Chiral and nonchiral

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  • Our results generally showed that in the investigated microbial community autotrophic component was dominant over the heterotrophic component during the winter season, while dominance of heterotrophic component in the microbial community was observed during the warmer seasons. Further, within the prokaryotic community heterotrophic prokaryotes were mostly dominant throughout the studied area.

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  • In addition, the Act significantly narrows the exemptions from registration contained in (i) Section 203(b)(1) of the Advisers Act (which generally exempts from SEC registration intrastate advisers) to expressly exclude investment managers that advise Private Funds, and (ii) Section 203(b)(6) of the Advisers Act (which generally exempts from SEC registration advisers registered with the Commodities Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) as commodity trading advisers) to limit that exception to advisers who do not “predominately” provide securities-related advice.

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  • This potential disparity in availability of private insurance between regions and crops is sometimes cited as a reason for government intervention (U.S. GAO, 1980; Appel, Lord, and Harrington, 1999), but here again, crop insurance is not unique. Many risk management tools used by farmers are available only in certain regions. For example, cash forward contracting is widely available for corn and soybean producers in the Midwest, although the same is not necessarily true for producers in regions where basis risk is high.

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  • However, while this phenomenon has gained more attention over the past years, as Prasad et al. (2007) remark, this fact even seems to hold over a longer period. Over the whole period from 1970 to 2000, developing countries and emerging markets with more favourable and even positive current account positions (which implies net capital exports of these countries) have recorded higher per-capita GDP growth rates.

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  • In this section we develop a simple model of operating cash flows and the accounting process by which operating cash flow forecasts are incorporated into accounting earnings. The model explains why operating cash flow changes have negative serial correlation and how earnings incorporate the negative serial correlation to become a better forecast of future operating cash flows than current operating cash flows. The model also explains other time series properties of earnings, operating cash flows and accruals.

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  • The Product Backlog will include a variety of items, such as features (“enable all users to place book in shopping cart”), development requirements (“rework the transaction processing module to make it scalable”), exploratory work (“investigate solutions for speeding up credit card validation”), and known bugs (“diagnose and fix the order processing script errors”). Many people like to articulate the requirements in terms of “user stories”: concise, clear descriptions of the functionality in terms of its value to the end user of the product.

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  • Floods can cause serious indirect impacts, including damage to important energy, water, communications and transport infrastructure. They can also interfere with basic public services such as schools and hospitals. The National Flood Risk Assessment shows that a sizeable part of our important infrastructure and public services are in flood risk areas. This is especially so for water-related infrastructure that needs to be near rivers. For example, over 55 per cent of water and sewage pumping stations/treatment works are in flood risk areas, with 34 per cent at significant risk....

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  • This concentration of industrial activity has stimulated a substantial economic boom in Jepara and surrounding areas and attracted local political support. For example, the need for container trucks to export furniture led the previous Bupati (district administrator) to have some major roads in the district reclassified as ‘provincial class’ roads. This allowed container trucks to reach most parts of the district, stimulating economic growth by attracting more people and activities, generating new trade and industry, and elevating economic activity around Jepara to a new level.

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  • I drink tea out of a large mug that is roughly egg-shaped, and I clasp it with both hands to warm my palms. When I am petting my cat, I crouch over his body so that I can smell his fur, which at different places smells like trapped sunshine or roasted nuts, a bit like almonds but not quite. I scratch my head with a mechanical pencil that allows me to part my hair and reach exactly the right spot on my scalp. I move my wedding ring back and forth over the knuckle that offers it...

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  • However, disillusion with the limited success of smallholder-based efforts to improve productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa (Collier and Dercon 2009) and the apparent success of Brazil in establishing a vibrant agricultural sector based on much larger farms have led some countries to view the development of large- scale mechanized farming as the path to modernization of the sector.

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  • Yadav et al. (2007) studied on fertilizer industrial discharge showed that some components in the discharge may interact with each other and produce toxic to aquatic organisms. For instance, the interaction between dissolved oxygen and ammonia changed the respiratory physiology in fresh water fish. In addition, results showed that the toxicity of the effluent in fish depends on concentration and duration of exposure.

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  • Since there is a premium put on specialized talents and backgrounds and the need to attract capital by performing exceptionally well, I have found that investors require relatively high minimum annual rates of returns in the 20-25% range. The risky and illiquid nature of this market make such required returns necessary. As we will show, however, the average performance in this market over the last 11 years, although good, has been considerably below the 20-25% per year range. The remainder of this chapter reports on the performance of defaulted bonds in the 1987-1998 period.

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  • This analysis takes as given that improved information and accounting methods are costly. While costs will vary across different types of improved information -- and are by no means always easy to measure -- they are conceptually straightforward to define. Information's costs include the labor and capital costs necessary to acquire, apply, and verify new information. The costs may be associated with a diverse set of activities, including technical R&D, financial analysis, process engineering studies, software development, inventory controls, and supplier surveys.

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  • The objective of this thesis was to study the interactions of microbial activity, biocide usage and creation, and chemical changes in the papermaking process. The main focus was on oxidative biocide systems. In addition, new measurement and biocide production methods were applied to papermaking, and evaluated for the monitoring and control of the microbiological state and biocide usage. The measurement methods were based on portable handheld online equipments whereas the biocide production was based on electrochemical generation of biocides.

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  • To which extent this decrease in bond yields is associated with changes in short-term or long-term rates becomes more evident when looking at the yield curve defined as the 10-year government bond yield minus the three months Euribor shown in Figure 2. Over the entire year, the slope of the yield curve fell by roughly 20 bp to somewhat less than 130 bp. The same trend is also illustrated by the implied one-year forward rate in nine years, as extracted from the German zero-coupon curve. 20 The rate falls by 10 bp in the course of year, although there are sizeable developments over time.

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  • The urban-rural meta-narrative seems likely to have a generally positive impact on these D-P types, as they are net gainers in terms of population and economic activity, due both to counter-urbanisation and in-migration from remoter regions. The Globalisation meta narrative (here interpreted mainly in terms of economic restructuring effects) is also likely to have predominantly positive impacts upon these types of non-urban region.

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  • Should you invest in a penthouse or in a studio? A three-story colonial or a two-bedroom ranch? The first time out, it’s probably best to invest in something on the small side. Unless you’re buying a move-in condition property and have a reliable tenant waiting in the wings, there’ll probably be a period of time before your investment starts generating income. During that period, you’ll have to make loan payments on the investment property from your regular income. Since smaller payments are easier to manage in such situations, most new investors prefer to start with a small property.

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  • In June 2001, independent research firm Computer Economics released the results of a study on potential privacy problems in different industry sectors. Banking and finance organizations were determined to be the most susceptible to privacy management problems. The transportation, wholesale, and retail industries also ranked high on the privacy problem susceptibility index compiled by Computer Economics.

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  • The pricing of credit-sensitive bonds, that is, bonds which have a significant probability of default, is an issue of increasing academic and practical importance. The recent practice in financial markets has been to issue high yield corporate bonds that are a hybrid of equity and risk-free debt. Also, to an extent, most corporate bonds are credit-sensitive instruments, simply because of the limited liability of the issuing enterprise. In this paper, we suggest and implement a model for the pricing of options on credit-sensitive bonds.

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  • The Group assesses the recoverability of deferred tax assets based on estimates of future earnings.The ability to recover these taxes depends ultimately on the Group’s ability to generate taxable earnings over the period for which the deferred tax assets remain deductible.This analysis is based on the estimated schedule for reversing deferred tax liabilities, as well as estimates of taxable earnings, which are sourced from internal projections and are continuously updated to reflect the latest trends.

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