Xem 1-7 trên 7 kết quả Collinear
  • Collinearity refers to linear relationships between two X variables. Multicollinearity encompasses linear relationships between more than two X variables. Multiple regression is impossible in the presence of perfect collinearity or multicollinearity. If X1 and X2 have no independent variation, we cannot estimate the effects of X1 adjusting for X2 or vice versa. One of the variables must be dropped. This is no loss, since a perfect relationship implies perfect redundancy. Perfect multicollinearity is, however, rarely practice problem.

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  • the generation of ultrashort laser pulses. Beginning with mode-locking of glass lasers in the 1960s, the development of dye lasers brought the pulse width down from picoseconds to femtoseconds. The breakthrough in solid state laser pulse generation provided the current reliable table-top laser systems capable of average power of about 1 watt, and peak power density of easily watts per square centimeter, with pulse widths in the range of four to eight femtoseconds.

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  • dipole antenna is a radio antenna that can be made of a simple wire, with a center-fed driven element. It consists of two metal conductors of rod or wire, oriented parallel and collinear with each other (in line with each other), with a small space between them. The radio frequency voltage is applied to the antenna at the center, between the two conductors. These antennas are the simplest practical antennas from a theoretical point of view.

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  • The characteristicsof a vector are the magnitude, the orientation, and the sense. The magnitudeof a vector is speci®ed by a positive number and a unit having appropriate dimensions. No unit is stated if the dimensions are those of a pure number. The orientationof a vector is speci®ed by the relationship between the vector and given reference lines and=or planes. Thesenseof a vector is speci®ed by the order of two points on a line parallel to the vector. Orientation and sense together determine the directionof a vector.

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  • The EyeTap glasses of the previous chapter absorb and quantify rays of light, process these rays of light, and then resynthesize corresponding rays of light. Each synthesized ray of light is collinear with, and responsive to, a corresponding absorbed ray of light. The exact manner in which it is responsive is the subject of this chapter. In other words, this chapter provides meaning to the word “quantify” in the phrase “absorb and quantify.

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  • In column III we additionally look at the age composition of popula- tion. We add two variables, namely the percentage of population that is below 14 and the percentage of population that is between 14 and 64 years old. Note that the share of elderly people above 64 years cannot be simultaneously added as the three shares add up to one and are therefore collinear. Adding the age composition hardly affects the population elas- ticity, which remains close to unity.

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  • A polygon is a plane figure bounded by a closed broken line. i.e.. a line obtained if one takes n distinct points such that no three successive points are collinear and draws a straight line segment between each of these points and its successor as well as between the last point and the first point (Fig. 3.13d).

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