Commercial exchanges

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  • You can copy, download or print OECD content for your own use, and you can include excerpts from OECD publications, databases and multimedia products in your own documents, presentations, blogs, websites and teaching materials, provided that suitable acknowledgment of OECD as source and copyright owner is given. All requests for public or commercial use and translation rights should be submitted to rights@oecd.

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  • Digital technology in the telephone network is nothing new. Take all the relays in older exchanges as an example. Relays are either "off" or "on", and there is no state in between these. Suitable combinations of relays could build up and "remember" numbers - perhaps a far-fetched example, but in was digital, so it will serve!

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  • Exporter makes sure the L/C is valid and corresponds to the timetables agreed with the Importer regarding both the delivery of the goods and payments. Another question: can the documents be negotiated or transferred within the term of the L/C? Can the Exporter accept all the restrictions and limitations of the L/C? Are there any impossible conditions (for instance, in contravention of the foreign exchange regime) or wrong details (name of a port which does not exist, etc.)

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  • Private non commercial arrangements, such as mutuals, go back a few hundreds of years, or more, in several OECD countries, pre-dating many public health coverage or social insurance programmes. Many of the countries where private health insurance has a prominent role – for example, the United States, Australia, Ireland, the Netherlands, France – have some tradition of private financing and private provision of health services.

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  • The government liability nominal yield curves are derived from UK gilt prices and General Collateral (GC) repo rates. The real yield curves are derived from UK index-linked bond prices (section 1 below describes these instruments). By appealing to the Fisher relationship, the implied inflation term structure is calculated as the difference of instantaneous nominal forward rates and instantaneous real forward real rates (section 2 makes clear exactly what these terms mean).

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  • This study traces the history of the law of bills and notes in England from medieval times to the period in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries when bills played a central role in the domestic and international financial system. It challenges the traditional theory that English commercial law developed by incorporation of the concept of negotiability and other rules from an ancient body of customary law known as the law merchant.

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  • Housing loans are considered to be relatively less risky due to their collateralised nature (Fitch Ratings (2006)). Moreover, the Philippine government extends housing loans to households under its National Shelter Program, which is aimed at addressing the country’s chronic housing shortage.

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  • The partnership was formalized by the creation of a steering committee that was entrusted with the design, objectives, and content of the event. The steering committee provided guidance and specific recommendations on the design of the international workshop, and its members took an active role in the plenary sessions of the workshop. The steering committee completed its mandate with the revision and approval of the present publication of the workshop proceedings.

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  • Nowadays, the creative industries are increasingly recognised as a major sector in the economy. NESTA, (2004) estimates its contribution to be 7.9% of GDP in the UK, with 1% of this figure accounted for by the design industry, compared with 3.4% for the automotive industry. It should be noted that NESTA’s definition of creative industries is wider than the definitions used for design The total income for the UK design industry in 2003 was £3.2 billion (British Design Innovation, 2004* ). The turnover of the commercial design industry in the UK fell between 2003 and 2004, by...

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  • Gilt sale and repurchase (“gilt repo”) transactions involve the temporary exchange of cash and gilts between two parties; they are a means of short-term borrowing using gilts as collateral. The lender of funds holds gilts as collateral, so is protected in the event of default by the borrower. General collateral (GC) repo rates refer to the rates for repurchase agreements in which any gilt may be used as collateral. Hence, GC repo rates should in principle be close to true risk-free rates.

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  • Chapter 12 - International markets. This chapter examines the major economic and political forces that influence foreign exchange markets. To reduce currency risk, foreign exchange markets developed so people can convert their cash to different currencies as they conduct business or personal affairs.

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  • In this chapter, we describe the functions of various types of investment funds: open-end mutual funds, exchange-traded funds, closed-end mutual funds, and unit investment trusts. We also delve into the world of two other investment vehicles that are not technically investment companies - hedge funds and real estate investment trusts (REITs).

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  • The fundamental line of Western countries including the United Kingdom of Great Britain carried out in Vietnam has been started from commercial exchanges to the intention of establishing diplomatic relations and the step by step infiltration into the politics and society.

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  • Các nguồn luật điều chỉnh việc phát hành, lưu thông và thanh toán hối phiếu Luật thương mại thống nhất của Mỹ (Uniform Commercial Code of 1962 - UCC 1962) “ Hối phiếu và Lệnh phiếu quốc tế” (International Bills of Exchange and Promissory Notes) năm 1982 do Ủy ban thương mại quốc tế của LHQ ban hành

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  • With some 200 million hosts generating traffic on the Internet, TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/Internet protocol) has become the protocol suite of choice to support the exchange of messages in commercial operations and residential activities. This hands-on resource provides professionals with a comprehensive picture of the Internet protocol stack and the role of TCP/IP in data communication. It serves as a detailed guide to the protocols, networks, codes, signals, and equipment that make it possible to communicate using TCP/IP.

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  • The global trading system is undergoing a period of transition. Shifting economic circumstances, major advances in technology and the emergence of new players on the global scene, all underscore that we are on the cusp of big changes. Persistent imbalances, driven largely by macro-economic factors continue to be a cause of concern in some major economies.

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  • Công ước Geneve 1930 về Luật thống nhất về Hối phiếu (Uniform Law for Bills of Exchange- Geneve Convention 1930, ULB 1930) (các nước châu Âu đều tham gia, ngoại trừ Anh). nguồn luật mang tính quốc tế Luật điều chỉnh hối phiếu, séc và kỳ phiếu do Ủy ban luật thương mại quốc tế của LHQ ban hành năm 1982  mang tính chất toàn thế giới. Luật hối phiếu 1882 của Anh (Bill of Exchange Act of 1882) và Luật thương mại thống nhất 1962 (Uniform Commercial Codes of 1962-UCC của Mỹ) ...

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  • I ntellectual property refers to products of the human intellect that have commerci value and that receive legal protection. typically, intellectual property encom- passes creative works, products, processes, imagery, inventions and services and is protected by patent, copyright, trademark, or trade secret law. the commercial value of intellectual property comes from the ability of its owne to control and exploit its use. if the owner could not legally require payment in exchange for use, ownership of the intellectual property would have litle if any commercial value. ...

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  • I n simple terms, intellectual property is a product of the human intellect that has commercial value. Intellectual property encompasses a wide range of creations—from fiction, poetry, songs, designs, and artwork to ads, product names, mechanical inventions, processes, chemical formulas, machines, and software. The commercial value of intellectual property comes from the ability of its owner to control its use. If the owner could not legally require payment in exchange for use, ownership of the intellectual property would have intellectual worth but no commercial value....

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  • Most haptic devices are intended primarily, if not exclusively, to exchange information with a human operator, and often replace or augment traditional computer displays with backdrivable, force-producing tactile interfaces. This includes popular commercial devices such as the PHANTOM (Massie & Salisbury, 1994) that are typically limited to at most several Newtons of endpoint force capacity, just enough to display simple virtual environments to the operator.

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