet 195 12.7 Icons relevant to External Data 195 CHAPTER 13 READING ASCII TEXT DATA 198 13.1 Understanding ASCII Text data 199 Why is data stored and distributed in this format? 199 What is special about this format? 199 Fixed–width/Column 200 Delimited/Free-Field 201 13.2 Reading delimited/Free-Field ASCII Text data 201 13.2.a Step 1: Choosing whether the format is delimited or Fixed-width 202 13.2.b Step 2: Choosing the correct Delimiter: tab, comma, space, etc 204 Determining if Excel or you have chosen the wrong Delimiter 205 10
  11. Contents 13.2.c Step 3: Define the data formats (if not done automatically/correctly by Excel) 206 13.2.d Converting into an Excel file 208 13.3 Reading Fixed-width ASCII TEXT 209 CHAPTER 14 PASTE SPECIAL 215 14.1 Pasting The Result Of A Formula, But Not The Formula 216 14.2 Other Selective Pasting Options 218 14.2.a Pasting only the formula (but not the formatting and comments) 218 14.2.b Pasting only formats 218 14.2.c Pasting data validation schemes 219 14.2.d Pasting all but the borders 219 14.2.e Pasting comments only 219 14.3 Performing An Algebraic “Operation” When Pasting One Column/Row/Range On To Another 220 14.3.a Multiplying/dividing/subtracting/adding all cells in a range by a number 220 14.3.b Multiplying/dividing the cell values in cells in several “pasted on” columns with the values of the copied range 221 14.4 Switching Rows To Columns 221 CHAPTER 15 SAVING OR TRANSFORMING TO SPECIAL WEB AND DOCUMENT FORMATS 223 15.1 Converting to a PDF (Adobe Acrobat) file 223 15.1.a Creating a PDF (Adobe Acrobat) file from the printout 224 15.1.b Other tools for converting one or multiple files into PDF 226 15.2 Saving as an HTML file 226 15.2.a Interactivity when saving a worksheet 227 15.2.b Interactivity when saving a chart 229 15.3 New in the XP version of Excel: Web Archive format and XML 231 15.3.a Web Archive 231 15.3.b XML 237 INDEX 237 11
  12. Managing & Tabulating Data in Excel Mapping of menu options with sections of the book and in the series of books You may be looking for a section that pertains to a particular menu option in Excel. I now briefly lay out where to find (in the series) a discussion of a specific menu option of Excel. Table 1: Mapping of the options in the “FILE“ menu Menu Option Section that discusses the option OPEN chapter 1 SAVE SAVE AS Volume 1: Excel For Beginners SAVE AS WEB PAGE 15.2 SAVE WORKSPACE 1.3 SEARCH Volume 1: Excel For Beginners PAGE SETUP Volume 1: Excel For Beginners PRINT AREA Volume 1: Excel For Beginners PRINT PREVIEW Volume 1: Excel For Beginners PRINT Volume 1: Excel For Beginners PROPERTIES Volume 1: Excel For Beginners Table 2: Mapping of the options in the “EDIT“ menu Menu Option Section that discusses the option UNDO Volume 1: Excel For Beginners REDO Volume 1: Excel For Beginners 12
  13. Contents Menu Option Section that discusses the option CUT Various COPY PASTE OFFICE CLIPBOARD Volume 1: Excel For Beginners PASTE SPECIAL Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics FILL chapter 4 CLEAR Volume 1: Excel For Beginners DELETE SHEET Volume 1: Excel For Beginners MOVE OR COPY SHEET Volume 1: Excel For Beginners FIND Volume 1: Excel For Beginners REPLACE Volume 1: Excel For Beginners GO TO Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics LINKS Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics OBJECT Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics Volume 2: Charting in Excel Table 3: Mapping of the options in the “VIEW“ menu Menu Option Section that discusses the option NORMAL Volume 1: Excel For Beginners PAGE BREAK PREVIEW Volume 1: Excel For Beginners TASK PANE Volume 1: Excel For Beginners Volume 1: Excel For Beginners TOOLBARS Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics 13
  14. Managing & Tabulating Data in Excel Menu Option Section that discusses the option FORMULA BAR Leave it on (checked) STATUS BAR Leave it on (checked) HEADER AND FOOTER Volume 1: Excel For Beginners COMMENTS Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics FULL SCREEN Volume 1: Excel For Beginners ZOOM Volume 1: Excel For Beginners Table 4: Mapping of the options in the “INSERT“ menu Menu Option Section that discusses the option CELLS Volume 1: Excel For Beginners ROWS Volume 1: Excel For Beginners COLUMNS Volume 1: Excel For Beginners WORKSHEETS Volume 1: Excel For Beginners CHARTS Volume 2: Charting in Excel PAGE BREAK Volume 1: Excel For Beginners Volume 1: Excel For Beginners Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics FUNCTION Volume 5: Statistical Analysis with Excel Volume 6: Financial Analysis using Excel FUNCTION/FINANCIAL Volume 6: Financial Analysis using Excel FUNCTION/STATISTICAL Volume 5: Statistical Analysis with Excel FUNCTION/LOGICAL Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics FUNCTION/TEXT Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics 14
  15. Contents Menu Option Section that discusses the option FUNCTION/INFORMATION Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics FUNCTION/LOOKUP Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics FUNCTION/MATH & TRIG Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics FUNCTION/ENGINEERING Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics FUNCTION/DATABASE Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics Volume 1: Excel For Beginners FUNCTION/DATE & TIME Volume 5: Statistical Analysis with Excel Volume 6: Financial Analysis using Excel NAME Volume 1: Excel For Beginners COMMENT Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics PICTURE Volume 2: Charting in Excel DIAGRAM Volume 2: Charting in Excel OBJECT Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics HYPERLINK Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics Table 5: Mapping of the options inside the “FORMAT“ menu Menu Option Section that discusses the option CELLS Volume 1: Excel For Beginners ROW Volume 1: Excel For Beginners COLUMN Volume 1: Excel For Beginners SHEET Volume 1: Excel For Beginners AUTOFORMAT Volume 1: Excel For Beginners 15
  16. Managing & Tabulating Data in Excel Menu Option Section that discusses the option CONDITIONAL FORMATTING chapter 5 STYLE Volume 1: Excel For Beginners Table 6: Mapping of the options inside the “TOOLS“ menu Menu Option Section that discusses the option SPELLING Volume 1: Excel For Beginners ERROR CHECKING Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics SPEECH 4.9 SHARE WORKBOOK Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics TRACK CHANGES Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics PROTECTION Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics ONLINE Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics COLLABORATION GOAL SEEK Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics Volume 5: Statistical Analysis with Excel SCENARIOS Volume 6: Financial Analysis using Excel AUDITING Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics The option will take you to a Microsoft site that TOOLS ON THE WEB provides access to resources for Excel In upcoming book on “Macros for Microsoft MACROS Office” Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics ADD-INS Volume 5: Statistical Analysis with Excel AUTOCORRECT Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics CUSTOMIZE Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics 16
  17. Contents Menu Option Section that discusses the option OPTIONS Volume 1: Excel For Beginners Table 7: Mapping of the options inside the “DATA” menu Menu Option Section that discusses the option SORT chapter 6 FILTER chapter 7 FORM chapter 2 SUBTOTALS chapter 9 VALIDATION chapter 3 TABLE Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics CONSOLIDATION section 48.5 GROUP AND OUTLINE Volume 1: Excel For Beginners PIVOT REPORT chapter 10 EXTERNAL DATA chapter 12 Table 8: Mapping of the options inside the “WINDOW“ menu Menu Option Section that discusses the option HIDE Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics SPLIT Volume 1: Excel For Beginners FREEZE PANES Volume 1: Excel For Beginners 17
  18. Managing & Tabulating Data in Excel Table 9: Mapping of the options inside the “HELP“ menu Menu Option Section that discusses the option OFFICE ASSISTANT Volume 1: Excel For Beginners HELP Volume 1: Excel For Beginners WHAT’S THIS Volume 1: Excel For Beginners INTRODUCTION Are there not enough Excel books in the market? I have asked myself this question and concluded that there are books “inside me,” based on what I have realized from observation by friends, students, and colleagues that I have a “vision and knack for explaining technical material in plain English.” Read the book practicing the lessons on the sample files provided in the zipped file you downloaded. I hope the book is useful and assists you in increasing your productivity in Excel usage. You may be pleasantly surprised at some of the features shown here. They will enable you to save time. The “Make me a Guru” series teach technical material in simple English. A lot of thinking went into the sequencing of chapters and sections. The book is broken down into logical “functional” components. Chapters are organized into sections and sub-sections. This creates a smooth flowing structure, enabling “total immersion” learning. The current series is broken down into a multi-level hierarchy: 18
  19. Contents —Chapters, each teaching a specific skill/tool. — Several sections within each chapter. Each section shows aspect of the skill/tool taught in the chapter. Each section is numbered—for example, “Section 1.2” is the numbering for the second section in chapter 1. — A few sub-sections (and maybe one further segmentation) within each section. Each sub-section lists a specific function, task, or proviso related to the “master” section. The sub-sections are numbered——for example, “1.2.a” for the first sub-section in the second section of chapter 1. Unlike other publishers, I do not consider you dummies or idiots. Each and everyone had the God given potential to achieve mastery in any field. All one needs is a guide to show you the way to master a field. I hope to play this role. I am confident that you will consider your self an Excel “Guru” (in terms of the typical use of Excel in your profession) and so will others. Once you learn the way to master a windows application, this new approach will enable you to pick up new skills” on the fly.” Do not argue for your limitations. You have none. I hope you have a great experience in learning with this book. I would love feedback. Please use the feedback form on our website vjbooks.net. In addition, look for updates and sign up for an infrequent newsletter at the site. MANAGING & TABULATING DATA Excel has extremely powerful data entry, data management, and tabulation tools. The combination of tools provide almost database like 19
  20. Managing & Tabulating Data in Excel power to Excel. Unfortunately, the poor quality of the menu layout and the help preclude the possibility of the user self-learning these features. BASICS The fundamental operations in Excel are taught in Volume 1: Excel For Beginners, Volume 2: Charting in Excel, and Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics FUNCTIONS I teach the writing of formulas and associated topics in Volume 3: Excel– Beyond The Basics. I show, in a step-by-step exposition, the proper way for writing cell references in a formula. The book describe tricks for copying/cutting and pasting in several examples. In addition, I discuss special pasting options. Finally, different types of functions are classified under logical categories and discussed within the optimal category. The categories include financial, Statistical, Text, Information, Logical, and “Smart” Logical. FINANCE In three chapters on financial functions, I list the functions used for estimating loan repayments (for example, like a car loan or house mortgage), discount cash flow analysis (used often for estimating the returns and present values of multi-period investment projects), and parameters associated with securities market instruments like bonds and T-bills. If your interest is Investment Banking or Feasibility Studies (Project 20

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