Regulation and incentives

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  • Under the U.S. Constitution, the censors had every right to wield their scissors at whatever offended their eyes. In 1915, in Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio, the Supreme Court ruled that the movies were not a revolutionary new communications medium but “a business, pure and simple, originated and conducted for profit, like other spectacles, not to be regarded … as part of the press of the country, or as organs of public opinion.

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  • When a consumer applies for non-mortgage credit, such as a credit card, unsecured line of credit, or installment loan (e.g. for an automobile, or furniture), the potential creditor (data user) can request a credit report (with or without a credit score) from one, two, or three of the credit repositories. A repository that receives such a request will send the credit report to the potential creditor, and record an inquiry on the consumer’ s credit report. The creditor can use the information in the credit report to help decide whether to extend or deny credit to the consumer,...

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  • sustainability engages a wide variety of key stakeholders. First and foremost, our clients expect us to invest responsibly on their behalf, and our portfolio managers are increasingly updating clients or fund investors on our sustainable practices and accomplishments. to aid in our effort to maintain efficient and well-occupied buildings, we work with our contract property managers to communicate the goals and measures we set on a global level, as well as for each property, so that tenants are also encouraged to support and undertake sustainable activities.

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  • Every materials development situation is different. Sometimes you have enough time and money to do the job; sometimes time and money are in short supply. Sometimes you have a team to work with; sometimes you don’t. There is no single strategy that works in every situation. Whatever the challenge, the best person to decide how to solve it is you. Our advice: become familiar with the techniques presented here, try them out, then use the ones that work well for you. Use what you know to create a materials development plan relevant to your needs and resources.

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  • It is not assumed that, when subjected to such "forces" of positive feedback, people do not try to find mechanisms with which to cope. The models assume that people do the best they can in the circumstances they face. What the models do is to identify conditions in which this is not enough to lift communities out of the mire. Turner and Ali (1996), for example, have shown that in the face of population pressure inBangladesh small land-holders have periodically adopted new ways of doing things so as to intensify agricultural production.

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  • Many of the traditionally sound cultural practices recommended for conventional agriculture are also employed in organic production. In fact, organic agriculture has been referred to as “good farming practice without using synthetic chemicals.”2 For example, planned crop rotations, which have multiple benefits in terms of soil building, plant health, pest management, and enhancing biodiversity, are required in annual organic cropping systems.

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  • Women's involvement in the formal sector has mainly been urban-based, as civil servants in the health and education sectors, where they had a sizeable presence before the conflict. This was severely disrupted by the strong restrictions on female employment during the Taliban period. Currently, close to one-third of all teachers are female, while an estimated 40% of all basic health facilities lack female staff, a clear constraint to delivering basic services (health, in particular) to women.

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  • Several industries will need to contribute to successfully achieve this renewable resources vision. The Executive Steering Group therefore turned to a broad range of disciplines, including crop production, forestry, genomics, chemical processing, fermentation, industrial enzymes, materials science, biotechnology, plant physiology, and product manufacturing. The steering group sought input on key barriers, research goals, and interactions among related areas from more than 120 scientific experts and marketing professionals.

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  • During the conflict and civil war in the 1980s and 1990s, particularly between 1992 and 1995, armed factions turned the traditional norms of honor and shame into weapons of war, engaging in rape and sexual assault against women of opposing groups as an ultimate means of dishonoring entire communities and reducing people's capacities to resist military advances.2 In response, concerns about women's security led to the imposition of ever stricter interpretations of what constitutes socially acceptable behavior, supported by the most conservative reading of the holy scriptures.

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  • An implicit assumption made by the traditional direct marketing paradigm is that profit can only be generated by a direct promotion. In other words, it has been assumed that a customer would not make the purchase unless being contacted by the campaign. As such, how one would behave without the direct promotion is of no concern. However, we have to wonder if such an assumption holds in real life. It is not unrealistic to believe that some customers will make the purchase on their own without receiving the contact. ...

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  • Chong and Koh’s (2003) results were similar: they showed that stock prices, economic activities, real interest rates and real money balances in Malaysia were linked in the long run both in the pre- and post capital control sub periods. Mukherjee and Naka (1995) applied Johansen’s (1998) VECM to analyze the relationship between the Japanese Stock Market and exchange rate, inflation, money supply, real economic activity, long-term government bond rate, and call money rate.

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  • Ensuring universal access to SRH services and information is essential for achieving many, if not all, of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), especially those on maternal health, child survival, HIV and AIDS and gender equality [5]. Most maternal deaths can be prevented if there is skilled attendance at birth to cope with potentially fatal complications. Access to safe and effective family planning services and contraception empowers women to have more control over when to have children and lessens the incidence of unsafe abortions.

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  • There too, the accounts of feminist film culture produced in the mid-to-late 70s tended to emphasize a dichotomy between two concerns of the women's movement and two types of film work that seemed to be at odds with each other: one called for immediate documentation for purposes of political activism, consciousness- raising, self-expression or the search for "positive images" of woman; the other insisted on rigorous, formal work on the medium - or bet-...

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  • In recent years, although slowly, steps have been taken towards a greater liberalisation of the agricultural markets. However, agriculture still accounts for 66% of the protectionism in the trade for goods and services today. This explains, at least in part, its small impact on international trade, since it only represents 4% of the gross world product (World Bank, 2006). For EU member countries, agricultural protectionism derives from the CAP (Common Agricultural Policy).

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  • Put the concepts discussed previously into practice by examining a real-world example. As with other scenarios in this guide, this example is based on the automated test system for testing a variety of CompactRIO I/O modules. The scope of this system is to test a product family of more than 50 I/O modules for the CompactRIO platform, which is an advanced embedded control and data acquisition system designed for applications that require high performance and reliability. In addition, the test system must be scalable to test future CompactRIO module releases. ...

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  • When the value of a firm is increasing, common stocks provide a substantial payoff to stock holders in the form of capital appreciation and at times dividend payments. Common stock holders thus have a leveraged investment in the value of the firm. Bond holders, however, have a de-levered investment in the value of a firm, as they do not get rewarded when firm value increases, but are still guaranteed payment when the stock price declines. Declining firm value impinges on bond holders only after the firm value has substantially decreased to...

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  • The choice curve is bas reflect their its own curr ed on the arg credit risk. A ency is assum of the U.S. Tre u bo ed ment that the yi nd issued by a g asury yield curve as the risk-free elds on bonds its yield sho rates on U.S participant es to suppl to the econ . Treasury sec y uld equal the r ur s’ views on a variety of factors inc and demand for high quality credit relative omic cycle, the effect of inflation and investor k-free rate of interest.

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  • We analyze the development of 49 local bond markets. Our main finding is that policies and laws matter: Countries with stable inflation rates and strong creditor rights have more developed local bond markets and rely less on foreign-currency-denominated bonds. The results suggest that “original sin” is a misnomer. Emerging economies are not inherently dependent upon foreign-currency debt. Rather, by improving policy performance and strengthening institutions they may develop local currency bond markets, reduce their currency mismatch, and lessen the likelihood of future crises....

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  • On October 22, 1929, a headline in the New York Times read: “Fisher says prices of stocks are low.” Two days later, the stock market crashed. Fisher based his projection on strong earnings reports, fewer industrial disputes, and evidence of high investment in R&D and other intangible capital. But, because the market fell dramatically, many analysts concluded that he had been wrong in his assessment that stocks were undervalued in October 1929.

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  • Concern about women in prison must be broadened to include the children of women in prison. United Nations General Assembly 2003 resolution A/RES/58/183 on human rights in the administration of justice invited “governments, relevant international and regional bodies, national human rights institutions and non-governmental organizations to devote increased attention to the issue of women in prison, including the children of women in prison, with a view to identifying the key problems and ways in which they can be addressed …”. ...

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