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Transplantation

Xem 1-20 trên 417 kết quả Transplantation
  • Tham khảo sách 'liver transplantation – basic issues edited by hesham abdeldayem and naglaa allam', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Adenovirus can be isolated from HSCT recipients at rates varying from 5 to 18%. Although hemorrhagic cystitis, pneumonia, gastroenteritis, and fatal disseminated infection have been reported, adenovirus infection, which (like CMV infection) usually occurs in the first or second month after transplantation, is often asymptomatic. A role for cidofovir therapy has been suggested, but the efficacy of this agent is unproven. Infections with parvovirus B19 (presenting as anemia or occasionally as pancytopenia) and enteroviruses (sometimes fatal) can occur.

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  • Graft Failure While complete and sustained engraftment is usually seen posttransplant, occasionally marrow function either does not return or, after a brief period of engraftment, is lost. Graft failure after autologous transplantation can be the result of inadequate numbers of stem cells being transplanted, damage during ex vivo treatment or storage, or exposure of the patient to myelotoxic agents posttransplant. Infections with cytomegalovirus (CMV) or human herpes virus type 6 have also been associated with loss of marrow function.

    pdf5p thanhongan 07-12-2010 38 4   Download

  • Tham khảo sách 'innovations in stem cell transplantation edited by taner demirer', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter Transplantation 108. Hematopoietic Cell Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Introduction Bone marrow transplantation was the original term used to describe the collection and transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells, but with the demonstration that the peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood are also useful sources of stem cells, hematopoietic cell transplantation has become the preferred generic term for this process.

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  • Complications Following Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Early Direct Chemoradiotoxicities The transplant preparative regimens commonly used cause a spectrum of acute toxicities that vary according to the specific regimen but frequently result in nausea, vomiting, and mild skin erythema (Fig. 108-1). Regimens that include high-dose cyclophosphamide can result in hemorrhagic cystitis, which can usually be prevented by bladder irrigation or with the sulfhydryl compound mercaptoethanesulfonate (MESNA); rarely, acute hemorrhagic carditis is seen.

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  • Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, once seen in 5–10% of patients, can be prevented by treating patients with oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 1 week pretransplant and resuming the treatment once patients have engrafted. The risk of infection diminishes considerably beyond 3 months after transplant unless chronic Most GVHD transplant develops, centers requiring recommend continuous continuing immunosuppression. trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis while patients are receiving any immunosuppressive drugs and also recommend careful monitoring for late CMV reactivation.

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  • Bacterial Infections In the first month after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, infectious complications are similar to those in granulocytopenic patients receiving chemotherapy for acute leukemia (Chap. 82). Because of the anticipated 1- to 3week duration of neutropenia and the high rate of bacterial infection in this population, many centers give prophylactic antibiotics to patients upon initiation of myeloablative therapy. Quinolones decrease the incidence of gram-negative bacteremia among these patients.

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  • Middle-Period Infections Because of continuing immunosuppression, kidney transplant recipients are predisposed to lung infections characteristic of those in patients with T cell deficiency (i.e., infections with intracellular bacteria, mycobacteria, nocardiae, fungi, viruses, and parasites). The high mortality rates associated with Legionella pneumophila infection (Chap. 141) led to the closing of renal transplant units in hospitals with endemic legionellosis.

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  • Kidney transplant recipients are also subject to infections with other intracellular organisms. These patients may develop pulmonary infections with Nocardia, Aspergillus, and Mucor as well as infections with other pathogens in which the T cell/macrophage axis plays an important role. In patients without IV catheters, L. monocytogenes is a common cause of bacteremia ≥1 month after renal transplantation and should be seriously considered in renal transplant recipients presenting with fever and headache.

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  • Virus-Associated Malignancies In addition to malignancy associated with gammaherpesvirus infection (EBV, KSHV) and simple warts (HPV), other tumors that are virus-associated or suspected of being virus-associated are more likely to develop in transplant recipients, particularly those who require long-term immunosuppression, than in the general population. The interval to tumor development is usually 1 year. Transplant recipients develop nonmelanoma skin or lip cancers that, in contrast to de novo skin cancers, have a high ratio of squamous cells to basal cells.

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  • Despite significant accomplishments to date, kidney transplantation is a relatively young field in medicine. Due to the armamentarium of agents available to effectively suppress the immune system, the past decade has seen a shift in focus from prevention of rejection to a focus on extending the life of the allograft and novel strategies to increase the organ donor pool. This book covers basic concepts in kidney transplantation while also addressing ways to manage kidney transplant recipients in order to maximize patient and graft survival.

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  • The here presented book covers different areas of clinical and scientific interest, reaching from donor evaluation to newest methods in immunological diagnostics. But also aspects of daily care of transplant recipients can be found in the carefully selected chapters. Everything driven by the aim to improve the care for all of our transplanted patients.

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  • With current techniques, the risk of graft rejection is 1–3%, and the risk of severe, life-threatening acute GVHD is ~15% following transplantation between HLA-identical siblings. The incidence of graft rejection and GVHD increases progressively with the use of family member donors mismatched for one, two, or three antigens. While survival following a one-antigen mismatched transplant is not markedly altered, survival following two- or three-antigen mismatched transplants is significantly reduced, and such transplants should be performed only as part of clinical trials.

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  • The Transplant Preparative Regimen The treatment regimen administered to patients immediately preceding transplantation is designed to eradicate the patient's underlying disease and, in the setting of allogeneic transplantation, immunosuppress the patient adequately to prevent rejection of the transplanted marrow. The appropriate regimen therefore depends on the disease setting and source of marrow.

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  • Aplastic Anemia Transplantation from matched siblings after a preparative regimen of highdose cyclophosphamide and antithymocyte globulin can cure up to 90% of patients

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  • Chronic Leukemia Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is the only therapy shown to cure a substantial portion of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Fiveyear disease-free survival rates are 15–20% for patients transplanted for blast crisis, 25–50% for accelerated-phase patients, and 60–70% for chronic phase patients, with cure rates as high as 80% at selected centers. Use of unrelated donors results in more GVHD and slightly worse survival than seen with matched siblings, although 3-year disease-free survival rates of 70% have been reported at some large centers.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 126. Infections in Transplant Recipients Infections in Transplant Recipients: Introduction The evaluation of infections in transplant recipients involves consideration of both the donor and the recipient of the transplanted organ. Infections following transplantation are complicated by the use of drugs that are necessary to enhance the likelihood of survival of the transplanted organ but that also cause the host to be immunocompromised.

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  • In many transplantation centers, transmission of infections that may be latent or clinically inapparent in the donor organ has resulted in the development of specific donor-screening protocols.

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  • Herpes Simplex Virus Within the first 2 weeks after transplantation, most patients who are seropositive for HSV-1 excrete the virus from the oropharynx. The ability to isolate HSV declines with time. Administration of prophylactic acyclovir (or valacyclovir) to seropositive HSCT recipients has been shown to reduce mucositis and prevent HSV pneumonia (a rare condition reported almost exclusively in allogeneic HSCT recipients). Both esophagitis (usually due to HSV-1) and anogenital disease (commonly induced by HSV-2) may be prevented with acyclovir prophylaxis.

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