Môn: TỔNG HỢP (Management + Marketing) GV: Lưu Đức Minh

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MANAGEMENT I. THEORETICAL QUESTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Present the four basic functions of management? Present the three kinds of managers? Present the basic management skills? Present decision making in the business operation What is SWOT analysis? Why is it necessary for a planning process? Explain the hierarchy of human needs by Maslow? Explain the theory X, Y Present centralisation and decentralisation in an organization What are some communication barriers in the workplace? Identify the main characteristics of the leadership II. GAP FILL • GAP FILL 1 Complete the following passage, using suitable forms of the words in...

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Nội dung Text: Môn: TỔNG HỢP (Management + Marketing) GV: Lưu Đức Minh

  1. TÀI LIỆU ÔN TẬP TUYỂN SINH LIÊN THÔNG ĐẠI HỌC KHÓA 07TA Môn: TỔNG HỢP (Management + Marketing) GV: Lưu Đức Minh 1
  2. MANAGEMENT I. THEORETICAL QUESTIONS 1. Present the four basic functions of management? 2. Present the three kinds of managers? 3. Present the basic management skills? 4. Present decision making in the business operation 5. What is SWOT analysis? Why is it necessary for a planning process? 6. Explain the hierarchy of human needs by Maslow? 7. Explain the theory X, Y 8. Present centralisation and decentralisation in an organization 9. What are some communication barriers in the workplace? 10. Identify the main characteristics of the leadership II. GAP FILL • GAP FILL 1 Complete the following passage, using suitable forms of the words in the box below achieve reach report feedback objective progress performance role stage view My boss called me into her office to discuss my (1)………………………… during the last six months. She said that I had made good (2)………………………… and had had no difficulty in (3)…………………………my goals. She made it clear that she was going to give me a good (4)………………………… I suppose I should have been grateful to her. However, one thing bothered me. I wondered why she didn’t ask me what I felt about the job. Why didn’t she get some (5)………………………… from me? I thought that was one of the main (6)………………………… of the interview. Since my (7)………………………… was obviously to sit quietly and say nothing, I did just that. At this (8)………………………… of my career, I can’t afford to upset my boss. But if I ever (9)………………………… her position, I shall handle these interviews differently. In my (10)…………………………, it’s vital to listen to employees. • GAP FILL 2 Which of these terms are defined below? subordinates shortlist job security strike headhunters functional organization motivate personnel autonomy line authority 1) ……………………………: a group of applicants selected for an interview 2) ……………………………: a system in which decision-making passes from the top to the bottom of a hierarchy, as in the army, for example 2
  3. 3) ……………………………: a way of dividing a company into separate departments, depending on the tasks they carry out 4) ……………………………: an organization’s staff or work force; the people it employs 5) ……………………………: an organized refusal to work by a group of employees, in the attempt to achieve better pay or working conditions, or to protest about something 6) ……………………………: employees under someone else’s authority or control 7) ……………………………: freedom to determine one’s own behavior and actions 8) ……………………………: people who attempt to engage senior managers and executives for job vacancies by attracting them from other companies 9) ……………………………: the extent to which a job can be considered as permanent 10) ……………………………: to give an incentive to someone, to encourage • GAP FILL 3 Complete the following sentences using suitable forms of the words from the box below. authorise authority control function autonomy innovate innovative delegate delegation initiative initially unemployable employment indecisive undecided 1) In many department store groups, buying and finance are two ……………………… which are handled by Head Office. 2) Managers who like power find it difficult to ……………………… responsibility. 3) To stay competitive, high technology firms must constantly ………………………, or else their products become out of date. 4) When you delegate authority in a business, you lose a degree of ……………………… over certain functions. 5) In some multinational organisations, subsidiaries are given a great deal of ……………………… – they rarely have to consult Head Office. 6) ……………………… firms often make the mistake of not concentrating enough on marketing. 7) In our factory, the General Manager is ……………………… to spend up to £1000 a month on repairs and maintenance. 8) I like my staff to make decisions for themselves, but they seem afraid to show any …………………. 9) He’s fairly old and hasn’t had a job for years. I’d say he’s virtually ………………………. 10) Because we were ………………………, we wasted time and lost the contract. • GAP FILL 4 Complete the following passage, using suitable words the box below. market major image creative job security finance lack drawback professional personnel coming up segment underestimate expertise ensure growth delegate trust under price exclusive The problems of small high-tech firms have attracted a lot of attention recently. Research show that many of these firms are set up by talented, (1)…………………………… scientists, their owners have 3
  4. to trouble (2)…………………………… with innovative products but they often can’t build on their early success. One reason for this is that they don’t have much management (3)……………………………. Therefore, they are unable to develop the strategies which are necessary for their company’s (4)……………………………. They are in a rush to develop products and don’t think enough about how to (5)…………………………… them. When they do try to sell their products, they spend too much time trying to gain the (6)…………………………… of potential customers. Another mistake they make is to (7)…………………………… their products so that they have no (8)…………………………… for future development. Once the firms begin to grow, their owners (9)…………………………… the future costs of developing and marketing new products. (10)…………………………… of financial planning is a (11)…………………………… weakness of such companies. It is difficult for the high-tech firm to attract the right (12)…………………………… because it cannot offer the same (13)…………………………… as a large organization. The high-tech firms can get round some of the problems by developing a specialist (14)……………………………. It can aim at a particular (15)…………………………… of the market. Customers then start seeking out the firm, so its marketing costs are reduced. The only (16)…………………………… is that it may take some time before customers accept the firm’s new technology. As soon as the high-tech business has reached a certain size, it will be a good idea to bring in (17)…………………………… management. The founder of the firm can then (18)…………………………… responsibility for activities like marketing and finance. If a high-tech firm needs money very badly, it may arrange a link-up with a large company. It will offer that company (19)…………………………… rights to its technology. Enthusiasm, bright ideas, venture capital and technology are not enough to (20)…………………………… success. Basic management skills – especially financial and marketing ones – are also vital. • GAP FILL 5 Choose the best word to fill in the blanks in the following passage: orders motivate decisions delegate measure activities dealing with strategies objectives information Aphrodite Cosmetics Managing Director As a world leader in the health and beauty sector. Aphrodite is a multinational company with a turnover in excess of £5bn. We are seeking a Managing Director of outstanding abilities to take us into the next decade and beyond. The Role The successful candidate will be required to: set …………… and communicate them clearly to staff. • develop …………… which will increase profitability and market share. • 4
  5. take …………… at the highest level affecting both the long and short term activities of the • group. accurately …………… performance both of individuals and departments. • issue …………… which may sometimes be unpopular. • The Person We are looking for someone who is: strong, charismatic and who can …………… staff by his / her vision. • well – organized and who can co – ordinate the …………… of the whole group effectively. • calm when …………… a crisis. • able to …………… tasks to others when necessary. • able to communicate …………… clearly and precisely to all levels of the company. • • GAP FILL 6 Choose the best word to fill in the blanks in the following passage: solve vision performance gains make creating communicate relationship achieve authority Leadership Without followers, there would be no leaders. The concept of leadership and the qualities needed for someone to become a leader, can probably best be understood by studying the (1)……………… between the leader and his or her followers. Good leaders have empathy – the ability to step into someone else’s shoes – because they are good listeners. They are open, always willing to discuss and (2)……………… problems. Team-building is one of the top priorities of effective leaders. They work at (3)……………… an environment in which each team member, while contributing to the team effort and to the purpose of the organization, is able to improve on their own (4) ……………… Indeed, they are very good at empowering their staff, enabling each of them to become a creative and independent team player. This way, every individual (5) ……………… the confidence and ability to (6) ……………… the kind of decisions which will help the company (7) ……………… its long-term goals, Good leaders are also inclusive, they like to involve everyone – and they understand the importance of delegating (8) ……………… Finally, they have more than just targets: they have a (9)……………… They can see clearly where they would like the company to be in five or ten years’ time, and they are able to (10) ……………… this to their employees. • GAP FILL 7 Choose one suitable word to fill into each gap in the extract. Mark your answer by writing the numbers in the blanks before the words in the box. ____ analytical ____ objectives ____ subordinates ____ motivate ____ richer ____ measurement ____ resources ____ develop ____ organize ____ team 5
  6. An interesting modern view on managers is supplied by an American writer, Mr. Peter Drucker. He has spelled out what managers do. In his opinion, managers perform five basic operations. Firstly, managers set ___ (1) ___. They decide what these should be and how the organization can achieve them. For this task, they need ___ (2) ___ ability. Secondly, managers ___ (3) ___. They must decide how the ___ (4) ___ of the company are to be used, how the work is to be classified and divided. Furthermore, they must select people for the jobs to be done. For this, they not only need analytical ability but also understanding of human beings. Their third task is to ___ (5) ___ and communicates effectively. They must be able to get people to work as a ___ (6) ___, and to be as productive as possible. To do this, they will be communicating effectively with all levels of the organization – their superiors, colleagues, and ___ (7) ___. To succeed in this task, managers need social skills. The fourth activity is ___ (8) ___. Having set targets and standards, managers have to measure the performance of the organization, and of its staff, in relation to those targets. Measuring requires analytical ability. Finally Peter Drucker says that managers ___ (9) ___ people, including themselves. They help to make people more productive, and to grow as human beings. They make them bigger and ___ (10) ___ persons. • GAP FILL 8 Choose the best word or words to fill in the blanks in the following passage. Mark your choices by writing A, B, C, etc. in the blanks. A. resources B. per C. in D. affect E. opportunity F. because G. corporate H. competition I. interest J. SWOT K. strengths L. trends M. planners N. weaknesses O. threats Before deciding strategies, the (1) ______ has to look at the company’s present performance, and at any external factors which might (2) ______ its future. To do this, it carries out an analysis, sometimes called a (3) ______ analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats). First, the organization examines its current performance, assessing its (4) ______ and weaknesses. It looks at performance indicators like market share, sales revenue, output and, productivity. It also examines its (5) ______ – financial, human, products and facilities. For example, a department store chain may have stores in good locations – a strength – but sales revenue (6) ______ employee may be low – a weakness. Next, the company looks at external factors, from the point of view of opportunities and (7) ______. It is trying to assess technological, social, economic and political (8) ______ in the markets where it is competing. It also examines the activities of competitors. The department store chain, for example, may see the (9) ______ to increase profits by providing financial services to customers. On the other hand, increasing (10) ______ may be a threat to its very existence. • GAP FILL 9 Choose the best word or words to fill in the blanks in the following passage. guidance excuses subordinate unwilling high fliers evaluation appraisals criticise need strengths weaknesses over-valued problem obligation roles In spite of the (1) ______ for performance appraisals, people do not like them. Many managers see (2) ______ as their most unpleasant duty and those who are appraised rarely have a good word to say for the system used by their organisation. One (3) ______ is that the manager is expected to criticise the subordinate and to give (4) ______ at the same time. However, it is not easy for a manager to combine 6
  7. those (5) ______. Many people are naturally suspicious of appraisals. They think managers are trying to find out their (6) ______, so they are on the defensive. Moreover, managers are often (7) ______ to say that a subordinate’s performance has been ‘outstanding’ or ‘bad’. So, the individual is described as being ‘just above average’. This means that (8) ______ in the organisation do not get a good enough evaluation while the work of poor performers may be (9) ______. Finally, many managers do not like to criticise, in writing, a (10) ______ with whom they are working closely, day-by-day. III. READING • READING 1 Read the article and answer the following questions: Cosmopolitan readers queue for Tube job More than 1,400 readers of Cosmopolitan have applied to become a London Tube train driver. London Underground described the response to its single advert in this month’s issue as “exceptional”. Successful applicants will have to get out of bed for regular 4.45 am starts, but the £27,650 salary and up to eight weeks’ holiday may prove sufficient compensation. Lorraine Candy, editor of Cosmo, said the interest her readers had shown demonstrated that young women were not bound by traditional career patterns. “It’s always been a classic thing for boys to want to be train drivers. Now we’re seeing that girls can do it too”, she said. “I don’t think the job is boring or unsexy and I’m sure the passengers couldn’t care less whether the train is being driven by a man or a woman – as long as it’s on time”. The ability to break bad news to travelers more sympathetically is one reason London Underground is keen to increase its number of female drivers from 100 – just three percent of driving staff. Questions: 1. How many adverts did London Underground put in Cosmopolitan? 2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the job? 3. What do passengers care about most? 4. Why does London Underground want to hire more women? • READING 2 Read the online job advertisement for Virgin Atlantic and answer the following questions: Travel Adviser – The Office, Crawley The image At Virgin Atlantic we’re renowned for our high standards of customer service and know that first impressions count. Our Reservations Team creates a rapport with our callers, understanding their needs, and providing advice and assistance on all their travel requirements. The responsibilities are varied and include promoting Virgin’s ever expanding range of services, whilst maintaining our high levels of customer service. The Demands Speaking to around 100 callers each day, you need to be self-motivated whilst maintaining high levels of accuracy in this busy environment. On your shift pattern there will be a variety of start and finish times, including some early mornings and late nights. Don’t forget, shift work means you might have to work weekends and bank holidays. 7
  8. The Interview The interview process consists of a group interview, which will last approximately one and a half hours. You will then take part in a series of exercises. Our experienced recruitment assessors will monitor your performance and look for specific competencies such as customer relationships, service orientation, and attention to detail. If you are successful through the group stage, you will be asked to attend an individual interview with two recruitment assessors. You will be notified of the outcome of this final stage in writing. The Rewards The starting salary is generous and, as a shift worker, you will also receive a shift allowance. There is an increase to the basic salary on successful completion of your six-month probationary period. On completion of the probationary period, you will be entitled to a generous holiday allowance and discretionary benefits package which includes a pension, life assurance, Virgin Group discount scheme, and concessionary travel (one of the best in the business!) Questions: 1 What are the hours of work exactly? 2 What are the main responsibilities of the job? 3 What will the interview consist of and how will we learn the results? 4 What other benefits do you offer? 5 Does everyone receive the same benefits package? • READING 3 Read the passage and answer the questions that follow. Large British companies generally have a chairman of the board of directors who oversees operations, and a managing director (MD) who is responsible for the day-to-day running of the company. It smaller companies, the roles of chairman and managing director are usually combined. Americans tend to use the term president rather than chairman, and chief executive officer (CEO) instead of managing director. The CEO or MD is supported by various executive officers or vice-presidents, each with clearly defined authority and responsibility (production, marketing, finance, personnel, and so on). Top managers are appointed (and sometimes dismissed) by a company’s board of directors. They are supervised and advised and have their decisions and performance review by the board. The directors of private companies were traditionally major shareholder, but this does not apply to large public companies with wide share ownership. Such companies should have boards constituted of experienced people of integrity and with a record of performance in a related business and a willingness to work to make the company successful. In reality, however, companies and political milieu. Yet a board that does not demand high performance and remove inadequate executives will probably eventually find itself attacked and displaced by raiders. 1.What is the responsibility of MD? 2 What is the responsibility of executive officers? 3 Show the difference in the process of appointing top managers between private and public companies. 4How does the Board of Directors appoint top managers in reality? 5When are top managers dismissed? • READING 4 Read the passage and answer the following questions Dealing with Complaints Problems can occur in the best run companies for many reasons, such as over terms and conditions, management decisions, discrimination (on grounds of race, sex, disability, and religion), sexual harassment, bullying, health, and safety issues. 8
  9. Within two months of starting a job, employees are entitled to a written statement setting down the main conditions of their employment. As well as information on pay, hours , holiday entitlement, and notice periods, the statement must also cover what the company will do if they have to discipline an employee for breaking the rules( the warning procedure and who the employee can apply to if they are dissatisfied with a disciplinary decision . All employees have the right to be accompanied by another employee or a union representative at any disciplinary interview. A disciplinary procedure would normally be used when an employee does not follow company policy, breaks rules or displays inappropriate work place behavior. Employees must be fully informed of their inappropriate behavior and given an opportunity to explain themselves. The procedure should be handled in a private and respectful manner and the employee’s previous record should be taken into account. Questions 1. What should employees do if they have a complaint? What role does the labor union play in this case? 2. What are some of the problems that can lead to disciplinary procedures? 3. How does the manager discipline employees if they do something wrong • READING 5 Read the interview and answer the questions that follow. Interviewer: Do you have meetings for members of staff where they can express views about what’s going on in the store? Steve Moody: We have a series of meetings, management and supervisory every week, we have something which Marks & Spencer’s call a focus group, which is members of staff who get together regularly from all areas of the store, so from the food section and perhaps the menswear section, from the office who do the stock and accounting, and indeed the warehouse where people receive goods. They have meetings, they discuss issues, they discuss problems that they feel are going on in the store. They also discuss suggestions of how they can improve that we run the store, and they discuss that amongst themselves first. They will then have a meeting with members of management and obviously myse1f, and we will discuss those issues and work together to try and provide solutions. However, Marks & Spencer’s philosophy, I suppose, is that meetings should not be a substitute for day-to-day communication and therefore if problems do arise in terms of the operation, or an individual has got a problem in their working environment, or indeed their immediate line manager, or indeed if they have a problem outside, which might be domestic, or with their family, we would like to discuss that as it arises and would like to encourage a policy that they will come and talk to their supervisor or their manager, to see what we can do to solve the problem. Questions 1) Steve Moody mentions two kinds of regular meetings. The first is weekly meetings for management and supervisory staff. What is the second kind of meeting called? 2) Who attends them? 3) What are they designed to achieve? 4) What kind of problems cannot be dealt with by meetings? 5) How are such problems dealt with? • READING 6 Read the text and complete the following sentences, using your own words as much as possible. THEORY X AND THEORY Y In The Human Side of Enterprise, Douglas McGregor outlined two opposing theories of work and motivation. What he calls Theory X is the traditional approach to workers and working which assumes that people are lazy and dislike work, and that they have to be both threatened (for example, with losing their job) and rewarded. It assumes that most people are incapable of taking responsibility for themselves and have to be looked after. Theory Y, on the contrary, assumes that people have a psychological need to work and want achievement and responsibility. 9
  10. Many people assume that Theory Y is more ‘progressive’ and an advance on Theory X, but later theorists argued that it makes much greater demands on both workers and managers than McGregor realized. Abraham Maslow, for example, spent a year studying a Californian company that used Theory Y, and concluded that its demands for responsibility and achievement are excessive for many people. He pointed out that there are always weak and vulnerable people, with little self-discipline, who need protection against the burden of responsibility. Even strong and healthy people need the security of order and direction. Managers cannot simply substitute Theory Y for Theory X. They have to replace the security provided by Theory X with a different structure of security and certainty. Questions 1) According to Theory X, employers have to threaten workers because 2) According to Theory Y, employers should give their workers responsibilities because 3) Maslow criticized Theory Y because 4) Maslow argued that even though they might want to be given responsibilities at work • READING 7 Read the following text and complete the following sentences, using your own words as much as possible. ‘SATISFIERS’ AND ‘MOTIVATORS’ It is logical to suppose that things like good labor relations, good working conditions, good wages and benefits, and job security motivate workers. But in Work and the Nature of Man, Frederick Herzberg argued that such conditions do not motivate workers. They are merely ‘satisfiers’ or, more importantly, ‘dissatisfiers’ where they do not exist. ‘Motivators’, on the contrary, include things such as having a challenging and interesting job, recognition and responsibility, promotion, and so on. However, even with the development of computers and robotics, there are and always will be plenty of boring, mindless, repetitive and mechanical jobs in all three sectors of the economy, and lots of unskilled people who have to do them. So how do managers motivate people in such jobs? One solution is to give them some responsibilities, not as individuals but as part of a team. For example, some supermarkets combine office staff, the people who fill the shelves, and the people who work on the checkout tills into a team and let them decide what product lines to stock, how to display them, and so on. Other employers ensure that people in repetitive jobs change them every couple of hours, as doing four different repetitive jobs a day is better than doing only one. Many people now talk about the importance of a company’s shared values or corporate culture, with which all the staff can identify: for example, being the best hotel chain, or hamburger restaurant chain, or airline, or making the best, the safest, the most user-friendly, the most ecological or the most reliable products in a particular field. Such values are more likely to motivate workers than financial targets, which ultimately only concern a few people. Unfortunately, there is only a limited number of such goals to go round, and by definition, not all the competing companies in an industry can seriously claim to be the best. Questions 1) Herzberg suggested that good labor relations and working conditions According to Herzberg, the kind of things that motivate 2) The problem with saying that only challenging, interesting and responsible jobs are motivating is that 3) Ways of motivating people in unskilled jobs include 4) The problem with trying to motivate workers by the belief that their company is the best is that • READING 8 Read the passage and answer the questions that follow. Unipart International is a large multinational in the automotive industry. Sarah Jane Hallard is a recent recruit who is describing her early years in the company. 10
  11. ‘My first year with Unipart International involved a brief but high level introduction to the company. I was then given specific areas with widely varied tasks to complete within set deadlines. This process gave me a good understanding of how Unipart works, its different areas and how they interact. In the second year I became a supply chain manager and a buyer. As a buyer I was responsible for an annual budget of £5.5m. In my third year, I was given the role of Principal Engineer for cooling products. With the support of my team I was given a car and mobile phone and launched into the world of supplier development. While I was working as a cooling engineer, I became involved in environment-related projects. After just another year I went back to university and completed an MSc in Environmental Management. Then it was back to work applying what I’d learnt and combining it with the business and management skills I had learnt at Oxford University. For me the next step is to expand my management skill base so that I can more effectively manage the financial and marketing elements of projects.’ Questions 1. What challenges did she face in the second and third years? 2. What other formal training has she received? 3. What does she want to do next? MARKETING I. THEORETICAL QUESTIONS 1. Marketing and Marketing Mix 2. Components of Product – Types of Products 3. Brand and Branding 4. Product Differentiations 5. Product Life Cycles 6. Pricing and Pricing Objectives 7. Channel of Distribution 8. Comparisons of Common Distribution Systems 9. Sales promotions 10. PR II. GAP FILL • GAP FILL 1 Choose one suitable word to fill into each gap in the extract. Mark your answer by writing the numbers in the blanks before the words in the box. ____ offers ____ belonging ____ satisfy ____ exchanging ____ needs ____ factor ____ commercials ____ profits ____ advertising ____ stiff What does the term marketing really mean? Many people mistakenly think of it as ___ (1) ___ and selling. Given the number of ___ (2) ___ on television, in magazines and newspapers and all the signs and ___ (3) ___ in and around the shops this is not surprising. However, advertising and selling are only two of several marketing functions, and not necessarily the most important ones. The most basic concept underlying marketing is that of human ___ (4) ___. We have many needs including ones such as affection, knowledge and a sense of ___ (5) ___ as well as the physical need for food, warmth and shelter. A good deal of our lives is devoted to obtaining what will ___ (6) 11
  12. ___ those needs. Marketing can thus be defined as any human activity which is directed at satisfying needs and wants by creating and ___ (7) ___ goods and value with others. Marketing has become a key ___ (8) ___ in the success of business. Today’s companies face ___(9)___ competition and the companies which can best satisfy customer needs are those which will survive and make the largest ___(10)___. • GAP FILL 2 Choose one suitable word to fill into each gap in the extract. Mark your answer by writing the numbers in the blanks before the words in the box. ____ what ____ needs ____ attempting ____ segments ____ offer ____ market ____ changed ____ necessary ____ industrial ____ distributing The marketing concept is that a company’s choice of ___ (1) ___ goods and services to ___ (2) ___ should be based the goal of satisfying consumers’ ___ (3) ___. Many companies limit themselves to ___ (4) ___ to satisfy the needs of particular market ___ (5) ___. Their choice of action is often the result of ___ (6) ___ research. A product’s feature, the methods of ___(7)___ and promoting it, and its price can all be ___(8)___ during the course of its life, if ___(9)___. Quite apart from the marketing of consumer products, with which everybody is familiar, there is a great deal of marketing of ___ (10) ___ goods. • GAP FILL 3 Choose one suitable word to fill into each gap in the extract. Mark your answer by writing the numbers in the blanks before the words in the box. ____ media ____ sensitivity ____ magazines ____ set up ____ copy-writer ____ size ____ market ____ potential ____ budgets ____ where Marketing and promotion involve letting ___(1)___ customers know about a new product both before it is made and after it becomes available for sale. Advertisements in the local and national press and exhibitions in areas ___(2)___ there is likely to be a good market are among the ways in which this is done; the choice of ___(3)___ – magazines, newspapers, radio and TV – for the advertisements and of locations for exhibitions is made as a result of thorough ___(4)___ research, so that money (all marketing departments have tightly controlled ___(5)___) is spent where it is most likely to produce results. The advertising copy, usually provided by a specialist ___ (6) ___ and set out by a designer to have the most impact, is probably the most common form of promotion, although the way in which stands are ___ (7) ___ at exhibitions is also extremely important. “News” items leaked to trade ___ (8) ___ are also important – and they are free! Trade Associations and Chambers of Commerce can provide advice about the ___ (9) ___ of markets, their location, and also about such things as price ___ (10) ___ and import controls in specific area • GAP FILL 4 Choose one suitable word to fill into each gap in the extract. Mark your answer by writing the numbers in the blanks before the words in the box. ____ benefits ____ designed ____ existence ____ form ____ institutional ____ paid ____ persuade ____ providers ____ reputation ____ word-of-mouth 12
  13. Advertising informs consumers about the ___ (1) ___ and benefits of products and services, and attempts to ___ (2) ___ them to buy them. The best ___ (3) ___ of advertising is probably ___ (4) ___ advertising, which occurs when people tell their friends about the ___ (5) ___ of products or services that they have purchased. Yet virtually no ___ (6) ___ of goods or services rely on this alone, but use ___ (7) ___ advertising instead. Indeed, many organizations also use ___ (8) ___ or prestige advertising, which is ___ (9) ___ to build up their ___ (10) ___ rather than to sell particular products. • GAP FILL 5 Choose one suitable word to fill into each gap in the extract. Mark your answer by writing the numbers in the blanks before the words in the box. ___ off-season ___ adapted ___ loss-leader ___ reactions ___ attract ___ marketing ___ volumes ___ discounts ___ prices ___ competitors All prices can be __ (1) __. Most companies offer cash __ (2) __ to customers who pay immediately, and quantity discounts to buyers of large __ (3) __. Many products and services are sold at a lower price during an __ (4) __. Retailers often offer some __ (5) __ prices: they cut the prices of selected products to cost price or below in order to __ (6) __ customers who also buy other goods. Companies are also often obliged to react to price war by __ (7) __. They might try to avoid a price war by modifying other elements of the __ (8) __ mix. Similarly, they have to anticipate competitors __ (9) __ if they change their own __ (10) __. • GAP FILL 6 Choose one suitable word to fill into each gap in the extract. Mark your answer by writing the numbers in the blanks before the words in the box. ____ distribution ____ area ____ audience ____ cost ____ competition ____ convenience ____ demand ____ customer ____ emotions ____ presentation Advertising is a nonpersonal ___ (1) ___ of goods, services, or ideas aimed at a mass audience. It is particularly suited for products that are widely distributed, such as ___ (2) ___ goods. There are several methods of advertising and several media. The method selected depends upon the product, the ___ (3) ___ of the market, and the type of information which the company wishes to convey about its product. For example, television advertising reaches a large___ (4) ___. It has the advantage of appealing to the ___ (5) ___ of the audience through the senses of sight and sound. Television advertisements are expensive to produce and must be repeated thousands of times in order to justify the ___ (6) ___ of production. Newspaper advertisements, on the other hand, can appear on a particular day in a particular geographic ___ (7) ___. A newspaper advertisement can contain a lot of written detail that appeals to the logic of the reader. It explains why he should purchase a particular product or service. In general, advertising works best when the ___ (8) ___for a product is increasing. It also works well when there are real differences between two or more similar products such as the different types of cars. Using advertising, a company can emphasize the differences between its product and that of the ___ (9) ___. The purpose of advertising is to communicate information that convinces a ___ (10) ___ to buy a specific product. • GAP FILL7 Choose the best word to fill in the blanks in the following passage: lives designed manufactured developed discontinue 13
  14. tested improvements distribution promoted available The life cycle of product All products have a life cycle. New products are being (1) ……………… all the time to replace older products which are coming to the end of their (2) ……………… The cycle begins when a new product is (3) ………………. At the stage, there is only a plan or a drawing, which is then used when the product is (4) ……………… Nobody knows how well the new product works, or how good it is, so it has to be (5) ……………… On the basis of the test results, it may have to be modified. Once the necessary (6) ……………… have been made, the product is ready to be launched and then (7) ……………… in a number of advertising campaigns. Advertising plays a very important role, and so does (8) ……………… Indeed, the company has to make sure that its new products is (9) ……………… to as many customers as possible. Eventually, when it is clear that sales are going down steadily, the company will probably decide to (10) ……………… the product. • GAP FILL 8 Choose the best word to fill in the blanks in the following passage: drop front-line share providing on excellence do demand investment under Customer Service The way a company approaches customer service is one of the most important factors in determining its future success or failure. No matter what a company does, it is always in the business of (1) ……………… customer service. If you take a look at companies that are not doing well or have gone (2) ………………, one of their common features is their inability to deliver reliable and efficient customer service. All successful companies, on the other hand, understand and deliver what their customers want and strongly believe in the value of customer service training for management and (3) ……………… employees. Companies which fail to view customer service training as an (4) ……………… are likely to remain in business only if they manage to keep a large number of first-time consumers. Moreover, they will probably end up losing market (5) ……………… and experiencing a (6) ……………… in profit unless they keep introducing new products and spending massively (7) ……………… advertising. Successful companies, however, are the one which have grasped that in today’s extremely competitive marketplace, being good is just not good enough anymore. Customers have become much more (8) ……………… and expect nothing less than (9) ……………… in customer service. One of the keys to success is for a company to develop efficient means of communication between management and employees. This invariably has a direct positive effect on the customer. As a matter of fact, a company which is good to work for is usually one which is good to (10) ……………… business with. • GAP FILL 9 Choose the best word to fill in the blanks in the following passage: research competitive appeal segments successful choice profile sales needs beliefs A brand can be defined as a name given to a product by a company so that the product can easily be recognized by its name or its design. In our very (1)……………… business world, a good brand is one of the keys to the success of any company. It is often a powerful (2)……………… tool. However, the name is not everything. For a brand to be successful, marketers have to know what the consumer (3)……………… and wants, so a lot of market (4)……………… is necessary. This gives them a 14
  15. ‘consumer (5) ………………’, that is to say a kind of picture of the typical customer. It is a picture not only of the customer’s needs and wants, but also of their (6) ……………… and values. If the brand then clearly reflects those values, it is more likely to be (7) ………………. The customer has so much (8)……………… nowadays that a good brand is a necessity, so that one product is clearly different from another in his or her mind. A good brand of course has long – tern benefits, as it will (9)……………… to many different market (10)……………… and to people from different cultures. • GAP FILL 10 Choose the best word to fill in the blanks in the following passage: differentiate brand gain logo quality communication persuade customer advantage company The dictionary defines “advertise” as “to make (something for sale, services offered, etc) known to the public”. Advertising can therefore be considered a form of (1) ……………… , the ultimate aim of which is to (2) ……………… consumers to choose a specific product or service. Every company tries to (3) ……………… its products from those of the competition, and a key element here is the strategy of branding. A (4) ……………… can be defined was the name attached to a product or service, how that name is visually expressed through a (5)……………… and how that name and logo are extended throughout a company’s communications. However, a brand is much more than just a noun. It also represents to some intangible aspects of a product, as it is how the product or often even the whole (6) ……………… is perceived by its (7) ………………. It is a nexus of ideas feelings, and perceptions about lifestyle, image and (8) ………………. Creating a powerful brand identity is essential to (9) ……………… a strong competitive (10) ………………. A successful brand will make customer think of your company first when they think of the particular product category to which the brand attached III. READING • READING 1 Read the passage and answer the questions that follow. Advertising informs consumers about the existence and benefits of products and services, and attempts to persuade them to buy them. The best form of advertising is free word of mouth advertising, which occurs when satisfied customers recommend products or services to their friends, but very few companies rely on this alone. Large companies could easily set up their own advertising departments, but they tend to hire the services of an advertising agency. A contract to produce the advertisements for a specific company, product, or service is known as an account. The client company generally decides on its advertising budget, the amount of money it plans to spend in developing its advertising and buying media time or space. It also provides a brief, or a statement of the objectives of the advertising, as well as an overall advertising strategy concerning what message is to be communicated. The choice of how and where to advertise (newspapers and magazine ads, radio and television commercials, cinema ads, posters on hoardings (BG) or billboards (US), point-of-purchase displays in stores, mailings of leaflets, brochures, or booklets, and so on), and in what proportions, is called a media plan. The set of customers whose needs a company plans to satisfy, and therefore to expose to an advertisement is known as the target market. The advertising of a particular product or service during a particular period of time is called an advertising campaign. Favorable mentions of a company’s product or service, in any medium read, viewed or heard by a company’s customers or potential customers, that are not paid for, are called publicity. 15
  16. Questions 1. What is the role of advertising in promotion mix? 2. What is the limit of word of mouth advertising? 3. Why do large companies tend to hire the services of an advertising agency? 4. Explain the target market. • READING 2 Read the passage and answer the following questions. How are prices set? Through most of history, prices were set by buyers and sellers negotiating with each other. Sellers would ask for a higher price than they expected to receive, and buyers would offer less than they expected to pay. Through bargaining, they would arrive at an acceptable price. Setting one price for all buyers is a relatively modern idea. It was given impetus by the development of large-scale retailing at the cud of the nineteenth century. F.W. Woolworth, Tiffany and Co., John Wanamaker, J.L. Hudson. and others advertised a strictly one-price policy because they carried so many items and supervised so many employees. Through most of history, price has operated as the major determinant of buyer choice. This is still true in poorer nations, among poorer groups, and with commodity-type products. However, nonprice factors have become relatively more important in buyer-choice behavior in recent decades. Yet price still remains one of the most important elements determining company market share and profitability. Price is the only element in the marketing mix that produces revenue: the other elements represent costs. Yet many companies do not handle pricing well. The most common mistakes are: pricing is too cost oriented; price is not revised often enough to capitalize on market changes: price is set independently of the rest of the marketing mix rather than as an intrinsic element of market- positioning strategy; and price is not varied enough for different product items and market segments. Companies handle pricing in a variety of ways. In small companies, prices are often set by top management rather than by the marketing or sales department. In large companies, pricing is typically handled by divisional and product-line managers. Even here, top management sets the general pricing objectives and policies and often approves the prices proposed by lower levels of management. In industries where pricing is a key factor (aerospace, railroads, oil companies), companies will often establish a pricing department to set prices or assist others in determining appropriate prices. This department reports either to the marketing department or top management. Others who exert an influence on pricing include sales managers, production managers, finance managers, and accountants. Questions 1) What does the ‘one-price policy’ means? 2) Why did the one-price policy come into existence? 3) What is a major difference between price and the other 3Ps? 4) Historically, which of the 4 Ps has been most important? 5) Why should prices be reviewed? • READING 3 THE WORLD’S CHAMPION MARKETERS: THE JAPANESE? The Japanese have performed an economic miracle since World War II. In a very short time, they have achieved global market leadership in many industries. Some credit the global success of Japanese Companies to their unique business and management practices. Others point to the help they get from Japan’s government, powerful trading companies, and banks. Still others say Japan’s success is based on low wage rates and unfair dumping policies. In any case, one of the main keys to Japan’s success is certainly its skillful use of marketing. The Japanese came to the United States to study marketing and went home understanding it better than many US 16
  17. companies do. They know how to select a market, enter it in the right way, build market share, and protect that share against competitors. Selecting Markets. The Japanese work hard to identify attractive global markets. First, they look for industries that require high skills and high labor intensity but few natural resources. There include consumer electronics, cameras, watches, motorcycles. Second, they like markets in which consumers around the world would be willing to buy the same product designs. Finally, they look for industries in which market leaders are weak and complacent. Entering Markets: Japanese study teams spend several months evaluating a target market, searching for market niches that are not being satisfied. Sometimes they start with a low – priced, stripped – down version of a product, sometimes with a product that is as good as the competitor’s but priced lower, sometimes with a product with higher quality or new features. The Japanese also line up good distribution channels in order to provide quick service. They also use effective advertising to bring products to the consumer’s attention. Their basic entry strategy is to build market share rather than early profits. The Japanese are often willing to wait as long as decade before realizing the profits. Building Market Share: Once Japanese firms gain a market foothold, they began to expand market share. They pour money into product improvements and new models so that they can offer more and better products than the competition. They spot new opportunities through market segmentation, develop markets in new countries, and work to build a network of world markets and production locations. Protecting Market Share: Once the Japanese achieve market leadership, they become defenders rather than attackers. Their defense strategy is continuous product development and refined market segmentation. Questions 1. What the main reason does the author give for Japan’s success? 2. How many other reasons are mentioned? 3. What are the three main actions to enter the markets? 4. What are the three main strategies to build market share? 5. What are the two main strategies to protect market share? • READING 4 SALES PROMOTION: Sales promotion includes a wide assortment of tools – coupons, contests, cents – off deals, premiums, and others – and these tools have many unique qualities. They attract consumer attention and provide information that may lead the consumer to buy the product. They offer strong incentives to purchase by providing inducements or contributions that give additional value to consumers. And sales promotions invite and reward quick response. While advertising says ‘buy our products,’ sales promotion says ‘buy it now’. Companies use sales – promotion tools to create a stronger and quicker response. Sales promotion can be used to dramatize product offers and to boost sagging sales. However, sales – promotion effects are usually short – lived and are not effective in building long – run brand preference. Questions: 1. Draw up a table listing the positive and negative features of sales promotion. 2. Which types of sales promotion does the passage list? • READING 5 Read the passage and answer the following questions Fast food was not common in Japan when Kentucky Fried Chicken decided to enter the market. The company saw a promising business opportunity and found ways to overcome potential obstacles. Japan is a rich, populous country of some 120 million, 90 percent of whom consider themselves middle class. It is thus the second largest consumer economy in the world, outranked only by the United States itself. The Japanese are well disposed toward U.S. citizens and their products; Western models and celebrities, for example, appear frequently in Japanese advertising… 17
  18. Japan is the restaurant capital of the world, with one eating establishment for every eighty-one people. In recent years, with income rising and leisure time more plentiful, the industry has boomed. Fast food in particular has proved inordinately popular, growing by a factor of six in the last ten years… Kentucky Fried Chicken began its Japanese operation with two test operations, one at Expo in Osaka, the other in a Tokyo department store. The company had a good product to offer: Chicken is popular in Japan anyway, and KFC’s chicken tasted a little like yakitori, the broiled chicken on a stick that is one of Japan’s most popular dishes. Still, the experiments were successful beyond all expectations. The Expo outlet broke records Sales there reached $100,000 a month. Shortly thereafter KFC set up a fifty-fifty joint venture with Mitsubishi, the giant Japanese trading company. Mitsubishi could guide KFC through Japanese bureaucracy, making sure it complied with5 applicable laws and followed appropriate customs. In addition, a year before, Mitsubishi had bought heavily into the chicken feed and farm business. Now, it gave KFC access to well-developed sources of supply. And it had an interest of its own. It could sell its chickens to KFC, which would be only too delighted to have a reliable supply. Questions 1. What are the advantages for KFC when entering the Japanese market? 2. What are the disadvantages for KFC when doing business in Japan? • READING 6 Personal selling Personal selling is the most effective tool at certain stages of the buying process, particularly in building up buyers’ preferences, convictions, and actions. As compared with advertising, personal selling has several unique qualities. It involves personal interaction between two or more people, so each person can observe the other’s needs and characteristics and make quick adjustments. Personal selling also lets all kinds of relationships spring up, ranging from a matter – of – fact selling relationship to a deep personal friendship. The effective salesperson keeps the customer’s interests at heart in order to build a long – run relationship. Finally, the buyer usually feels a greater need to listen and respond, even if the response is a polite ‘no thank you’. These unique qualities come at a cost. A sales force requires a longer – term commitment than advertising – advertising can be turned on and off, but sales force size is harder to change. And personal selling is the company’s most expensive promotion tool. American firms spend up to three times as much on personal selling as they do on advertising. Questions 1. Draw up a table listing the positive and negative features of personal selling. 2. What sorts of goods are personal selling most used for? THE END 18



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