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 Symbols Symbols A Crosssectional area of a pile, Equation Aw Area of shear reinforcement, Equation (49) (712) Crosssectional area of shear wall Nominal area of the web, Equation (57) boundary members or diaphragm chords Area of link stiffener web, Equation in.2, Equations (82), (84), (85) (528), (531) Area of the web cross section, = bwd, Ab Gross area of bolt or rivet, Equations Chapter 6 (518), (522), (524) Sum of net mortared area of bed joints Ax Accidental torsion amplification factor, above and below the test unit, Equation Equation (31) (72) B Width of footing, Equations (46), (47), Ac Area of column, Equation (58) (48) Ae Effective net area of the horizontal leg, B1 Damping coefficient used to adjust one Equation (520) second period spectral response for the effect of viscous damping, , Equations Ag Gross area of the horizontal leg, Equation (110), (111) (519) Gross area of cast iron column, Equation BD1 Numerical damping coefficient taken (536) equal to the value of B1, as set forth in Gross area of column, in.2, Equation (64) Table 16, at effective damping β equal to the value of βD, Equation (92) Aj Effective crosssectional area of a beam column joint, in.2, in a plane parallel to BM1 Numerical damping coefficient taken plane of reinforcement generating shear in equal to the value of B1, as set forth in the joint calculated as specified in Table 16, at effective damping β equal to Section 6.5.2.3.1, Equation (65) the value of βM, Equation (94) An Area of net mortared/grouted section, BS Coefficient used to adjust shortperiod Equations (71), (73), (75), (77), (79), spectral response for the effect of viscous (710), (711), (713) damping, Equations (18), (19), (111) Ani Area of net mortared/grouted section of C (or Cj ) Damping coefficient for viscoelastic masonry infill, Equation (715) device (or device j), Equations (922), (924), (929), (930), (935), (937) As Area of nonprestressed tension reinforce ment, in.2, Tables 618, 620 C0 Modification factor to relate spectral Area of reinforcement, Equation (713) displacement of an equivalent SDOF sys tem to the roof displacement of the build A′s Area of compression reinforcement, in.2, ing MDOF system, Equation (315) Tables 618, 620 Damping coefficient for fluidviscous device, Equation (925) C1 Modification factor to relate expected maximum inelastic displacements to dis placements calculated for linear elastic response, Equations (35), (36), (310), (315), (319) FEMA 356 Seismic Rehabilitation Prestandard Symbols1
 Symbols C2 Modification factor to represent the effects DCR Demandcapacity ratio, computed in of pinched hysteresis shape, stiffness deg accordance with Equation (21) or required radation and strength deterioration on the in Equation (22) maximum displacement response, ____ Average demandcapacity ratio for a story, Equations (35), (36), (310), (315), DCR (319) computed in accordance with Equation (22) C3 Modification factor to represent increased displacements due to p∆ effects, Equa DD Design displacement, in. (mm) at the cen tions (35), (36), (310), (315), (317), ter of rigidity of the isolation system in the (319) direction under consideration, Equations (92), (96), (98), (910), (914), (915), Cb Coefficient to account for effect of nonuni (918), (922) form moment given in AISC (1993) LRFD Specifications, Equation (59) D′D Design Earthquake target displacement, in. (mm) at a control node located at the cen CFi Stage combination factors for use with ter of mass of the first floor above the velocitydependent energy dissipation isolation system in the direction under con devices as calculated by Equations (931) sideration, as prescribed by Equation or (932) (910) Cm Effective mass factor from Table 31, DM Maximum displacement, in. (mm) at the Equations (310), (316) center of rigidity of the isolation system in the direction under consideration, Ct Numerical value for adjustment of period Equations (94), (97), (911), (916), T, Equation (37) (917), (919) Cvx Vertical distribution factor for the pseudo D′M BSE2 target displacement, in. (mm) at a lateral load, Equations (311), (312) control node located at the center of mass D Generalized deformation, unitless of the first floor above the isolation system in the direction under consideration, as Relative displacement between two ends prescribed by Equation (911) of an energy dissipation unit, Equations (91), (920), (922) Dp Relative seismic displacement that the component must be designed to accommo D– Maximum negative displacement of an date, Equations (118), (119), (1110), energy dissipation unit, Equations (921), (1111) (923) Dr Drift ratio for nonstructural components, D+ Maximum positive displacement of an Equation (117) energy dissipation unit, Equations (921), (923) DTD Total design displacement, in. (mm) of an • element of the isolation system, including D Relative velocity between two ends of an both translational displacement at the energy dissipation unit, Equations (922), center of rigidity and the component of (925) torsional displacement in the direction Dave Average displacement of an energy dissi under consideration, as specified by pation unit, equal to (D+ + D–)/2, Equation (96) Equation (924) Dclear Required clearance between a glass component and the frame, Equation (119) Symbols2 Seismic Rehabilitation Prestandard FEMA 356
 Symbols DTM Total maximum displacement, in. (mm) of Fcr Allowable axial buckling stress, see an element of the isolation system, Equation (536) including both translational displacement at the center of rigidity and the component FEXX Classification strength of weld metal, of torsional displacement in the direction Chapter 5 under consideration, as specified by Fi Inertia force at floor level i, Equation Equation (97) (927) E Young’s modulus of elasticity, Equations Lateral load applied at floor level i, (49), (51), (52), (517), (82), (84), Equation (313) (85) Fmi mth mode horizontal inertia force at floor Ec Modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi, level i, Equation (934) Equation (66) Fp Horizontal seismic force for design of a Efe Expected elastic modulus of frame structural or nonstructural component and material, ksi, Equation (714) its connection to the structure, Equations (23), (24), (25), (26), (27) ELoop Energy dissipated, in kipinches (kNmm), Component seismic design force applied in an isolator unit during a full cycle of horizontally at the center of gravity of the reversible load over a test displacement component or distributed according to the range from ∆+ to ∆, as measured by the mass distribution of the component, area enclosed by the loop of the Equations (111), (112), (113), (114) forcedeflection curve, Equation (913) Fpv Component seismic design force applied Eme Expected elastic modulus of masonry in vertically at the center of gravity of the compression as determined per component or distributed according to the Section 7.3.2.4, Equation (714) mass distribution of the component, Equations (112), (115), (116) Es Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, psi, Chapter 6 Fpx Diaphragm lateral force at floor level x, Equation (313) Ese Expected elastic modulus of reinforcing steel per Section 7.3.2.8 Fte Expected tensile strength, Equations (520), (522), (524) F Force in an energy dissipation unit, Equations (91), (920), (922), (925) Fv Factor to adjust spectral acceleration at one second for site class, Equation (18) F– Negative force, in k, in an isolator or Design shear strength of bolts or rivets, energy dissipation unit during a single Chapter 5 cycle of prototype testing at a displace ment amplitude of ∆−, Equations (912), Fve Unfactored nominal shear strength of bolts (921), (923), (938) or rivets given in AISC(1993) LRFD Specifications, Equation (518) F+ Positive force, in k, in an isolator or energy Fx Lateral load applied at floor level x, dissipation unit during a single cycle of prototype testing at a displacement Equation (311) amplitude of ∆+, Equations (912), (921), Fy Specified minimum yield stress for the (923), (938) type of steel being used, Equation (57) Fa Factor to adjust spectral acceleration in the Fyb Fy of a beam, Chapter 5 shortperiod range for site class, Equation (17) Fyc Fy of a column, Chapter 5 FEMA 356 Seismic Rehabilitation Prestandard Symbols3
 Symbols Fye Expected yield strength, Equations (51) to J A coefficient used in linear procedures to (58), (519), (523), (525), (531), (534) estimate the actual forces delivered to forcecontrolled components by other Fyf Fy of a flange, Chapter 5 (yielding) components, Equations (35), (319) FyLB Lowerbound yield strength, Chapter 5 K Length factor for brace; defined in AISC G Soil Shear modulus, Equation (46) (1993) LRFD Specifications, Chapter 5 Shear modulus of steel, Equations (528), (533) K’ Storage stiffness as prescribed by Equation Modulus of rigidity of wood structural (923) panels, psi, Equations (82), (84), (85) K" Loss stiffness as prescribed by Equation Gd Shear stiffness of shear wall or diaphragm (924) assembly, Equations (81), (83) Kθ Rotational stiffness of a partially restrained Gme Shear modulus of masonry as determined connection, Equations (515), (516), per Section 7.3.2.7 (517) Go Initial or maximum shear modulus, Kb Flexural stiffness, Equations (527), (529) Equations (44), (45) KDmax Maximum effective stiffness, in k/in., of H Thickness of a soil layer in feet, the isolation system at the design displace Chapter 11 ment in the horizontal direction under Horizontal load on footing, Chapter 4 consideration, as prescribed by Equation (914) Hrw Height of the retaining wall, Equation (411) KDmin Minimum effective stiffness, in k/in. (kN/ mm), of the isolation system at the design I Moment of inertia, Equation (66) displacement in the horizontal direction Ib Moment of inertia of a beam, Equations under consideration, as prescribed by (51), (517) Equation (915) Ic Moment of inertia of a column, Equation Ke Effective stiffness of the building in the (52) direction under consideration, for use with the NSP, Equation (314) Icol Moment of inertia of column section, Elastic stiffness of a link beam, Equation (714) Equations (527), (530) If Moment of inertia of most flexible frame Ki Elastic stiffness of the building in the member confining infill panel, Chapter 7 direction under consideration, for use with the NSP, Equation (314) Ig Moment of inertia of gross concrete sec tion about centroidal axis, neglecting KMmax Maximum effective stiffness, in k/in., of reinforcement, Chapter 6 the isolation system at the maximum displacement in the horizontal direction Ip Component performance factor; 1.0 shall under consideration, as prescribed by be used for the Life Safety Nonstructural Equation (916) Performance Level and 1.5 shall be used for the Immediate Occupancy Nonstruc KMmin Minimum effective stiffness, in k/in., of tural Performance Level, Equations (111), the isolation system at the maximum (113), (114), (115), (116) displacement in the horizontal direction under consideration, as prescribed by Equation (917) Symbols4 Seismic Rehabilitation Prestandard FEMA 356
 Symbols Ks Shear stiffness, Equations (527), (528) MCEx Expected bending strength of a member about the xaxis, Equations (510), L Length of footing in plan dimension, (511), (513), (61) Equations (47), (48) Length of pile in vertical dimension, MCEy Expected bending strength of a member Equation (49) about yaxis, Equations (510), (511), Length of member along which deforma (513), (61) tions are assumed to occur, Chapter 6 MCLx Lowerbound flexural strength of the Length of wall or pier, Equations (74), member about the xaxis, Equation (512) (75) Diaphragm span, distance between shear MCLy Lowerbound flexural strength of the walls or collectors, Equations (83), (84), member about the yaxis, Equation (512) (85) MgCS Moment acting on the slab column strip, Lb Length or span of beam, Equations (56), Chapter 6 (517) Mn Nominal moment strength at section, Distance between points braced against Chapter 6 lateral displacement of the compression flange or between points braced to prevent MnCS Nominal moment strength of the slab twist of the crosssections; given in AISC column strip, Chapter 6 (1993) LRFD Specifications, Equation (59) MOT Total overturning moment induced on the element by seismic forces applied at and Linf Length of infill panel, Equations (717), above the level under consideration, (719) Equations (35), (36) Lp The limiting unbraced length between MPCE Expected plastic moment capacity, points of lateral restraint for the full plastic Equation (56) moment capacity to be effective; given in AISC (1993) LRFD Specifications, MST Stabilizing moment produced by dead Equations (56), (59) loads acting on the element, Equations (35), (36) Lr The limiting unbraced length between points of lateral support beyond which MUD Design moment, Chapter 6 elastic lateral torsional buckling of the MUDx Design bending moment about x axis for beam is the failure mode; given in AISC axial load PUF, kipin., Equation (61) (1993) LRFD Specifications, Equation (59) MUDy Design bending moment about y axis for M Design moment at a section, Equation axial load PUF, kipin., Equation (61) (64) MUFx Bending moment in the member about the Moment on masonry section, Equation xaxis, calculated in accordance with (711) Section 3.4.2.1.2, Equation (512) Mc Ultimate moment capacity of footing, MUFy Bending moment in the member about the Equation (48) yaxis, calculated in accordance with MCE Expected flexural strength of a member or Section 3.4.2.1.2, Equation (512) joint, Equation (53), (54), (56), Mx Bending moment in a member for the (515), (516), (518), (522), (524), xaxis, Equations (510), (511), (513) (525), (526), (532) FEMA 356 Seismic Rehabilitation Prestandard Symbols5
 Symbols My Bending moment in a member for the Pi Portion of the total weight of the structure yaxis, Equations (510), (511), (513) including dead, permanent live, and 25% Yield moment strength at section, of transient live loads acting on the Equation (66) columns and bearing walls within story level i, Equation (32) N Number of piles in a pile group, Equation (49) Po Nominal axial load strength at zero eccentricity, Chapter 6 — Average SPT blow count in soil within the N upper 100 feet of soil, calculated in PR Mean return period, Equation (12) accordance with Equation (28) PUF Design axial force in a member, Equations (N1)60 Standard Penetration Test blow count (510), (511), (512) normalized for an effective stress of 1 ton per square foot and corrected to an Pye Expected yield axial strength of a member, equivalent hammer energy efficiency of Equations (52), (54) 60%, Equation (45) Q Generalized force in a component, Nb Number of bolts or rivets, Equations Figures 23, 25, 51, 61, 71, 81 (518), (522), (524) Qallow Allowable bearing load specified for the Nu Factored axial load normal to crosssection design of deep foundations for gravity occurring simultaneously with Vu. To be loads (dead plus live loads) in the available taken as positive for compression, negative design documents, Equation (42) for tension, and to include effects of Qc Expected bearing capacity of deep or tension due to creep and shrinkage, shallow foundation, Equations (42), (43), Equation (64) (47) P Vertical load on footing, Equation (48) QCE Expected strength of a component or ele Axial force in a member, Equations (52), ment at the deformation level under con (54) sideration, Equations (21), (320), (53) to Pc Lower bound of vertical compressive (58), (518), (522), (524), (525), (526), strength for wall or pier, Equations (77), (530), (531), (532), (534), (535), (73), (74), (715) (713) QCEb Expected bending strength of the beam, PCE Expected axial strength of a member or joint, Equations (519), (520), (521), Equation (514) (526) QCL Lowerbound estimate of the strength of a Expected gravity compressive force, component or element at the deformation Equations (71), (74) level under consideration, Equations (321), (536), (65), (75) to (78), (713), PCL Lowerbound axial strength of column, (721) Equations (510), (511), (512), (536) Lower bound axial compressive force due QCLc Lowerbound strength of the connection, to gravity loads specified in Equation (34) Equation (514) PEY Probability of exceedance in Y years, QD Design action due to dead load, Equations expressed as a decimal, Equation (12) (33), (34) PI Plasticity Index for soil, determined as the QE Design action due to design earthequake difference in water content of soil at the loads, Equations (318), (319) liquid limit and plastic limit, Section 1.6.1.4.1 Symbols6 Seismic Rehabilitation Prestandard FEMA 356
 Symbols QG Design action due to gravity loads, SXS Spectral response acceleration parameter Equation (33), (34), (318), (319) at short periods for the selected Earthquake Hazard Level and damping, adjusted for QL Design action due to live load, Equations site class, and determined in accordance (33), (34) with Section 1.6.1.4 or 1.6.2.1, QS Design action due to snow load, Equations Equation (14), (18), (19), (111), (113), (33), (34) (114), (115), (116), (411), (111), (113), (114), (115), (116) QUD Deformationcontrolled design action due to gravity and earthquake loads, T Fundamental period of the building in the Equations (21), (318), (320) direction under consideration, seconds, Equations (18), (110), (37), (38), QUF Forcecontrolled design action due to grav (39), (310), (929) ity and earthquake loads, Equations (319), Tensile load in column, Equation (513) (321)) T0 Period at which the constant acceleration Qy Yield strength of a component, region of the design response spectrum Figures 23, 25 begins at a value = 0.2TS, Equations (18), Substitute yield strength, Figure 25 (112) Q′y TCE Expected tensile strength of column com R Ratio of the elasticstrength demand to the puted in accordance with Equation (58) yieldstrength coefficient, Equations (315), (316), (317) TD Effective period, in seconds, of the seismicisolated structure at the design ROT Response modification factor for overturn displacement in the direction under ing moment MOT, Equation (36) consideration, as prescribed by Equation (93) Rp Component response modification factor from Table 112, Equation (113)) Te Effective fundamental period of the building in the direction under consider S1 Spectral response acceleration parameter ation, for use with the NSP, Equations at a onesecond period, obtained from (314), (315), (317) response acceleration maps, Equations Effective fundamental period, in seconds, (11), (13), (15) of the building structure above the Sa Spectral response acceleration, g, isolation interface on a fixed base in the Equations (18), (19), (110), (310), direction under consideration, Equations (315), (316) (910), (911) Sn Distance between nth pile and axis of rota Ti Elastic fundamental period of the building tion of a pile group, Equation (410) in the direction under consideration, for use with the NSP, Equation (314) SS Spectral response acceleration parameter at short periods, obtained from response TM Effective period, in seconds, of the seis acceleration maps, Equations (11), micisolated structure at the maximum dis (13), (17) placement in the direction under consideration, as prescribed by Equation SX1 Spectral response acceleration parameter (95) at a onesecond period for any earthquake hazard level and any damping, adjusted for Tm mth mode period of the rehabilitated site class, Equations (15), (110), (111), building including the stiffness of the (113), (114), (115), (116) velocitydependent devices, Equation (935) FEMA 356 Seismic Rehabilitation Prestandard Symbols7
 Symbols TS Period at which the constant acceleration Vi The total calculated lateral shear force in region of the design response spectrum the direction under consideration in an transitions to the constant velocity region, element or at story i due to earthquake Equations (18), (19), (110), (111), response to the selected ground shaking (112), (113), (310), (315) level, as indicated by the selected linear analysis procedure, Equations (22), (32) Tss Secant fundamental period of a rehabili tated building calculated using Equation Vine Expected shear strength of infill panel, (314) but replacing the effective stiffness Equation (715) (Ke) with the secant stiffness (Ks) at the VmL Lower bound shear strength provided by target displacement, Equation (937) masonry, Equations (78), (711) V Pseudo lateral load, Equations (310), Vn Nominal shear strength at section, (311) Equation (65) Design shear force at section, Equation (64) Vo Shear strength of slab at critical section, Shear on masonry section, Equation (711) Chapter 6 V* Modified equivalent base shear, Chapter 9 Vpz Panel zone shear, Chapter 5 Vb The total lateral seismic design force or Vr Expected shear strength of wall or pier shear on elements of the isolation system based on rocking shear, Equation (74) or elements below the isolation system, as prescribed by Equation (98) Vs Nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement, Chapter 6 Vbjs Expected shear strength of wall or pier The total lateral seismic design force or based on bedjoint sliding shear stress, see shear on elements above the isolation Equation (73) system, as prescribed by Section 9.2.4.4.2, Equation (99) Vc Nominal shear strength provided by concrete, Equation (64) VsL Lower bound shear strength provided by shear reinforcement, Equations (78), VCE Expected shear strength of a member, (712) Equations (511), (531), (532), (534) Vt Base shear in the building at the target displacement, Chapter 3 VCL Lower bound shear strength, Equations (78), (79), (710) Vtc Lower bound shear strength based on toe compressive stress for wall or pier, Vdt Lower bound shear strength based on Chapter 7 diagonal tension stress for wall or pier, Chapter 7 Vtest Test load at first movement of a masonry unit, Equation (72) Vfre Expected story shear strength of the bare steel frame taken as the shear cpacity of Vu Factored shear force at section, Chapter 6 the column, Chapter 7 Vy Yield strength of the building in the direc Vg Shear acting on slab critical section due to tion under consideration, for use with the gravity loads, Chapter 6 NSP, Equation (316) Vya Nominal shear strength of a member modi fied by the axial load magnitude, Chapter 5 Symbols8 Seismic Rehabilitation Prestandard FEMA 356
 Symbols W Weight of a component, calculated as a Parameter used to measure deformation specified in this standard, Chapter 2. capacity in component loaddeformation Effective seismic weight of a building curves, Figures 23, 51, 61 including total dead load and applicable Clear width of wall between columns, portions of other gravity loads listed in Equations (533), (534) Section 3.3.1.3.1, Equations (310), (316) Equivalent width of infill strut, The total seismic dead load in kips (kN). Equations (714), (716), (717), (718), For design of the isolation system, W is the (719) total seismic deadload weight of the a′ Parameter used to measure deformation structure above the isolation interface, capacity in component loaddeformation Equations (93), (95) curve, Figure 25 WD Energy dissipated in a building or element thereof or energy dissipation device during ap Component amplification factor from a full cycle of displacement, Equations Table 112, Equation (113) (924), (939) b Parameter used to measure deformation Wj Work done by an energy dissipating capacity in component loaddeformation device, j, in one complete cycle corre curves, Figures 23, 51, 61 sponding to floor displacement, Equations Shear wall length or width, Equations (926), (928), (929), (936), (937) (81), (82) Diaphragm width, Equations (84), (85) Wk Maximum strain energy in a frame as cal The shortest plan dimension of the rehabil culated by Equation (927) itated building, in ft. (mm), measured Wmj Work done by device j in one complete perpendicular to d, Equations (96), (97) cycle corresponding to modal floor ba Connection dimension, Equations (522), displacements δmi Equation (933) (523) Wmk Maximum strain energy in the frame in the bbf Beam flange width in Equations for Beam mth mode determined using Equation Column Connections in Sections 5.5.2.4.2 (934) and 5.5.2.4.3 Wp Component operating weight, bcf Column flange width in Equations for Equations (111), (113), (114), (115), BeamColumn Connections in (116) Sections 5.5.2.4.2 and 5.5.2.4.3 X Height of upper support attachment at bf Flange width, Tables 55, 56, 57 level x as measured from grade, see Equation (117) bp Width of rectangular glass, Equation (119) Y Time period in years corresponding to a mean return period and probability of bt Connection dimension, Equations (524), exceedance, Equation (12) (525) Height of lower support attachment at bw Web width, in., Equation (64) level y as measured from grade, see Equation (117) c Parameter used to measure residual Z Plastic section modulus, Equations (51), strength, Figures 23, 51, 61, 71, 81 (52), (53), (54), (56) Z’ Adjusted resistance for mechanical fastener, Chapter 8 FEMA 356 Seismic Rehabilitation Prestandard Symbols9
 Symbols c1 Size of rectangular or equivalent rectangu e Length of EBF link beam, Equations lar column, capital, or bracket measured in (528), (529), (530), (532) the direction of the span for which Parameter used to measure deformation moments are being determined, in, capacity, Figures 23, 51, 61, 71, 81 Section 6.5.4.3 Actual eccentricity, ft. (mm), measured in Clearance (gap) between vertical glass plan between the center of mass of the edges and the frame, Equation (119) structure above the isolation interface and the center of rigidity of the isolation c2 Clearance (gap) between horizontal glass system, plus accidental eccentricity, ft. edges and the frame, Equation (119) (mm), taken as 5% of the maximum build d Depth of soil sample for calculation of ing dimension perpendicular to the direc effective vertical stress, Equation (45) tion of force under consideration, Parameter used to measure deformation Equations (96), (97) capacity, Figures 23, 51, 61, 71, 81 en Nail deformation at yield load per nail for Distance from extreme compression fiber wood structural panel sheathing, to centroid of tension reinforcement, in., Equations (82), (84), (85) Equation (64) The longest plan dimension of the rehabili f1 Fundamental frequency of the building, tated building, in ft. (mm), Equations Equation (924) (96), (97) fa Axial compressive stress due to gravity da Elongation of anchorage at end of wall loads specified in Equations (33), (75), determined by anchorage details and load (76) magnitude, Equation (81) fae Expected vertical compressive stress, Deflection at yield of tiedown anchorage Chapter 7 or deflection at load level to anchorage at end of wall determined by anchorage fc Compressive strength of concrete, psi, details and dead load, in., Equation (82) Equations (64), (65) db Overall beam depth, Equations (57), f ′dt Lower bound masonry diagonal tension (58), (521), (522), (523), (524), (525), strength, Equation (75) (526), (529) Nominal diameter of bar, in., Equation f ′m Lower bound masonry compressive (63) strength, Equations (76), (77), (79), (710), (711), (713), (721) dbg Depth of the bolt group, Table 55 fme Expected compressive strength of masonry dc Column depth, Equation (55) as determined in Section 7.3.2.3 di Depth, in feet, of a layer of soils having fpc Average compressive stress in concrete similar properties, and located within 100 due to effective prestress force only (after feet of the surface, Equations (16), (17) allowance for all prestress losses), Chapter 6 dv Length of component in the direction of shear force, Equations (711), (712) fs Stress in reinforcement, psi, Equations (62), (63) dw Depth to groundwater level, Equation (45) f ′t Lower bound masonry tensile strength, Chapter 7 dz Overall panel zone depth between continu ity plates, Chapter 5 fte Expected masonry flexural tensile strength as determined in Section 7.3.2.5 Symbols10 Seismic Rehabilitation Prestandard FEMA 356
 Symbols fvie Expected shear strength of masonry infill, hn Height to roof level, ft, Equation (37) Equation (715) hp Height of rectangular glass, Equation fy Yield strength of tension reinforcement, (119) Equations (62), (63) Lower bound of yield strength of reinforc hx Height from base to floor level x, ft, ing steel, Equations (712), (713) Equations (312), (99) fye Expected yield strength of reinforcing steel k Exponent used for determining the vertical as determined in Section 7.3.2.8 distribution of lateral forces, Equation (312) g Acceleration of gravity (386.1 in./sec.2, or Coefficient used for calculation of column 9,807 mm/sec2 for SI units), Equations shear strength, Chapter 6 (315), (92), (93), (94), (95), (930) k1 Distance from the center of the split tee h Average story height above and below a stem to the edge of the split tee flange fil beamcolumn joint, Equation (517) let, Equation (525) Clear height of wall between beams, keff Effective stiffness of an isolator unit, as Equations (533), (535) prescribed by Equation (912), or an Distance from inside of compression energy dissipation unit, as prescribed by flange to inside of tension flange, Equation Equations (923) or (938) (57) Height of member along which deforma kh Horizontal seismic coefficient in soil act tions are measured, Chapter 6 ing on retaining wall, Equation (411) Overall thickness of member, in, ksr Winkler spring stiffness in overturning Equation (64) (rotation) for pile group, expressed as Height of a column, pilaster, or wall, moment/unit rotation, Equation (410) Chapter 7 Shear wall height, Equations (81), (82) ksv Winkler spring stiffness in vertical direc Average roof elevation of structure, tion, expressed as force/unit displacement/ relative to grade elevation, Equation (113) unit area, Equation (46) Pile group axial spring stiffness expressed hc Assumed web depth for stability, as force/unit displacement, Equation (49) Chapter 5 Gross crosssectional dimension of column kv Shear buckling coefficient, Chapter 5 core measured in the direction of joint shear, in, Chapter 6 kvn Axial stiffness of nth pile in a pile group, Equation (410) hcol Height of column between beam center lines, Equation (714) lb Length of beam, Equation (51) Provided length of straight development, heff Effective height of wall or pier compo lap splice, or standard hook, in., Equation nents under consideration, Equations (74), (62) (75), (76) lbeff Assumed distance to infill strut reaction hi Height from the base of a building to floor point for beams, Equation (718) level i, Equations (312), (99) Height of story i between two floors at lc Length of column, Equations (52), (536) common points of reference, Equation (32) lceff Assumed distance to infill strut reaction point for columns, Equation (716) hinf Height of infill panel, Equations (714), (717), (719), (720), (721) FEMA 356 Seismic Rehabilitation Prestandard Symbols11
 Symbols ld Required length of development for a rinf Diagonal length of infill panel, Equation straight bar, in., Equation (62) (714) le Length of embedment of reinforcement, s Spacing of shear reinforcement, Equation in., Equation (63) (712) lp Length of plastic hinge used for calcula si Minimum separation distance between tion of inelastic deformation capacity, in., adjacent buildings at level i, Equation Equation (66) (28) lw Length of entire wall or a segment of wall su Undrained shear strength of soil, pounds/ considered in the direction of shear force, ft.2, Chapter 1 in., Chapter 6 — Average value of the undrained soil shear su m Modification factor used in the acceptance strength in the upper 100 feet of soil, cal criteria of deformationcontrolled compo culated in accordance with Equation (16), nents or elements, indicating the available pounds/ft.2 ductility of a component action, Equations (320), (59) t Effective thickness of wood structural panel or plywood for shear, in., Equations me Effective mfactor, Equation (59) (82), (84), (85) mt Value of mfactor for the column in ten ta Thickness of angle, Equations (521), sion, Equation (513) (523) mx Value of m for bending about xaxis of a tbf Thickness of beam flange, Chapter 5 member, Equations (510), (511), (513), (61) tbw Thickness of beam web, Chapter 5 my Value of m for bending about yaxis of a tcf Thickness of column flange, Chapter 5 member, Equations (510), (511), (513), (61) tcw Thickness of column web, Chapter 5 n Total number of stories in a vertical seis tf Thickness of flange, Equations (525), mic framing, Equations (312), (313) (529) pD+L Expected gravity stress at test location, tinf Thickness of infill panel, Equations (714), Equation (72) (720), (721) q Vertical bearing pressure, Equation (48) tp Thickness of panel zone including doubler qallow Allowable bearing pressure specified in plates, Equation (55) the available design documents for the Thickness of flange plate, Equation (526) design of shallow foundations for gravity ts Thickness of split tee stem, Equations loads (dead plus live loads), Equation (41) (524), (525) qc Expected bearing capacity of shallow tw Thickness of web, Equations (57), (529) foundation expressed in load per unit area, Thickness of plate wall, Equation (533) Equations (41), (43), (47), (48) Thickness of wall web, in., Chapter 6 qin Expected transverse strength of an infill tz Thickness of panel zone (doubler plates panel, Equation (721) not necessarily included), Chapter 5 r Governing radius of gyration, Equation v Maximum shear in the direction under (536) consideration, Equation (85) Symbols12 Seismic Rehabilitation Prestandard FEMA 356
 Symbols vme Expected masonry shear strength, ∆− Negative displacement amplitude, in. Equation (71) (mm), of an isolator or energy dissipation Expected masonry bedjoint sliding shear unit during a cycle of prototype testing, strength, Equation (73) Equations (912), (913), (938) vte Average bedjoint shear strength, Equation ∆+ Positive displacement amplitude, in. (mm), (71) of an isolator or energy dissipation unit during a cycle of prototype testing, vto Bedjoint shear stress from single test, Equations (912), (913), (938) Equation (72) ∆ave Average displacement of an energy dissi vy Shear at yield in the direction under pation unit during a cycle of prototype consideration in lb./ft., Equations (81), testing, equal to (∆+ + ∆−)/2, Equation (82), (83), (84), (85) (939) w Water content of soil, calculated as the ∆d Diaphragm deformation, Equations (38), ratio of the weight of water in a unit (39) volume of soil to the weight of soil in the unit volume, expressed as a percentage, ∆eff Differentiated displacement between the Section 1.6.1.4.1 top and bottom of the wall or pier compo Length of connection member, see nents under consideration over a height, Equations (523), (525) heff, Figure 71 wi Portion of the effective seismic weight ∆fallout Relative seismic displacement (drift) corresponding to floor level i, Equations causing glass fallout from the curtain wall, (312), (313), (99) storefront, or partition, as determined in wx Portion of the effective seismic weight accordance with an approved engineering corresponding to floor level x, Equations analysis method, Equations (1110), (312), (313), (99) (1111) wz Width of panel zone between column ∆i Interstory displacement (drift) of story i flanges, Chapter 5 divided by the story height, Chapter 5 x Elevation in structure of component ∆i1 Estimated lateral deflection of building 1 relative to grade elevation, Equation (113) relative to the ground at level i, Equation (28) y The distance, in ft. (mm), between the center of rigidity of the isolation system ∆i2 Estimated lateral deflection of building 2 rigidity and the element of interest, relative to the ground at level i, measured perpendicular to the direction of Equation (28) seismic loading under consideration, ∆inf Deflection of infill panel at midlength Equations (96), (97) when subjected to transverse loads, ∆ Generalized deformation, Figures 23, 25, Equation (720) 51, 61, 81 ∆p Additional earth pressure on retaining wall Total elastic and plastic displacement, due to earthquake shaking, Equation Chapter 5 (411) Calculated deflection of diaphragm, wall, or bracing element, in. ∆w Average inplane wall displacement, Equation (38) FEMA 356 Seismic Rehabilitation Prestandard Symbols13
 Symbols ∆y Generalized yield deformation, unitless, ΣF Mmax Sum, for all isolator units, of the maximum Figure 51 absolute value of force, in kips (kN), at a Calculated deflection of diaphragm, shear negative displacement equal to DM, wall, or bracing element at yield, see Equation (916) Equations (81), (82), (83), (84), (85) ΣF Mmin Sum, for all isolator units, of the minimum Σ(∆ cX) Sum of individual chordsplice slip values absolute value of force, in kips (kN), at a on both sides of the diaphragm, each negative displacement equal to DM, multiplied by its distance to the nearest Equation (917) support, Equations (84), (85) α Ratio of postyield stiffness to effective ΣED Total energy dissipated, in inkips, in the stiffness, Equation (317) isolation system during a full cycle of Factor equal to 0.5 for fixedfree cantile response at the design displacement, DD, vered shear wall, or 1.0 for fixedfixed Equation (918) pier, Equation (74) ΣEM Total energy dissipated, in inkips, in the Velocity exponent for a fluid viscous isolation system during a full cycle of device in Equation (925) response at the maximum displacement, β Modal damping ratio, Table 16 DM, Equation (919) Factor to adjust fundamental period of the building, Equation (37) ΣF+Dmax Sum, for all isolator units, of the maximum absolute value of force, in kips (kN), at a Ratio of expected frame strength, vfre, to positive displacement equal to DD, expected infill strength, vine, Chapter 7 Equation (914) Damping inherent in the building frame (typically equal to 0.05), Equations (926), ΣF+Dmin Sum, for all isolator units, of the minimum (928), (930) absolute value of force, in kips (kN), at a positive displacement equal to DD, βb Equivalent viscous damping of a bilinear Equation (915) system, Chapter 9 ΣF+Mmax Sum, for all isolator units, of the maximum βD Effective damping of the isolation system absolute value of force, in kips (kN), at a at the design displacement, as prescribed positive displacement equal to DM, by Equation (918)) Equation (916) βeff Effective damping of isolator unit, as prescribed by Equation (913), or an ΣF+ Mmin Sum, for all isolator units, of the minimum absolute value of force, in kips (kN), at a energy dissipation unit, as prescribed by positive displacement equal to DM, Equation (939); also used for the effective damping of the building, as prescribed by Equation (917) Equations (926), (928), (930), (931), ΣF Dmax Sum, for all isolator units, of the maximum (932), (936) absolute value of force, in kips (kN), at a βeffm Effective damping in mth mode negative displacement equal to DD, prescribed by Equation (933) Equation (914) βM Effective damping of the isolation system ΣF Dmin Sum, for all isolator units, of the minimum at the maximum displacement, as absolute value of force, in kips (kN), at a prescribed by Equation (919)) negative displacement equal to DD, Equation (915) βm mth mode damping in the building frame, Equation (933) Symbols14 Seismic Rehabilitation Prestandard FEMA 356
 Symbols γ Unit weight, weight/unit volume (pounds/ θ Generalized deformation, radians, ft3 or N/m3), Equation (44) Figures 51, 61 Coefficient for calculation of joint shear Angle between infill diagonal and horizon strength, Equation (65) tal axis, tanθ = hinf/Linf, radians, see Equation (714) γf Fraction of unbalanced moment trans ferred by flexure at slabcolumn θb Angle between lower edge of compressive connections, Chapter 6 strut and beam, radians, Equations (718), (719) γt Total unit weight of soil, Equations (45), (411) θc Angle between lower edge of compressive strut and column, radians, Equations γw Unit weight of water, Equation (45) (716), (717) δi Lateral drift in story i, in the direction θi Stability coefficient indicative of the under consideration, at its center of stability of a structure under gravity loads rigidity, using the same units as for mea and earthquakeinduced deflection, suring hi, Equation (32) Equation (32) Displacement at floor i, Equations (926), Interstory drift ratio, radians, Chapter 5 (927) θj Angle of inclination of energy dissipation δmi mth mode horizontal displacement at floor device, Equation (930) i, Equation (934) θy Generalized yield deformation, radians, δmrj mth relative displacement between the Figure 51 ends of device j along its axis, Yield rotation, radians, Equations (51), Equation (935) (52), (530), (535), (66) δrj Relative displacement between the ends of κ A knowledge factor used to reduce energy dissipating device j along the axis component strength based on the level of of the device, Equations (929), (937) knowledge obtained for individual compo δt Target displacement, Figure 31 nents during data collection, Equations (320), (321), (61) δxA Deflection at level x of Building A, λ Correction factor related to unit weight of determined by an elastic analysis as concrete, Equation (65) defined in Chapter 3, Equations (117), (118) λ1 Coefficient used to determine equivalent width of infill strut, Equation (714) δxB Deflection at level x of Building B, deter mined by an elastic analysis as defined in λ2 Infill slenderness factor, Equation (721) Chapter 3, Equation (118) λp Limiting slenderness parameter for δyA Deflection at level y of Building A, deter compact element, Chapter 5 mined by an elastic analysis as defined in Chapter 3, Equation (117) λr Limiting slenderness parameter for noncompact element, Chapter 5 η Displacement multiplier, greater than 1.0, to account for the effects of torsion, µ Coefficient of shear friction, Chapter 6 Equation (31) ν Poisson’s ratio of soil, Equation (44) FEMA 356 Seismic Rehabilitation Prestandard Symbols15
 Symbols νs Shear wave velocity in soil, in feet/sec., Section 1.6.1.4.1 Shear wave velocity at low strains, Equation (44) __ Average value of the soil shear wave vs velocity in the upper 100 feet of soil, calculated in accordance with Equation (16), feet/sec. ρ Ratio of nonprestressed tension reinforce ment, Chapter 6 ρbal Reinforcement ratio producing balanced strain conditions, Chapter 6 ρg Ratio of area of total wall or pier vertical plus horizontal reinforcement to area of wall or pier crosssection, Chapter 7 ρlp Yield deformation of a link beam, Chapter 5 ρn Ratio of distributed shear reinforcement in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the applied shear, Chapter 6 ρ′ Ratio of nonprestressed compression reinforcement, Chapter 6 ρ′′ Reinforcement ratio for transverse joint reinforcement, Chapter 6 σ Standard deviation of the variation of the material strengths, Chapter 2 σ′o Effective vertical stress, Equation (45) φ Strength reduction factor φi Modal displacement of floor i, see Equation (930) φrj Relative modal displacement in horizontal direction of energy dissipation device j, Equation (930) χ A factor to calculate horizontal seismic force, Fp, Equations (26), (27) ω1 Fundamental angular frequency equal to 2πf1, Equation (924) Symbols16 Seismic Rehabilitation Prestandard FEMA 356
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