Stem cells

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 66. Stem Cell Biology Stem Cell Biology: Introduction Stem cell biology is a relatively new field that explores the characteristics and possible clinical applications of the different types of pluripotential cells that serve as the progenitors of more differentiated cell types. In addition to potential therapeutic applications (Chap. 67), patient-derived stem cells can also provide disease models and a means to test drug effectiveness.

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  • After the first edition published in 2007 that became a best seller, the continuous scientific developments in the field have prompted us to produce the second edition of this book. As it happens in life and science, some of the novel and promising data presented in the first edition have been confirmed, some not, and new breakthrough achievements have been accomplished. Stem Cells in Reproductive Medicine, Basic Science and Therapeutic Potential, second edition, updates the revolutionary advances in stem cell science that may potentially impact on human reproductive medicine.

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  • Stem cell research has the potential to affect the lives of millions of people in the United States and around the world. This research is now regularly front-page news because of the controversy surrounding the derivation of stem cells from human embryos. Realizing the promise of stem cells for yielding new medical therapies will require us to grapple with more than just scientific uncertainties. The stem cell debate has led scientists and nonscientists alike to contemplate profound issues, such as who we are and what makes us human beings.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 67. Applications of Stem Cell Biology in Clinical Medicine Applications of Stem Cell Biology in Clinical Medicine: Introduction Organ damage and the resultant inflammatory responses initiate a series of repair processes, including stem cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, often in combination with angiogenesis and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Endogenous stem cells in tissues such as liver and skin have a remarkable ability to regenerate the organs, whereas heart and brain have a much more limited capability for self-repair.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 68. Hematopoietic Stem Cells Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Introduction All of the cell types in the peripheral blood and some cells in every tissue of the body are derived from hematopoietic (hemo: blood; poiesis: creation) stem cells. If the hematopoietic stem cell is damaged and can no longer function (e.g., due to the nuclear accident at Chernobyl), a person would survive 2–4 weeks in the absence of extraordinary support measures. With the clinical use of hematopoietic stem cells, tens of thousands of lives are saved each year (Chap. 108).

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  • Self-Renewal and Proliferation of Stem Cells Symmetric and Asymmetric Cell Division The most widely accepted stem cell definition is a cell with a unique capacity to produce unaltered daughter cells (self-renewal) and to generate specialized cell types (potency). Self-renewal can be achieved in two ways. Asymmetric cell division produces one daughter cell that is identical to the parental cell and one daughter cell that is different from the parental cell and is a progenitor or differentiated cell. Asymmetric cell division does not increase the number of stem cells.

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  • Diabetes Mellitus The success of islet cell and pancreas transplantation provides proof of concept for a cell-based approach for type I diabetes. However, the demand for donor pancreata far exceeds the number available, and maintenance of long-term graft survival remains a problem. The search for a renewable source of stem cells capable of regenerating pancreatic islets has therefore been intensive. Pancreatic βcell turnover occurs in the normal pancreas, although the source of the new βcells is controversial.

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  • Strategies for Stem Cell Replacement Stem cell transplantation is not a new concept and it is already part of established medical practice. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) (Chap. 68) are responsible for the long-term repopulation of all blood elements in bone marrow transplant recipients. HSC transplantation is now the gold standard against which other stem cell transplantation therapies will be measured. Transplantation of differentiated cells is also a clinical reality, as donated organs (e.g., liver, kidney) and tissues (i.e.

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  • This book documents the increased number of stem cell related research, basic and clinical applications as well as views for the future. The book covers a wide range of issues related to new developments and innovations in cell-based therapies containing basic and clinical chapters from the respected authors involved in stem cell studies and research around the world.

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  • Other Organ Systems and the Future The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine has been studied for many other organ systems and cell types, including skin, eye, cartilage, bone, kidney, lung, endometrium, vascular endothelium, smooth muscle, striated muscle, and others. In fact, the potential for stem cell regeneration of damaged organs and tissues is virtually limitless. However, numerous obstacles must be overcome before stem cell therapies can become a widespread clinical reality.

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  • Developmental Biology of Hematopoietic Stem Cells During development, blood cells are produced at different sites. Initially, the yolk sac provides oxygen-carrying red blood cells, and then several sites of intraembryonic blood cell production become involved. These intraembryonic sites engage in sequential order, moving from the genital ridge at a site where the aorta, gonadal tissue, and mesonephros are emerging to the fetal liver and then, in the second trimester, to the bone marrow and spleen.

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  • Excess Capacity of Hematopoietic Stem Cells In the absence of disease, one never runs out of hematopoietic stem cells. Indeed, serial transplantation studies in mice suggest that sufficient stem cells are present to reconstitute several animals in succession, with each animal having normal blood cell production. The fact that allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients also never run out of blood cells in their life span, which can extend for decades, argues that even the limiting numbers of stem cells provided to them are sufficient.

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  • Hierarchy of hematopoietic differentiation. Stem cells are multipotent cells that are the source of all descendant cells and have the capacity to provide either long-term (measured in years) or short-term (measured in months) cell production. Progenitor cells have a more limited spectrum of cells they can produce and are generally a short-lived, highly proliferative population also known as transient amplifying cells. Precursor cells are cells committed to a single blood cell lineage but with a continued ability to proliferate; they do not have all the features of a fully mature cell.

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  • Some limited understanding of self-renewal exists and, intriguingly, implicates gene products that are associated with the chromatin state, a high-order organization of chromosomal DNA that influences transcription. These include members of the polycomb family, a group of zinc finger–containing transcriptional regulators that interact with the chromatin structure, contributing to the accessibility of groups of genes for transcription.

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  • We are pleased to offer our committee’s report on guidelines for human embryonic stem cell research. This report and its recommendations are the result of many hours of committee meetings as well as a public workshop. During those sessions we heard from many dedicated and talented people who represent a wide range of views. We have tried to take these diverse perspectives into account in a report that mirrors the seriousness with which we have reflected upon them.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'innovations in stem cell transplantation edited by taner demirer', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Twenty years after the discovery of neural stem cells, the question whether the central nervous system can be considered among regenerative tissues is still open. On one side, deep characterization of neural stem and progenitor cells, their niches, and their progeny in brain neurogenic sites overtly showed that new neurons can be generated in the brain of adult mammals, including humans.

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  • Current procedures used for skin injury reepithelization have yet to improve. At present, stem cell-based therapies provide great potential in repairing different damaged tissues due to the multipotent character of these cells.

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  • Objectives: To assess results of knee cartilage restoration on MRI of autologous adipose stem cell therapy in treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) after 12 months. Subjects and methods: 84 patients with primary knee.

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  • The ability of Ngoclinh ginseng (NLG) stem cell extract in controlling the skin aging process in human fibroblasts was investigated. To evaluate the cosmeceutical effects of the extracts on the aging process, MTT assays were conducted with various concentrations of NLG stem cells. No extracts showed any cytotoxic activities on fibroblasts at concentrations of up to 10 mg/ml.

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