Disproportionate impacts

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  • This interpretation of disproportionate impact conforms to various judicial interpretations. A clear judicial statement regarding the statistical issues was issued by the Supreme Court in Thornburg v. Gingles, 478 U.S. 30 (1986). While there were separate concurring opinions, there was no disagreement regarding the statistical problem associated with the case. At issue was alleged gerrymandering that diluted the voting strength of minorities across several districts.

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  • Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism, a report released by the National Academies in June 2002,1 articulated the role of science and technology in countering terrorism. That report included material on the specific role of information technology (IT). Building on that report as a point of departure, the panel of experts responsible for the IT material in Making the Nation Safer was reconvened as the Committee on the Role of Information Technology in Responding to Terrorism in order to develop the present report....

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  • Most certainly, Latinas are facing a serious health care crisis that threatens to undermine the reproductive health and overall well-being of themselves, their families and their communities. Despite the growing number of uninsured Latinas and the significant health disparities they face, health policy makers have paid little attention to the reproductive health needs of Latinas. Against this backdrop, we are also witnessing an onslaught of attacks on the reproductive freedom of women in this country that will no doubt disproportionately impact Latinas.

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  • The gender gap in each dimension is then quantified using two types of recent available data: a) published national statistics and data from international organizations, and b) survey data of a qualitative nature from the annual Executive Opinion Survey of the World Economic Forum. Following, is a brief description of each of the five categories and the rationale behind them. Details of the specific variables examined and their sources may be found in the Appendix.

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  • The primary purpose of this study is to measure the level of disproportionate impact between credit scores and race/ethnicity, and credit scores and socioeconomic status. Disproportionate impact is defined as the bivariate relationship between credit scores and the independent variable of interest, such as race/ethnicity or income. That is, for purposes of measuring the level of disproportionate impact, no attempt is made to control for possible confounding variables, or factors that might explain a disproportionate impact should one be identified.

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  • The widespread use of credit scores to underwrite and price automobile and homeowners insurance has generated considerable concern that the practice may significantly restrict the availability of affordable insurance products to minority and low- income consumers. However, no existing studies have effectively examined whether credit scores have a disproportionate negative impact on minorities or other demographic groups, primarily because of the lack of public access to appropriate data.

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  • This chapter examines the link between Paso del Norte’s air pollution and its maquiladoras. To what extent are maquiladoras responsible for this pollution? What impacts does it have on human health? Are the poor disproportionately affected? Unfortunately, little reliable publicly available data exist to answer these questions. This chapter takes a first step toward filling this gap by marshalling two types of evidence.

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  • Disparities in outcomes associated with race and ethnicity are well documented for many diseases and patient populations. Tuberculosis (TB) disproportionately affects economically disadvantaged, racial and ethnic minority populations. Pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis (PIAT) contributes heavily to the societal burden of TB. Individual impacts associated with PIAT may vary by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status.

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  • This paper considers the potentially negative impacts of an increasing deployment of non-congestion-controlled best-effort traffic on the Internet.1 These negative impacts range from extreme unfairness against competing TCP traffic to the potential for congestion collapse. To promote the inclusion of end-to-end congestion control in the design of future protocols using best-effort traffic, we argue that router mechanisms are needed to identify and restrict the bandwidth of selected highbandwidth best-effort flows in times of congestion.

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  • Defense Department officials have expressed concern about the fact that officers who reach the top ranks of the military tend to come from career fields that are disproportionately occupied by whites. The relative lack of minorities in these fields has a significant impact on the diversity of the senior leadership. The authors examine

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  • Intensified government support is required to extend the Expanded Programme on Immuniza- tion (EPI), which currently protects about 80 per- cent of the children in the developing world against six major diseases at a cost of about $1.4 billion a year. Expanding EPI coverage to 95 per- cent of all children would have a significant impact on children in poor households, who make up a disproportionately large share of those not yet reached by the EPI.

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