Global issues in medicine

Xem 1-20 trên 24 kết quả Global issues in medicine
  • Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing concern globally, but the impact is very deleterious in the context of Bangladesh. Recent review article on the AMR issue demonstrates the scenario in human medicine; unfortunately, no attempt was taken to address this as One Health issue.

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  • Pneumonia is a significant public health problem globally. The early identification and management of the determinants of pneumonia demands clear evidence. But, there is a limited data on this issue in the current study area.

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  • Despite recognition of asthma as a growing global issue and development of global guidelines, asthma treatment practices vary between countries. Several studies have reported patients’ perspectives on asthma control. This study presents physicians’ perspectives and strategies for asthma management.

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  • The Forum on Emerging Infections was created by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1996 in response to a request from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The purpose of the Forum is to provide structured opportunities for leaders from government, academia, and industry to meet and examine issues of shared concern regarding research, prevention, detection, and management of emerging or reemerging infectious diseases.

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  • A WHO survey related to the Global Reproductive Health Strategy (World Health Assembly Resolution 55.12) assessed the implementation of magnesium sulfate as well. In about 85 percent of the surveyed 58 countries, magnesium sulfate was available for use.

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  • The United Kingdom Medicines Control Agency subsequently stopped this initiative citing it as unlawful promotion. However Herxheimer (2003) points out that in the absence of adequate independent funding patients organisations and lobbying groups are likely to continue to accept funding from pharmaceutical companies despite the clear ethical issues. He gives as examples the International Alliance of Patient Organisations and the Global Alliance of Mental Health Illness Advocacy which are both highly visible and linked financially to Big Pharma.

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  • Over the past several years, scientists, public health officials, and policy makers have become increasingly interested in understanding how the emergence and spread of infectious diseases could be affected by environmental factors, particularly variations in climate. In September 1995 the Institute of Medicine/ National Academy of Sciences and the National Science and Technology Council held a Conference on Human Health and Global Climate Change.

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  • Optimization has become pervasive in medicine. The application of computing to medical applications has opened many challenging issues and problems for both the medical computing field and the mathematical community. Mathematical techniques (continuous and discrete) are playing a key role with increasing importance in understanding several fundamental problems in medicine. Naturally, optimization is a fundamentally important tool due to the limitation of the resources involved and the need for better decision making....

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  • In 1995, the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council issued a report entitled Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology, which recommended tracking federal investments in the creation of new knowledge and technologies—what the report referred to as the federal science and technology budget (FS&T).

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  • Furthermore, in order to boost innovative drugs and health solutions in Europe the Health Theme makes a major effort into investigator-driven clinical trials in various fields. With a focus on brain-related diseases, diabetes, and cancer (incorporating life style issues and social determinants of health) the 2011 work programme addresses major health-related societal challenges. Finally, with a focus on antimicrobial drug resistance and emerging epidemics, the Health Theme continues to address global health issues of utmost importance.

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  • The third section of the book reviews some of the major challenges in health systems. These include health resources, technology and management of medical devices. The role of private business in public health is also explored. The final section contains a variety of issues related to global health. This includes the rise of NCDs in low and middle income countries, neglected diseases related to poverty and health and longevity medicine. A chapter of alcoholism and mortality examines the effects of a public health system breakdown.

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  • Examining specific problems—notably AIDS (Chap. 182), but also tuberculosis (TB, Chap. 158), malaria (Chap. 203), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS; Chap. 179), and key noncommunicable diseases—helps to sharpen the discussion of barriers to prevention, diagnosis, and care as well as means of overcoming them. We next discuss global health equity, drawing on notions of social justice that once were central to international public health but have fallen out of favor over the past several decades. ...

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  • Conclusion: Toward a Science of Implementation Public-health strategies draw largely on quantitative methods—from epidemiology and biostatistics, but also from economics. Clinical practice, including internal medicine, draws on a rapidly expanding knowledge base but remains focused on individual patient care; clinical interventions are rarely population-based. In fact, neither public-health nor clinical approaches alone will prove adequate in addressing the problems of global health.

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  • Health Systems and the "Brain Drain" A significant and oft-invoked barrier to effective health care in resourcepoor settings is the lack of medical personnel. In what is termed the brain drain, many physicians and nurses emigrate from their home countries to pursue opportunities abroad, leaving behind health systems that are understaffed and illequipped to deal with the epidemic diseases that ravage local populations.

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  • Diabetes The International Diabetes Federation reports that the number of diabetics in the world is expected to increase from 194 million in 2003 to 330 million by 2030, when 3 of every 4 sufferers will live in developing countries. Because diabetics are far more frequently under the age of 65 in developing nations, the complications of micro- and macrovascular disease take a far greater toll. In 2005, an estimated 1.1 million people died of diabetes-related illnesses, and 80% of these deaths occurred in low- and middle-income countries.

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  • In stark contrast to the extraordinary lengths to which patients in wealthy countries will go to treat ischemic cardiomyopathy, young patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathies in resource-poor settings have received little attention. These conditions account for as many as 25–30% of admissions for heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa and include poorly understood entities such as peripartum cardiomyopathy (which has an incidence in rural Haiti of 1 per 300 live births) and HIV cardiomyopathy.

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  • Limited success in scaling-up ITN coverage reflects the inadequately acknowledged economic barriers that prevent the destitute sick from accessing critical preventive technologies. Despite proven efficacy and what are considered "reasonable costs," the 2003 RBM report reveals disappointing levels of ITN coverage. In 28 African countries surveyed, only 1.3% (range, 0.2–4.9%) of households owned at least one ITN, and

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  • Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases While the burden of communicable diseases—especially HIV infection, tuberculosis, and malaria—still accounts for the majority of deaths in resourcepoor regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, close to 60% of all deaths worldwide in 2005 were due to chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Moreover, 80% of deaths attributable to NCDs occurred in low- and middle-income countries, where 85% of the global population lives. In 2005, 8.

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  • Malaria We turn now to the world's third largest infectious killer, which has taken its greatest toll among children, especially African children, living in poverty. The Cost of Malaria Malaria's human toll is enormous. An estimated 250 million people suffer from malarial disease each year, and the disease annually kills between 1 million and 2.5 million people, mostly pregnant women and children under the age of 5.

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  • Tuberculosis Chapter 158 offers a concise overview of the pathophysiology and treatment of TB, which is closely linked to HIV infection in much of the world. Indeed, a substantial proportion of the resurgence of TB registered in southern Africa may be attributed to HIV co-infection. Even before the advent of HIV, however, it was estimated that fewer than half of all cases of TB in developing countries were ever diagnosed, much less treated.

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