Lecture Data communications

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  • The two dominant networking models are the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) and the Internet model (TCP/IP).The first is a theoretical framework; the second is the actual model used in today's data communications. In Chapter 2, we first discuss the OSI model to give a general background. We then concentrate on the Internet model, which is the foundation for the rest of the lecture.

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  • In this lecture, students will be able to understand: introduction, network models, data & signals, digital transmission, transmission media, error detection & correction, data link control, wired LANs – ethernet, wireless LANs, network layer - logical addressing, internet protocols, network layer - delivery, forwarding, and routing, transport layer, switching & vlans, application layer.

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  • One of the major functions of the physical layer is to move data in the form of electromagnetic signals across a transmission medium. Whether you are collecting numerical statistics from another computer, sending animated pictures from a design workstation, or causing a bell to ring at a distant control center, you are working with the transmission of data across network connections. Chapter 3 discusses the relationship between data, which are created by a device, and electromagnetic signals, which are transmitted over a medium.

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  • Converting digital data to a bandpass analog traditionally called digitalto-analog conversion. Converting a low-pass analog signal to a bandpass analog signal is traditionally called analog-to-analog conversion. In this chapter, we discuss these two types of conversions.

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  • After explaining some ideas about data and signals and how we can use them efficiently, we discuss the characteristics of transmission media, both guided and unguided, in this chapter. Although transmission media operates under the physical layer, they are controlled by the physical layer.

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  • Chapter 9 - Using telephone and cable networks for data transmission. This chapter shows how the issues discussed in the previous chapters can be used in actual networks. In this chapter, we first discuss the telephone network as designed to carry voice. We then show how it can be used to carry data. Second, we discuss the cable network as a television network. We then show how it can also be used to carry data.

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  • Chapter 11 is named data link control, which involves flow and error control. It discusses some protocols that are designed to handle the services required from the data link layer in relation to the network layer.

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  • Chapter 12 is devoted to access control, the duties of the data link layer that are related to the use of the physical layer. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Random access, controlled access, channelization.

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  • Chapter 13 introduces you to wired LANs: Ethernet. This chapter introduces wired local area networks. A wired LAN, viewed as a link, is mostly involved in the physical and data link layers. We have devoted the chapter to the discussion of Ethernet and its evolution, a dominant technology today.

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  • LANs do not normally operate in isolation. They are connected to one another or to the Internet. To connect LANs, or segments ofLANs, we use connecting devices. Connecting devices can operate in different layers of the Internet model. In this chapter, we discuss only those that operate in the physical and data link layers.

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  • In this chapter, we show how the virtual-circuit approach can be used in wide-area networks. Two common WAN technologies use virtual-circuit switching. Frame Relay is a relatively high-speed protocol that can provide some services not available in other WAN technologies such as DSL, cable TV, and T lines. ATM, as a high-speed protocol, can be the superhighway of communication when it deploys physical layer carriers such as SONET.

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  • Chapter 23 - Process-to-process delivery: UDP, TCP, and SCTP. Chapter 23 discusses three transport layer protocols in the Internet: UDP, TCP, and SCTP. The first, User Datagram Protocol (UDP), is a connectionless, unreliable protocol that is used for its efficiency. The second, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), is a connection-oriented, reliable protocol that is a good choice for data transfer. The third, Stream Control Transport Protocol (SCTP) is a new transport-layer protocol designed for multimedia applications.

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  • Chapter 1 - Introduction. This chapter addresses four issues: data communications, networks, protocols and standards, and standards organizations. First, we give a broad definition of data communications. We then define networks as a highway on which data can travel. We also discuss different types of protocols and the difference between protocols and standards. Then, we give a brief review of the standards organizations that we refer to throughout the book. Finally, we discuss network models.

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  • Chapter 1 - Introduction to data communications. In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: Brief history, data communications networks, network models, network standards, future trends.

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  • Lecture Business data communications and networking (8th edition): Chapter 2 - Application layer. In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: Application architectures, world wide web, electronic mail, other applications.

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  • Lecture Business data communications and networking (8th edition): Chapter 4 - Data link layer. In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: Media access control, error control, data link protocols, transmission efficiency.

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  • A computer network is designed to send information from one point to another. This information needs to be converted to either a digital signal or an analog signal for transmission. In this chapter, we discuss the first choice, conversion to digital signals.

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  • Chapter 6 - Bandwidth utilization: Multiplexing and spreading. In this chapter we will show how we can use the available bandwidth efficiently. We discuss two separate, but related topics, multiplexing and spreading.

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  • Although the previous chapters in this part are issues related to the physical layer or transmission media, Chapter 8 discusses switching, a topic that can be related to several layers. We have included this topic in this part of the book to avoid repeating the discussion for each layer.

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  • Chapter 10 - Error detection and correction. This chapter discusses error detection and correction. Although the quality of devices and media have been improved during the last decade, we still need to check for errors and correct them in most applications.

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