Biological roles

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  • This book, with its 16 chapters, documents the present state of knowledge of the adenosine A3 receptor. It covers a wide range of information, including data from studies of theoretical, molecular and cellular pharmacology, signal transduction, integrative physiology, new drug discoveries and clinical applications. It fills an important gap in the literature since no alternative source of such information is currently available.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Wertheim cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: The Dictyostelium genome encodes numerous RasGEFs with multiple biological roles...

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  • Prohibitin-1 (PHB, also known as PHB1), a member of the Band-7 family of proteins, is highly conserved evolutionarily, widely expressed, and pres-ent in different cellular compartments. Genetic studies with different organ-ism models have provided strong evidence for an important biological role of PHB in mitochondrial function, cell proliferation, and development.

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  • Steroids - From Physiology to Clinical Medicine covers contemporary basic science on steroids research, along with steroids practical application in clinical medicine. We start by describing physiological and pathophysiological roles of steroids, with reference to production and action of gonadal steroids, role of steroid sulfonation, sex specific and steroids-dependent mechanism of hippocampal function, and the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases for the modulation of tissue glucocorticoid availability.

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  • This book is intended to be a presentation of alkaloids from chemical, biological and ecological points of view. It is a text for chemists, biologists and ecologists alike. However, the intended audience of this work is not limited to scientists, teachers and other present and future specialists. In fact, I wrote this book because I felt the need for it as a university educator and as a scientific enthusiast on the subject.

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  • This volume is the first book-length survey of caveolae and lipid rafts. Interest has developed rapidly in the role of these surface microdomains in such diverse fields as transmembrane signaling, cell locomotion, vascular relaxation, senescence, and the uptake and exit from cells of viruses and bacteria. Individual chapters in this volume cover areas as diverse as the forces that induce and maintain membrane invaginations, and the clinical relevance of multiprotein complexes at the cell surface, defects in which are associated with cancer, and Alzheimer’s and prion-dependent diseases....

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  • Clinical course of CLL is variable. Recently, progress has been made in the identification of biological markers that could predict disease progression. Particularly, the expression of unmutated Ig genes, some cytogenetic abnormalities like 17p and 11q deletions and the expression of the zeta-associated protein 70 (ZAP-70) are associated to a poor prognosis.

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  • The science of vascular biology has emerged and expanded rapidly over the past 25 years. Research in this area has increased understanding of a wide range of clinical conditions. This book provides a broad overview of the Weld for both specialist and newcomer to the Weld, and concise resource for the non-specialist. The multidisciplinary team of contributors covers topics ranging from normal and pathological aspects of endothelial cell function to the role of the vasculature in pregnancy, hypertension and atherosclerosis....

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  • The extracellular matrix (ECM) represents a complex organization of macromolecules that surrounds the cell and comprises the substratum onto which the cell may be attached. The properties and functions of the ECM depend ultimately on its structure, molecular components, architecture, and dynamic modulation. Because the critical role of ECM involved in cell biology and physiology has long been recognized, the structure and biology of the ECM have been extensively studied (Yurchenco and Birk 1994 ; Ayad et al. 1998 ; Robert 2001 ) .

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  • Historically rich in novel, subtle, often controversial ideas, Molecular Bi- ology has lately become heir to a huge legacy of standardized data in the form of polynucleotide and polypeptide sequences. Fred Sanger received two, well deserved Nobel Prizes for his seminal role in developing the basic technology needed for this reduction of core biological information to one linear dimension.

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  • PI3K is a heterodimeric lipid kinase that catalyses the conversion of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) to phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP3), which acts as a plasma membrane docking site for proteins that contain a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. These include the serine/threonine kinases Akt and PDK1 that are key downstream effectors of PI3K action (Fig. 80-2). The PI3K pathway is activated in 30–40% of human cancers and is thought to play a critical role in tumor cell survival, proliferation, growth, and glucose utilization.

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  • Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field which addresses biological problems using computational techniques, and makes the rapid organization and analysis of biological data possible. The field may also be referred to as computational biology, and can be defined as, "conceptualizing biology in terms of molecules and then applying informatics techniques to understand and organize the information associated with these molecules, on a large scale.

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  • From microorganisms to whales, from single cells to complex organisms, from plants to animals to fungi, from body plans to behavior, the diversity of life is amazing. Living organisms have a profound impact on our physical world of ocean, landscape, and climate; around us is a multitude of diverse ecosystems that provide a livable environment and many valuable resources. The study of life—biology—is a multifaceted endeavor that uses observation, exploration, and experiments to gather information and test hypotheses about topics ranging from climate change to stem cells.

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  • To investigate the role of protein–protein and protein–nucleic acid interac-tions in virus assembly, we compared the stabilities of native bacteriophage MS2, virus-like particles (VLPs) containing nonviral RNAs, and an assem-bly-defective coat protein mutant (dlFG) and its single-chain variant (sc-dlFG).

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  • Chapter 19 - Ribosomes and Transfer RNA. In chapter 3 we examined a few aspects of translation. We learned that ribosomes are the cell’s protein factories and that transfer RNA plays a crucial adapter role, binding an amino acid at one end and an mRNA codon at the other. Chapters 17 and 18 expanded on the mechanisms of translation initiation, elongation, and termination, without dealing in depth with ribosomes and tRNA. In this chapter, let us continue discussion of translation with a closer look at these two essential agents.

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  • Mixed lineage leukemias(MLLs) are an evolutionarily conserved trithorax family of human genes that play critical roles in HOXgene regulation and embryonic development.MLL1is well known to be rearranged in myeloid and lymphoid leukemias in children and adults. There are several MLL family proteins such as MLL1, MLL2, MLL3, MLL4, MLL5, Set1A and Set1B, and each possesses histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4)-specific methyltrans-ferase activity and has critical roles in gene activation and epigenetics.

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  • This leaves nearly 60% of birth defects for which the etiology is unknown but in which environmental exposure might play a role. For every 3,000,000 U.S. births annually, at least 600,000 embryos or fetuses are aborted spontaneously before the 20th week, and some 24,000 fetuses die before birth. Of live births, nearly 8% are premature, and approximately 7% have low birthweight. Another 3–7% possess some type of malformation. Although the overall incidence of infertility remained stable between 1965 and 1982, infertility among...

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  • Introductory Chapter Tissue Regeneration – A Clinical Science Whose Time Has Come 1 Jamie Davies Understanding and Manipulating Endogeneous Healing of Tissues 11 The Role of Physical Factors in Cell Differentiation, Tissue Repair and Regeneration 13 Monica Monici and Francesca Cialdai Effect of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Nerve Repair 35 Jiamou Li, Hua Zhang and Cong Ren Disinfection of Human Tissues in Orthopedic Surgical Oncology by High Hydrostatic Pressure Peter Diehl, Johannes Schauwecker,...

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  • Calcitonin (Ct) is a 32-residue peptide hormone that is mainly known for its hypocalcemic effect and the inhibition of bone resorption. Our previous studies have led to potent, side-chain lactam-bridged human Ct (hCt) analogues [Kapurniotu, A. Kayed, R., Taylor, J.W. & Voelter W. (1999) Eur. J. Biochem.265, 606±618; Kapurniotu, A. & Taylor, J.W. (1995)J. Med. Chem.38, 836±847]. We have hypothesized that a possibly type Ibturn/bsheet confor-mation in the region 17±21 may play an important role in hCt bioactivity. ...

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  • Proteins are polymers composed of hundreds or even thousands of amino acids linked in series by peptide bonds. What structural forms do these polypeptide chains assume, how can the sequence of amino acids in a protein be determined, and what are the biological roles played by proteins?

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