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Soil organic C

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  • During the past two centuries, scientists, farmers, and agricultural educators have tended to alternate their views of soil organic matter (SOM) between the extremes of great appreciation and low esteem. As an early 20th century bulletin explained, organic matter was “once extolled as the essential soil ingredient, the bright particular star in the firmament of the plant grower…” before it “…fell like Lucifer…” as a result of the findings of 19th century agricultural chemists that most of the plant structure (C, that is) originated in the atmosphere (Hills et al., 1908)....

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  • The soil microbial biomass is an essential component of most terrestrial ecosystems because it is responsible for regulating nutrient cycling, and acts as a highly labile source of plant-available nutrients.

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  • Agro-industrial waste presents an alternative to inorganic fertilizer. It is possible to use tobacco waste as a soil amendment due to its high organic matter and low toxic element content. Tobacco waste compost (TWC) and farmyard manure (FYM) were applied to Typic Xerofluvent soil at various ratios, and butter-head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Capitata L.) was grown.

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  • 136 A. Singh et al. 5.2.4 Soil Microcosms One of the simplest methods requiring minimal equipment for soil biodegradation studies is with use of a biometer flask (Bellco, Vineland, NJ, USA). The United Sates Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OCED) have also recommended this method (OECD 1981; McFarland et al. 1991; Skladany and Baker 1994). Biodegradation activity can be evaluated by directly monitoring the loss of the target compounds or indirectly by measuring by-products of biodegradation or electron acceptor consumption.

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  • Ian and Jane Campbell of Barambah Organics near Murgon in Queensland produce, process and market certified organic milk. Their movement into organic production was born from a long family interest in sustainable agriculture and the need to create a point of difference for their products. “Customers are often surprised by the unique taste of our milk. It comes from a balanced and healthy diet for the cows on our chemical-free broadacre pastures,” said Ian. Soil health and weed control are important considerations and are carefully managed with compost manures and lime.

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  • What takes place when alkalies and acids are brought together? We will now examine the ashes left after burning vegetable substances. This we have called inorganic matter, and it is obtained from the soil. Organic matter, although forming so large a part of the plant, we have seen to consist of four different substances. The inorganic portion, on the contrary, although forming so small a part, consists of no less than nine or ten different kinds of matter.[B] These we will consider in order.

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  • Ở Ba Lan, mires thoát nước được gọi là vùng đất than bùn. Sau khi khai hoang, đất hữu cơ, chủ yếu là những người có nguồn gốc từ Fens trải qua biến đổi sinh thực được chỉ định trên toàn cầu như quá trình hình thành moorsh (MFP). Cường độ của MFP được theo dõi bởi những thay đổi trong hình thái học đất và cơ cấu như than bùn chuyển đổi thành các loại ngũ cốc và tập hợp, làm thay đổi tính chất vật lý. Các tiêu chí mô tả cho những người sự biến đổi là như sau...

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  • Established in 1995, the Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) is a state-led, national coalition of personnel from the environmental regulatory agencies of some 40 states and the District of Columbia; three federal agencies; tribes; and public and industry stakeholders. The organization is devoted to reducing barriers to, and speeding interstate deployment of, better, more cost-effective, innovative environmental techniques.

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  • If you are eligible to deduct charitable contributions for federal income tax purposes (see Qualifying for a Tax Deduction later) and you want to claim a deduction for donating your vehicle to charity, then you should make certain that the charity is a qualified organization. Otherwise, your donation will not be tax deductible. The most common types of qualified organizations are section 501(c)(3) organizations, such as charitable, educational, or religious organizations. This publication refers to section 501(c)(3) organizations generally as “charities.” ...

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  • Decreases in pH and ANC are often paral- leled by changes in element concentrations including increases in Al +3 concentrations and decreases in Ca +2 . High dissolved Al +3 concen- trations can have toxic effects on many types of aquatic biota, and at extreme levels few aquatic species can survive (Table 1). Organic forms of Al +3 are much less toxic than inorganic forms. Emerging research suggests that Ca +2 concentra- tions in streamwater are also an important bio- logical indicator.

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  • Nitrogen contamination may come from a variety of sources: municipal sewage, animal manure, atmospheric deposition, biological N fixation, soil organic N, and/or nitrogen fertilizers. The consequences of contamination in a specific water body will depend upon the amount of contamination from all sources and characteristics of the receiving waters. Shallow rivers, wetlands, lakes, and reservoirs, have some capacity to remove nitrogen by microbial denitrification.

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  • Soil samples stored in sealed vials have been shown to undergo significant biodegradation over time periods greater than 48 hours. Holding time guidelines for VOCs are given in SW846, Method 5035A, Appendix A, Table A.1 “Recommended VOC Sample Preservation Techniques and Holding Times.” The holding time for preserved soil samples should be interpreted as 14 days from the time of sample collection (stored at 4±2o C).

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  • A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of composting of source separated organic matter of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in low, middle and high income areas of Karachi city with a population over 14 million. Results of MSW analysis indicate the presence of high percentage of biodegradable organic matter (71-74%), acceptable moisture content (40-50%) and C/N ratio (38-40:1). On windrow composting, not only the volume of waste was reduced but also produced a crumbly earthy smelling soil-like, compost material.

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  • McKay, Donald. "Front matter" Multimedia Environmental Models Edited by Donald McKay Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC,2001 Multimedia Environmental Models The Fugacity Approach Second Edition Multimedia Environmental Models The Fugacity Approach Second Edition Donald Mackay LEWIS PUBLISHERS Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C. Preface This book is about the behavior of organic chemicals in our multimedia environment or biosphere of air, water, soil, and sediments, and the diversity of biota that reside in these media.

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  • Forest ecosystems cover large parts of the terrestrial land surface and are major components of the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. Most important, forest ecosystems accumulate organic compounds with long C residence times in vegetation, detritus and, in particular, the soil by the process of C sequestration. Trees, the major components of forests, absorb large amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) by photosynthesis, and forests return an almost equal amount to the atmosphere by auto- and heterotrophic respiration.

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  • Tetanus is a neurologic disorder, characterized by increased muscle tone and spasms, that is caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin elaborated by Clostridium tetani. Tetanus occurs in several clinical forms, including generalized, neonatal, and localized disease. †A contributor to HPIM since the 12th edition, Dr. Abrutyn passed away on February 22, 2007. Etiologic Agent C. tetani is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive rod that forms an oval, colorless, terminal spore and thus assumes a shape resembling a tennis racket or drumstick.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 133. Tetanus Definition Tetanus is a neurologic disorder, characterized by increased muscle tone and spasms, that is caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin elaborated by Clostridium tetani. Tetanus occurs in several clinical forms, including generalized, neonatal, and localized disease. †A contributor to HPIM since the 12th edition, Dr. Abrutyn passed away on February 22, 2007. Etiologic Agent C.

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  • Microbiology and Laboratory Diagnosis These organisms are non-acid-fast, catalase-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacilli. Their colonial morphologies vary widely; some species are small and α-hemolytic (similar to lactobacilli), whereas others form large white colonies (similar to yeasts). Many nondiphtherial coryneforms require special medium (e.g., Löffler's, Tinsdale's, or telluride medium) for growth. Epidemiology Humans are the natural reservoirs for several nondiphtherial coryneforms, including C. xerosis, C. pseudodiphtheriticum, C. striatum, C.

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