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Kỹ năng phân loại và phương pháp giải nhanh bài tập Hóa học vô cơ 12: Phần 1

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Kỹ năng phân loại và phương pháp giải nhanh bài tập Hóa học vô cơ 12: Phần 1

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Phần 1 tài liệu Phân loại và phương pháp giải nhanh bài tập Hóa học vô cơ 12 cung cấp cho người đọc các lý thuyết cơ bản và phương pháp giải các bài tập đại cương về kim loại, kim loại kiềm - Kim loại kiềm thổ và nhôm. Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo.

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Nội dung Text: Kỹ năng phân loại và phương pháp giải nhanh bài tập Hóa học vô cơ 12: Phần 1

  1. CU T H A N H T O A N ; (I I & PhUdng phdp gial nhanh BAI TAP • -•««>•' « loral NHAXUATBAN
  2. Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khang YTel ChirongS. D A I Clfdll^G KIM M A I Cdc em hoc sinh Idp 12 than md'n! nam vChig kiS'n thiic va c6 the dat ket qua cao nha't trong cac k i thi, cac I. CAU T A O CUA K I M L O A I em hoc sinh c^n ren luyfin giai nhanh cac dang bai tap thucmg xuyfen, lifin tuc trong 1. Cau tao nguyen tiir: Nguyen tir ciia hSu hd't cac kim loai co s6' electron b Idp qua trinh hoc tap ciia minh. Di cac em c6 th6m tai Vitu tu ren luyfin cac k l nang giai ngoai cung it (1, 2, 3 e). bai tap, chupg t6i xin tran trong gioi thidu h6 sach: "Phdn loai vd phuong phdp giai nhanh bai tap hod hoc 12". ' •• 2. Cau tao tinh the: Trong tinh th^ kim loai, nguydn tir va ion kim loai nlm a PMn V6 CO g6m 5 chuong: ^ nhiJng niit ciia mang tinh th6', cac electron hoa tri chuyen dong tu do trong mang Chuong 5: Dai cuong \i kim loai tinh the. Chuong 6: Kim loai k\6m - Kim loai ki^m th6 nh6m 3. Lien ket kim loai: La lien ket duoc hinh thanh giOa cac qguySn ttr va ion kim Chuong 7: Crom - Sat - D6ng loai trong mang tinh the do sir tham gia ciia cac electron tu do. Chiromg 8: Nhan bie't mot s6' chat v6 co va chu^n d6 dung djch I I . TINH C H A T CUA K I M L O A I 1. Tinh chat vat ly chung Chuong 9: Hoa hoc vdri va'n d^ kinh i6, xa h6i va m6i trucmg Trong m6i chuong duoc trinh bay: Cac kim loai deu dSn didn, dSn nhiet, deo, co anh kim la do cac electron tu do A. Ly thuyd't co ban trong kim loai gay ra. B. Phuong phap giai cac dang bai tap 2. Tinh chat vat ly rieng M6t !6' tinh chat vat ly nhu kh6'i luong riSng, nhiet d6 nong chay, tinh ciifng phu M6i bai tap trong sach duoc tac gia chon loc k l cang, la sir k6't tinh ciia kifi'n thiic CO tinh chat t6ng hop kd't hop v6i kinh nghidm nhilu nam luy6n thi. Cac bai thu6c vao do b^n ciia lien ket kim loai, nguySn tir khdi, ki^u mang tinh th^,... ciia tap nay co gia tri rat cao v^ n6i dung, co d6 tin cay rat 16n trong ki^m tra, danh gia. kim loai Cac bai tap duoc n6u ra trong tap sach d^u duoc giai chi tifi't, d^y dii, d6 hi^u 3. Tinh that hoa hoc chung cua kim loai. va theo cac phuong phap giai nhanh. Cac kim loai deu CO tinh khir: Tac gia xin b^y to long bid't on sau sSc su gop y chan thanh ciia cac ban d6ng M > M"" + ne nghifip va cac em hoc sinh. Nguyt n nhan: Cac electron hoa trj ciia nguydn tir kim loai lien k6't yd'u vdi hat nhan Chuc cac em dat kd't qua cao trong hoc tap. ' nguydn tii, do do cac kim loai co kha nang nhuong electron de tao thanh ion duong. Tac gia a. Tac dung v&i phi kim Hdu hift cac kim loai khir duoc phi kim thanh ion am. Thf du: Mia sach Khang Vi^t xin tran trgng giai thi$u tai Quy dgc gid vd xin 4A1 + 3 0 , — ^ 2A1A idng nghe mgi y kim dong gop, decuon sack ngdy cdng hay han, botch han. Thu xin giti ve: Hg + S > HgS : . . Cty T N H H Mpt Thanh Vien - Djch Van hoa Khang Vi$t. h. Tac dung vdi axit * D6'i y&i dung dich HCl, H:S04 loang: 71, Dinh Tien Hoang, P. Dakao, Quan 1, TP. H C M Cac kiin loai dung trudc H trong day hoat d6ng hod hoc (day dien hoa) khir Tel: (08) 39115694 - 39111969 - 39111968 - 39105797 - Fax: (08) 39110880 Ho|c Email: khangvietbookstore@yahoo.com.vn duoc ion (H3O*) ciia cac axit nay thanh H2: M + nH* > M"" + - H , t * D6'i v5i H2SO4 dac, nong; HNO3: nau ha cac kim loai (triT Au, Pt) khii duoc N va- S trong cac axit nay xu6ng s
  3. - The' dien cue chu£n cua k i m loai cdn do duoc cha'p nhan bang sua't difen dOng ciia Thi du: 3Cu + 8HNO,(l) > 3Cu(NO,)2 + 2NO + 4 H , 0 pin tao bcri dien cue hidro chudn va diSn cue chudn cua k i m loai cSn do. 2Fe + 6H3S04(d) '" > Fe2(S04)3 + SSO, + 6H3O c. Tac dung vdi H2O t — C (p,„) — - Cac k i m loai c6 tinh khir manh nhir k i m loai kiem, k i m loai kidm tho (Ca, Sr, (Neu M durng sau H trong day dien hoa). Ba, truofc M g trong day dien hoa) khir H^O d6 dang 6 nhiet do thircmg. po „+ po - E Thi du: 2Na + 2H.O > 2NaOH + H.T (pill) H2+/H2 M /M — ^ (Dill) - Mot s6' kim loai khac (nhu M g , Zn, Fe,...) khir duoc hoi nuoc d nhiet d6 cao: (Neu M diing truoc H trong day dien hoa). M g + H^O.h, — ^ MgO + H , 4. Quy tac anpha (a ) 1 3Fe + 4 H . O — ^ Fe304 + 4 H : Day didn hoa ciia k i m loai cho phep d u doan chieu eua phan ling giCra hai cap d. Tac dung vai dung dich niuoi cua kim loai oxi hoa - khir theo quy tac a. K i m loai manh hon (khong tac dung v6'i H^O) day duoc k i m loai y€u hon ra Phan ling giOa hai cap oxi hoa - khir xay ra theo chieu chat oxi hoa manh hon se oxi khoi dung djch mu6'i. hoa chat khir manh hon sinh ra chat oxi hoa yeu hon va chat khu yeu hon: Thi du: Fe + CuSO^Cdd) > FeSO, + Cui [oxh|„,„h + [kh] ,„,„h > [oxh]j4„ + [kh] Fe + Cu-" > Fe-" + Cu IV. S l T B I E N PHAN III. DAY D I E N HOA C U A K I M L O A I - Sir dien phan la qua trinh oxi hoa - khijf xay ra 0 be mat cac didn cue khi c6 dong 1. Cap oxi hoa - khurcua kim loai dien mot chi6u di qua chat dien l i nong chay hoac dung dich chat dien l i . Dang oxi hoa (M"*) va dang khu ( M ) ciia ciing m6t k i m loai tao nen m6t cap oxi - Phan ling hoa hoc or cac dien cUc trong binh dien phan: V: 1" hoa - khu ( M " 7 M ) , giOa chung c6 m6'i quan hd: * 6 catot (cue - ) : Xay ra sU khir: M " " +ne ( > M M " " + ne M 2. Pin dien hoa. hoac 2 H , 0 + 2e 20H" + H . - Pin d'ltn hoa la thiet bi trong do nang lugng ciia phan ling oxi hoa - khir (hoa nang) chuyen thanh dien nang. * d anot (cue +): Xay ra sU oxi hoa: - Pin dien hoa tao bdi hai cap oxi hoa - khu, trong do: X" X + me • O cue am (anot): Xay ra su oxi hoa chat khir. hoac 2H2O — > 4 H ' + O , + 4e • 6 cue duong (catot): Xay ra sir khu chat oxi hoa. - Neu anot (cue +) kh6ng tro thi anot bj an mon (tan ddn): - Sua't dien dong ciia pin dien hoa: La hieu ciia the didn cue duong (E,+)) v6i th6' A >A"" + ae dien cue am (£,.,): - Tinh khoi luong cac chat thoat ra 6 didn cue: E(pi,„ = - E,-, > 0 (luon diromg) A.I.t E ° pi„) = E V ) - E V , > 0 (sua't dien dong chuan) m = n.F E,pi„), E ° p | , „ phu thuoc vao ban chat ciia k i m loai lam dien cue, n6ng d6 dung i dich va nhiet do. Trong do m : Khoi lugng chat thu dugc 6 dien cue, ti'nh bang gam. A : K h o i lugng mol cua chat thu dugc 6 dien cue. 5. The dien circ chuan ciia kim loai n: 56' electron ma nguyen t u hoac ion da nhan. - Dien cue hidro chudn : Pt ( H , , 1 a t m ) / H " ( I M ) : I: Cuong do dong dien ( A ) . ,. . r H, < > 2W +2e t: Thoi gian dien phan (s). Quyudrc: E ^ H ' / H ^ = 0,00 V. F: Hang so Faraday (F = 96500 C/ mol). - Tinh s6' mol electron trao d 6 i : n . trao ddi = I t / F (mol)
  4. Phdn locii va pluMni^ phc'ip f-idi BT H6a hoc 12 -Cu Thanh Toan V . Sir A N M O N K I M L O A I HgS + O . > H g + SO, " " ' 1 . S u an mon hoa hoc va su an mon dien hoa i Ag,S + O , — ^ 2 A g + SO, -Giong nhau: D^u c6 ban chat la phan ung oxi hoa - khir. *Thidu: Fe^Oj + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO, -Khdc nhau: CrA + 2A1 '" > 2Cr + A U O j * Trong an mon hoa hoc khdng hinh thanh dong dien. * Trong an mon dien hoa c6 hinh thanh dong electron (cac electron dirac di ZnO + C Z n + CO chuyen thanh dong, tir cue am d6n cue duong => tao pin difin hoa). Chu v; K h i CO nong chi khir duoc cac ion k i m loai trong cac oxit diing sau kem 2. C a c dieu kien xay ra an mon dien hoa hoc trong day dien hoa, thi du FeO, PbO, C u O , . . . - Cac difin cue phai khae nhau ban chat. 3. Phuomg phap dien phan * Casa: Dung dong didn m6t chieu de khir cac ion k i m loai. r, - Cac didn cue phai tid'p xiic true tiep hoac gian tiS'p vdi nhau qua day dSn. * Phqm vi dp dung: Co the diSu che duoc hdu het cac k i m loai. - Cac dien cue cung tiep xuc vdri dung dich chat dien l i . - Dieu che' k i m loai c6 tinh khir manh nhu L i , Na, K , A l , . . . bang each dien phan Chu y; Thie'u 1 trong 3 dieu kifen tren se khdng xay ra an mon dien hoa hoc, ma se xay ra an mon hoa hoc. nhung hop chat (mud'i, baza, oxit) nong chay ciia chiing. 3. Chong an mon kim loai - Dieu che' k i m loai c6 tinh khir trung binh va k i m loai c6 tinh khir yeu nhu Z n , - Bi6n phap bao \t be mat: scm, trang, ma, b6i diu m5, phii chat deo,... \tn hi C u , . . . bang each dien phan dung djch mu6'i cua chiing. mat k i m loai. *r/(/c/M.-2NaCl > 2Na+ Q, - Bidn phap bao vt ditn hoa: Diing k i m loai c6 tfnh khir manh hom d^ bio vfi 2AI3O3 ^n"^.^""i" ) 4 A I +30, (anot hi sinh). 2CUSO4 + 2 H , 0 2Cu + 2H,S04 + O^ ^ VI. PHUONG PHAP D I E U C H E K I M L O A I 1 . Phuofng phap thuy luyen (phuong phap udt) B . P H U C M ( 5 P H A P GJAO C-Ac 'D:^Na BAO T^P * Ca sff: Dung nhOng dung dich thich hop, nhu dung djch H 2 S O 4 , N a O H , Dang 1 : Bai tap k i m loai tac dung vol dung djch muo'i, axit va phi kim NaCN,... de hoa tan k i m loai hoac hop chat ciia k i m loai va tach ra khoi phan khong tan CO trong quang. Sau do cac ion k i m loai trong dung djch duoc khir bang k i m loai c6 tinh khir 1 . Kh6'i luong la kem giam khi ngam la kem vao dung dich (gia thie't khi k i m loai manh hem. thoat ra bam he't vao la kem, kem chi bi oxi hoa boi ion k i m loai) * Phant vi dp dung: Duoc diing de' dieu che nhOng k i m loai c6 tinh khir yS'u nhu A. CdCl,. B. A g N O j . C. PbCNOj),. D . CUSO4. Cu, H g , A u , . . . . Hu&ng ddn gidi * Thi du: Di6u che bac tir quang chira bac sunfua: Cac PTPU" xay ra: „ •,, i Ag.S + 4NaCN > 2Na[Ag(CN)2] + Na,S Zn +CdCl, > Cdi +Zna, ^'f- 2Na[Ag(CN)2] + Zn > 2Ag + Na.[Zn(CN)4] x X (mol) «>•:"' ' 2. Phuong phap nhiet luyen Am = 112x - 65x > 0 => kh(5i luong la Z n tang. --^ ' ;; * Ca sa: Khir nhUng ion k i m loai trong cac hop chat thucmg la exit kim loai o Z n + PbCNO,), > Pbl + ZnCNOj), ; nhiet do cao bang cac chat k h u manh nhu C, CO, H , hoac A l , k i m loai k i ^ m , k i m X X (mol) , , , loai kiem th6. A m = 207x - 65x > 0 kh6'i luong la Z n tang. ' ^ :^ ' * Phqm vi dp dung: Uhg dung r6ng rai trong cong nghiep de di^u che' nhffng Zn + 2AgN03 > 2Agi + Zn(N03), " ' kim loai c6 d6 hoat dong trung binh n h u Z n , Fe, Sn, Pb, Cr,... X 2x • ^ , V 6 i k i m loai kern hoat dong nhu A g , Hg thi chi cin dot chay quang cung da thu Am=:2.108x-65x>0=>kh6'iluonglaZntang. . duoc k i m loai ma khdng phai khiJr bang cac tac nhan khac.
  5. Phan loai va phirati}> phi'ip i^iai BT Hoa hoc 12 - Cu Thanh Toan PTPlT: M + Cd(N03), > Cdi +M(N03)2 Z n + CUSO4 > Cu 4^ + ZnS04 X X X x(mol) (ii2-M).x 0,47 ' A m = 64x - 65x < 0 => kh6'i lirong l a kem g i a m . Dap an dung la D. M + PbCNOj), > P b i + M(N03)2 2. Cho a gam h6n hop bot cac kim loai N i va Cu vao dung djch A g N O , dir, khuS'y k l m6t thofi gian cho den khi phan ling k^'t thiic, thu duoc 54 gam k i m loai. (207-M).x^M2 'y'^' [2) Mat khac, cung cho a gam h6n hop bot cac k i m loai tren vao dung djch CUSO4 Taco: du, khua'y kT cho den khi phan ling ket thuc, thu duoc k i m loai c6 khoi luong 207-M 1,42 ^ 2 bang (a + 0,5) gam. Gia trj cua a la Uy(2):(l)taduoc: = A . 13,5 g. B. 15,5 g. C. 18,6 g. D . 20,4 g. 112-M 0,47 Hu&ng dan gidi =>207-M = 3 3 6 - 3 M = > 2 M = 129=^M«65(Zn) Dap an dung la A . Goi X, y \&n luot la s6' mol N i , Cu trong h6n hgfp. Ta c6: a = 59x + 64y * PTPU" xay ra khi cho N i , Cu + AgNO^Cdd, du): 4. Nhiing mot thanh sdt nang 100 gam vao 100 m l dung djch h6n hop g6m Cu(N03)2 0,2M va A g N O j 0,2M. Sau mot thdi gian lay thanh k i m loai ra, rua N i + 2AgNO., > 2Ag>l +Ni(N03). sach lam kh6 can duoc 101,72 gam (gia thiet cac k i m loai tao thanh deu bam het X 2x vao thanh sdt). K h o i luong sat da phan ung la Cu + 2 A g N 0 , > 2 A g l +Cu(N03)2 A . 1,40 gam. B. 0,84 gam. C. 2,16 gam. D . 1,72 gam. y 2y Hu&ng dan gidi 54 Theo bai ra: ncu(N03)2 = 0 , 1 . 0,2 = 0,02 (mol); Tac6: 2x + 2y = =>x + y = 0,25 (1) 108 "AgNO., = 0 , 1 . 0,2 = 0,02 (mol). * PTPU" xay ra khi cho N i , Cu + CuS04(dd, dir): Truofctien: Fe + 2 A g N 0 3 > 2 A g i + Fe(N03)2 ' N i + CUSO4 > Cui + NiS04 K h i 0,02 m o l A g N O j phan ling het thl khoi luong thanh k i m loai se tang: ' ' X X 0,02. 108 - 0,01. 56 = 1,6 (gam) < 1,72 (gam). „: Cu + C u S 0 4 - ^ => A g N O j phan iJng het, va mot phSn Cu(N03)2 da phan iJng: y Taco: 64x + 64y = a + 0,5 = 59x + 64y + 0,5 Fe + Cu(N03)2 > Cu i + Fe(N03)2 ' =:>5x = 0,5 = > x = 0 , l (2) K h i 1 mol Fe > 1 mol Cu => kh6'i luong tang 8 gam T i r ( l , 2 ) ^ x = 0 , l ; y = 0,15. K h i khoi luong tang 1,72 - 1,6 = 0,12g => so mol Fe da phan ung la Vay a = 59. 0,1 + 64.0,15 = 15,5 Dap an diing la B. 3. Hai la k i m loai ciing chat, c6 khoi luong bang nhau: M o t duoc ngam vao dung = 0 , 0 1 5 (mol) < 0,02. 8 dich Cd(N0,)2; mot duoc ngam vao dung djch PbCNO,),. K h i phan ling, k i m loai Vay tong khoi luong Fe da phan irng la diu bj oxi hoa thanh ion k i m loai 2+. Sau mot thai gian, la'y cac la k i m loai ra mp, = (0,01 + 0,015). 56 = 1,40 (gam) khoi dung djch thi tha'y kh6'i luong la k i m loai duoc ngam trong mu6'i cadimi Dap an diing la A . tang them 0,47%; con khoi luong la kim loai kia tang them 1,42%. Gia thiet rang, 5. De khir ion Cu"* trong dung djch CUSO4 c6 the diing k i m loai trong hai phan ung tren khoi luong kim loai tham gia phan ufng la nhu nhau. A. Ba. B. K. C. Fe. D . Na. K i m loai da diing la Huong dan gidi A.Zn. B.Fe. C. Cu. D. Mg. De khCr ion Cu-* trong dung djch CUSO4 c6 the dung k i m loai Fe: Hu&ng dan gidi K l hifiu k i m loai do la M , s6' mol M phan ume la x: khA'i lirnmfr M h;in rtaH la m tn\
  6. Phdn loai va phuang phdp gidi BT Hoa hoc 12 - CM TIU. ! an Fe + CUSO4 > Cu + FeS04 ncu(N03)2 = 0 , l m o l Dap an dung la C . Thii tu phan iJng: 6. khu ion Fe'* trong dung dich thanh ion Fe'* c6 ths' diing m6t lugng du Fe + 2AgN03 ^ Fe(N03)2 + 2Ag 4- 7;; A. kim loai Cu. B. kim loai Ba. 0,01 ^ 0 , 0 2 0,02 , ,< • C. kim loai Ag. D. kim loai Mg. Hu&ng ddn gidi Fe + Cu(N03)2 - > C u 4 + Fe(N03)2 ; >I D6' khii ion Fe'* trong dung dich thanh ion Fe"* c6 the dung m6t luong dir (0,05-0,01)-^ 0,04 ^ 0 , 0 4 ' kim loai Cu: Cu + 2Fe'* > Cu"* + 2Fe-* Vay m - m^g + = 0,02.108 + 0,04.64 = 4,72 g Dap an dung la D. Dap an dung la A. 10. Cho m gam b6t sat vao dung dich h6n hcfp gom 0,15 mol CuS04va 0,2 mol 7. Cho day cac kim loai: Cu, Ni, Zn, Mg, Ba, Ag. S6' kim loai trong day phan ting ducfc vdi dung djch FeCl, la HCl. Sau khi cac phan ling xay ra hoan toan, thu duoc 0,725m gam h6n hop kim A. 5. B.4. C. 3. D.6. loai. Gia tri cua m la Hu&ng ddn gidi A. 16,0. B. 18,0. C. 16,8. D. 11,2. PTHH: Huong ddn gidi 1) Cu + 2FeCl3 ^ C U C I 2 + 2 F e C l 2 VI sau phan ling thu duoc h6n hop kim loai (Cu, Fe du) => Fe du => C U S O 4 va HCl h6i. 2) Ni + 2FeCl3 ^ NiCl2 + 2FeCl2 Fe + CUSO4 - > F e S 0 4 + C u i 3) 3 Z n + 2FeCl3 3 Z n C l 2 + 2Fe 0,15 F e C l 2 + H 2 t 5) 3Ba + 6 H 2 O + 2FeCl3 ^ 3BaCl2 + 2Fe(OH)3 + 3H2 0,1 m - 56. (0,15 + 0,1) + 0,15.64 = 0,725m hoan toan thu duoc dung dich X (g6m hai muoi) va chat rSn Y (gom hai kim loai). Hai mu6'i trong X la =>0,275m =4,4 ^ m = 16,0 Dap an dung la A. A. M g ( N 0 3 ) 2 v a Fe(N03)2. B. Fe(N03)3va M g ( N 0 3 ) 2 11. Hoa tan 5,4 gam bot A l vao 150 ml dung djch A chiia Fe(N03)3 I M va Cu(N03)2 I M . Ket thuc phan feg thu duoc m gam ran. Gia tri ciia m la C. Fe(N03)3 va AgNOj D. AgN03 va M g ( N 0 3 ) 2 . A. 10,95 B. 13,20 C. 13,80 D. 15,20 Huong ddn gidi Huong ddn gidi - Y gom hai kim loai => Hai kim loai la Ag, Fe du - X gom hai mu6'i => Hai mu6'i la MgCNOj)! va FeCNOj), Theobaira: n^, = 5,4/27 = 0,2(mol) . (Vi Fe con du nen AgNO, het, khong the sinh ra FeCNO,),) nFe(N03)3 -0,15.1 =0,15(mol);nc„(NO3)2 =0,15.1 =0,15(mol) Dap an dung la A. Thirtutrong day dian hoa: Al^+ /A^Fe^* /Fe;Cu^^ /Cu;Fe^^ /Fe^^ V 9. Cho 2,8 gam b6t sat vao 200 ml dung dich gdm AgNO3 0 , l M va Dovay,thiirtircacPTHH: " C U ( N O 3 ) 2 0,5M; khi cac phan ling xay ra hoan toan thu duoc m gam cha't ran Al + 3Fe^^^Al^^+3Fe2+ X. Gia trj cua m la 0,05 -> 0,15-^ 0,15(mol) A-4,08. B.3,20. C. 4,48. D. 4,72. Huong ddn gidi 2A1 + 3Cu2+ 3Cui+2Al^+ Theo bai ra: np, =0,05mol; n^gNOj =0,02mol 0,1
  7. Phan loai vaphifcfn^phiip fiidi />/ //oti hoc 12 -Cii ' h.i / )/; Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khang Viet 2A1 + SFe^"" ^ 3Fe i +2A\^^ 14. Cho 29,8 gam h6n hcrp bot gom Zn va Fe vao 600ml dung djch CUSO4 0,5M. 0,05 0,075 ^ 0,075(mol) Sau khi cac phan ling xay ra hoan toan, thu dugc dung dich X va 30,4 gam h6n hop kim loai. Ph^n tram vd khdi lucmg ciia Fe trong h6n hop ban ddu la Vay m = mcu+ mp, =0,15.64+ 0,075.56 = 13,80(g) » a p an dung la C. A. 43,63%' B. 56,37% C. 64,42% D. 37,58% 12. Cho a mol bot kem vao dung djch c6 hoa tan b mol Fe(NO,),. Tim dieu kien Huong ddn gidi ,. lien he giOa a va b de sau khi ket thiic phan ung khong c6 kim loai. Theobaira: ncu,so4 =0'60,5 = 0,3(mol) A. a > 2b B. b > 3a C. b > 2a D. b = 2a/3 Vi khdi luong hdn hop kim loai sau phan ling lodi hon khdi luong hdn hop tru6c Huong ddn gidi phan ling (30,4g > 29,8g) => Fe da phan ling mot phdn. Do do, CUSO4 da phan Di sau phan ung khong c6 kim loai thi luomg Zn (phan ung het) chi khu ling het, hdn hop kim loai sau phan ling gdm Cu va Fe dir. ,. ^ Fe-^^-^Fe^^ Goi X , y, z Idn lirot la sd mol Zn, Fe phan ling, Fe con du. Zn + 2 F e ( N 0 , ) , -> Z n ( N 0 , ) 2 + 2Fe(N03)2 PTHH: Zn + CUSO4 -> ZnS04 + Cu i Ban ddu: a b (mol) X - > X - > X Phan ung: a 2a (mol) Fe + CUSO4 -> FeS04 + Cu i Do do b > 2a thi Zn phan ling het (bj tan het) va Fe'^^ Fe^^ (dd) y ^ y -> y Taco: x + y=0,3 Dap an diing la C. 13. Cho h6n hop kim loiii Mg, Zn, Fe vao dung dich chiia AgNO, va CuCNO,),. Sau khi 65x + 56.(y + z) = 29,8 phan ling xay ra hoiin toan thu duoc dung dich X g6m 3 muoi va chat rSn Y gom ba kim 56z + 64.(x + y) = 30,4 loai. Ba mudi trong X la Giai ra ta dugc: x =0,2;y = 0,l;z = 0,2 A. Mg(N03)3, Fe(N03),, AgNO., B. Mg(N03)„ Zn(NO.,)„ Cu(N03), 56.(y + z).100% 56.(0,1 + 0,2). 100% C. Mg(N03),, Zn(N03),, Fe(NO,,), D. Mg(NO.,):, Zn(NO,,)., Fe(NO,). vay: %mp, = — ^ - '- =— — = 56,37% Hu&ng ddn gidi 29,8 29,8 Thu" tir cac kim loai nay trong day dien hoa: Dap an dung la B. 15. Cho a mol A l vao dung dich chiia b mol Fe"* va c mol Cvr*. Ket thiic phan ling Mg2+ /Mg;Zn2^ / Z n ; Fe^^ /FeiCu^^ /Cu;(Fe-'^ /Fe2+);Ag^ / A g thu duoc dung djch chiia 2 loai ion kim loai. Ket lufln nao sau day la diing? , 2b 2(b + c) => Kha nang phan ling ciia cac kim loai: Mg > Zn > Fe > Cu > Ag A. — < a < — ^ - 3 3 3 3 Do do 3 kim loai sau phan ling la: Ag;Cu;Fe . 2(b + c) 2(b + c) Vi Fe con du nen: C.^ c6 mu6'i Mg(N03)2 '^"(^^^.Oi Hu&ng ddn gidi + Mu6'i Cu(N03)2;AgNO, het => khong c6 cac mu6'iCu(N03)2 ,AgN03 Vi dung dich thu dugc chiia 2 ion kim loai (Al'* sinh ra va Fe""^ con du) trong dung dich sau phan umg. => Cu-' het (Cu-* phan ling trudc Fe*); A l het (vi Fe"* con du). PTPlT: 2A1 + 3Cu2^ > 3Cu I +2A1^+ j,.,,. , (D , hu>'A + Kh6ng tao ra muoi Fe(N03)^ ma tao ra mu6'i Fe(NO,)2 ' vay 3 mu6'i trong X la Mg(N03)2 ;Zn(N03)2 ;Fe(N03)2 • — 3Fe i + 2A13+ '' ' ' Dap an dung la D. (2) 2A1 + 3Fe^^ ( 2c 1 3 20 a a 3 2 3
  8. Phdii locii vu pliif plu'ip i^idi BT Hoa hoc 12 — Cu Thanh Toan Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khans ^'4* - V i A l phan utig vijfa du hoac con dir b phan utig (1) n6n: Con lai Ag khdng phan ung, luong con lai dung bang luong ban ddu. Dap an dung la B. ^2c a > — (I) 18. Cho m gam bot sat tac dung vdi 175 gam dung djch AgN03 34%, sau phan ling 3 thu duoc dung djch X chi chiia 2 mudi sat va 4,5m gam cha't ran. Ndng d6 ciJa 2c ^ Fe(N03)3 trong dung dich X la - V i Fe-* con dir (phan irng 2) nfen: - . a-- c < b = > — < b + c =J'a m = 0 , 6 . 1 0 8 - 5 0 = 14,8(gam) dktc). Gia trj ciJa m , va m^ Mn luot la Dap an diing la B . A.0,54va5,16 B. I , 0 8 v a 5 , 4 3 C.8,10va5,43 D. I,08va5,16 CM v: Cac PTPLT xay ra: Hu&ng ddn gidi Fe + 2 A g N 0 3 -> F e ( N 0 3 ) 2 + ^ Theo bai ra: ncu(N03)2 " ^ ' ' -^'^ " 0 , 0 3 m o l ; Cu + 2 A g N 0 3 ^ C u ( N 0 3 \ 2 A g I "AgNOj = 0,1.0,3 = 0,03mol;nH2 = 0 , 3 3 6 / 2 2 , 4 = 0,015mol F e ( N 0 3 ) 2 + A g N 0 3 -> F e ( N 0 3 ) 3 + ^ 8 ^ Ag •iiMi'rtu 17. Ngam h6n hop 3 kirn loai Fe, Cu, A g trong luong d u dung djch cha't X , khua'y So dd phan ung xay ra: A l ^l^ff^ > \u > H2 t ky cho den khi phan iJng ket thiic thi cha't rSn thu duoc chi c6 A g va c6 khdi Al lugng bang khdi luong ciJa no trong hdn hop dSu. Vay X la PTHH: A.CUSO4 B.Fe(N03)3 C.HC1 D. AgNOj Al + 3AgN03 -> 3Agi +A1(N03)3 Huong ddn gidi 0,01 < - 0,03 -> 0,03 X phai la Fe(N03)3, that vay: Fe + 2Fe(N03)3 ^ 3Fe(N03)2 2A1 + 3 C u ( N 0 3 ) 2 - ^ 3 C u i + 2 A l ( N 0 3 ) 3 Cu + 2Fe(N03)3 ^ 2Fe(N03), + CuCNOj), 0,02
  9. Cty TNHH MTV~DWH Khang Viet 2A1 + 6HCI -> 2 A I C I 3 + 3H2 t Hu&ng ddn gidi 0,01 Fe(N03)2 + 2 A g i ' m2 = m c u + m A j , =0,03.64+0,03.108=5,16(g) Dap an diing la D. 0,02 0,04 -> 0,02 (mol) ' ' 20. Day nao sau day chi gom cac chat vira tac dung duoc vdi dung djch HCl, vira Cu + 2AgN03 Cu(N03)2 + 2Ag i tac dung duofc vorj dung djch AgNO,? 0,01 -> 0,02 A. Hg,Na,Ca B. A l , Fe, CuO C. Fe, Ni, Sn D. Zn, Cu, Mg. S6' mol AgNO., con lai 0,065 - (0,04 + 0,02) = 0,005 (mol) Huong ddn gidi Day gom cac chat vira tac dung v6i dung djch HCl, vira tac dung v6i dung dich Fe(N03), + AgNO, -> Fe(N03)3 + A g i AgNO, la Fe, Ni, Sn. 0,02 0,005 (banddu) Fe + 2HC1 FeCl2+H2 0,005 Fe(N03)2 + 2 A g ^ Huong ddn gidi Theobai ra: n^^j^^^ =0,2.1 =0,2 (mol) 0,15^0,075 -)• 0,15 ^ 0,3 Cu + 2AgN03 ^ C u ( N 0 3 ) 2 + 2 A g i M + 2AgN03 ^ M ( N 0 3 ) 2 + ^Ag 4- 0,15^0,3 / -> 0,3 0,1 • A g i + Fe(N03)3 Gia sir M la kim loai Zn (kim loai c6 phan tiJr khoi Idn nha't => c6 s6' mol nho nhat) thi n^, = 50/65 = 0,77mol >0,1 => Kim loai M con du, AgNOj phan linghet. 0,075 < - 0,075 -> 0,075 TheoPTHH=>n^NO^)^=0,l(mol) vay m,i„ = m^gi = 0,675. 108 = 72,9 (gam) Dap an dung la D. 24. Cho 1,76 gam h6n hop bot X gom Cu, Fe c6 ti 16 mol tuong ling la 1: 2 vao =>MM(NO3)2 = ' 8,8/0,1 = 188 M M = 188 - 62.2 = 64(Cu) 100ml dung djch AgNO, I M , khua'y k l d^ cac phan urng xay ra hoan toan. Khd'i Vay M la kim loai Cu. Dap an diing la B. luong Ag thu duoc la A. 6,48 gam B. 8,56 gam C. 10,8 gam D. 8,64 gam. 22. Cho h6n hop gom 0,02 mol Fe vii 0,01 mol Cu vao dung djch chiia 0,065 mol AgNO,, sau cac phan ung hoan toan thu duoc 200 ml dung djch X. N6ng do cua Hu&ng ddn gidi Fe(N03), trong dung djch.X la Theo bai ra: nAgN03 =^'1 ('"°') A.0,05M.. '£pa;075r^», C. 0,025M D.O.IOM Goi X la s6' mol Cu => s6' mol Fe 1^ 2x. fH'J VI^N Tl'.MH «iNH THl.'ANJ ——— ^—— :L
  10. Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khang Via Ta c6: 64x + 56. 2x = 1,76 => x = 0,01 (mol) n c u ( N O 3 ) 2 - 0 ' 1 0 ' 3 = 0,03mol Vi thiJ t u trong day di6n hoa: Fe-'/Fe; Cu'VCu; Fe-*/Fe'"; A g V A g Nen thii tix phan ung xay ra: So d6 phan ling: ' Fe + 2 A g " Fe-" + 2 A g > l A l , Z n + AgN03,Cu(N03)2 ^ X^^^ + 2 mudi (dd) 0,02^0,04-^0,02^0,04 ' '\h Suy ra: ' ' " ' '^^ ^ , • • Cu + 2 A g " C u - " + 2 A g i , + Hai mudi la A l ( N 0 3 ) 3 , Z n ( N 0 3 ) 2 => A g N 0 3 , C u ( N 0 3 ) 2 he't 0,01 ->0,02 0,02 + Chat ran X khdng tac dung vdi H2SO4 loang Fe-" + Ag" ^ Fe'* + A g i => X chura A g va Cu ( A l , Zn deu het) 0,02 - > 0,02 ^ 0,02 Do do, A l va Z n phan ung vijfa dii vori A g N O , va Cu(N03)2 , ;j . => n + = 0,04 + 0,02 + 0,02 = 0,08 < 0,1 => A g " con d u Qua trinh cho - nhan electron: = n ^ + (Pu) = 0,08 (mol) Al Al-''+ + 3e X -> X -> 3x(mol) => m^g = 0,08. 108 = 8,64 (gam) Dap an dung la D . 25. Hoa tan 5,4 gam b6t A l vao 150 m l dung dich h6n hop Fe(N03)3 I M va Z n - > Z n ^ ^ + 2e Cu(N03)2 JM- Sau k h i phan ihig xay ra hoan loan thu duoc m (gam) chat ran. y -> y ^ 2y ( m o l ) " Gia tri cua m la * A . 13,80. B. 10,95. C. 15,20. D . 13,20. Ag"^ + le - > A g i Hu&ng dan gidi 0,01 - > 0 , 0 1 T h e o b a i r a : n ^ , = 0 , 2 m o l ; np^ =0,15mol Cu^+ + 2e ^ Cu i "Cu(N03)2 0,03 - > 0,06 Thu- t u cac P T H H xay ra: =^3x + 3y = 0,01+0,06 = 0 , 0 7 (l) > A l + 3Fe ( N O , \ A l ( N O , \ 3Fe ( N O , \ Mat khac: 27x + 65y = 1,57 (2) 0,053Cui+2Al(N03)3 Al-^^+3NH3+3H20->Al(OH)3 i + 3 N H ; 0,1 < - 0 , 1 5 -^0,15 2A1 + 3 F e ( N 0 3 ) 2 ^ 3Fe i + 2 A 1 ( N 0 3 ) 3 Z n ^ ^ + 6NH3 + 3 H 2 0 - > [ Z n ( N H 3 ) ^ ] ( O H ) 2 + 2 N H ; 0,05-> 0,075 - > 0,075 K h d i luong ket tiia thu dirge: Vay m = 0,15.64+ 0,075.56 = 13,80(g) Dap an dung la A . m i= 78x = 78.0,01 = 0,78(g) D a p an dung la D . 26. Hoa tan 1,57 gam h6n hop b6t k i m loai gom A l , Z n vao 100 m l dung djch h6n hop A g N O , 0 , 1 M va Cu(N03)2 0 , 3 M . Sau k h i phan ling xay ra hoan toan thu 27. Cho m gam bdt sat vao dung dich chiia 0,2 m o l A g N O j va 0,1 m o l Cu(N03)2, diroc chat ran X va dung dich Y chi chiJa hai mudi. Ngam X trong dung djch khua'y deu den khi cac phan ling xay ra hoan toan thu dugc 19,44 gam chat ran. H2SO4 loang kh6ng tha'y c6 k h i thoat ra. Cho dung dich NH3 dir vao Y thi thu Gia tri ciia m la ^^ dugc bao nhieu gam ket tua? A . 5,6 B.5,04 C.3,36 D . 8,4 A . 1,96 gam B. 2,74 gam C. 1,56 gam D . 0,78 gam Hu&ngddngidi ^ ,1 i Hu&ng dan gidi Gia siJr A g N 0 3 phan lifng het thi tao ra 0,2 mol A g [ T h e o b a i r a : n ^ g N O j =0,1.0,1 = 0 , 0 1 mol m^g = 0,2.108 = 21,6(g) > 19,44(g)
  11. Phdn logi va [yhlfain: i>inij> s^iui n/uinli HT I In,, hoc 1Z — L-U I lianh 1 oan Tjry TNtiH ivrrvnvYn Kmng viet - Co tinh oxi hoa: Fe + CI2 — ^ FeCl3 Fe203+3CO — ^ 2Fe + SCOjt Fe + 4HNO3 > Fe(N03)3 + NO + 2H2O Cach 2: Ttf hop chat sat (III) vdri axit: "" ^c.Oi + 2M '° > 2Fe + Al;03 , - - Dieu ch^: , Fe203 +3H2SO4 ). Fe2(S04)3 + 3H2O * 2Fe(OH)3 FejOj + SftO Fe(OH)3 + 3Ha > FeClj + 3H2O ' ' 3. Oxit s^t tir, F e 3 0 4 ' 4Fe(OH)2 + O^ikk) > 2FeA + 4 H , 0 Fe304 C O the coi la Fe203.FeO. 4FeO + O2 — ^ 2Fe203 3Fe304 + 8A1 — ^ 9Fe + 4A1,03 4Fe(N03), — ^ 2Fe,03 + 8N0, + Fe304 + 4CO —!—^ 3Fe + 4CO2 4Fe(N03)3 —5—> 2Fe203 + I2NO2 + SOj Fe304 + 8HC1 > 2FeCl3 + FeCU + 4H2O 4FeS2 +110. > 2 F e A + 850. 3Fe304 + 28HNO3 > 9Fe(N03)3 + N O + I 4 H 2 O h. Sat (III) hidroxit, Fe(OH,) 2Fe304 + IOH2SO4 > 3Fe2(S04)3 + SO2 + IOH2O - Fe(OH)3 la chat ran, mau nau do, khdng tan trong nude. V.D6NG - Co tinh baza: 1. Cautao Fe(OH)3 + 3HC1 > FeClj + SH^O - Cu (Z=29): [Ar] 3d"'4s' (ca'u hinh bao hoa ga'p phan 16p d). ^ Fe(0H)3 + 3HNO3 > Fe(N03)3 + 3 H , 0 - Trong hop cha't, d6ng c6 s6' oxi hoa ph6 bid'n la + 1 va + 2. j 2Fe(OH)3 + 3H2SO4 (d) > Fe2(S04)3 + 6H2O - ca'u hinh electron ciia cac ion ddng: -Diluche: Fe'" + 30H" > Fe(OH)3^ C u ^ [ArlSd'" c. Muoi sat (III) Cu-^ [Ar] 3d' - Dong la kim loai chuy^n tie'p, b nhom IB, so vdri kim loai 6 nhom l A : - Mu6'i sat (III) khi kd't tinh tir dung djch thucfng or dang ngam nude: FeCl3. + Kim loai Cu c6 ban kinh nguydn tir nho hon. 6H2O; Fe2(S04)3.9H20,... + Ion d6ng c6 dien tich Ion hon. - Mu6'i sat (III) thd' hien tinh oxi hoa: + Kim loai ddng cd kie'u mang tinh thd' dac chac hon (Cu cd ki^u mang lap 2FeCl3 + Fe > 3FeCl, , phuong tam dian, kim loai nhdm l A cd kieu mang lap phuong tam khd'i). => li6n ket trong don cha't ddng hin virng horn. 2FeCl3 + Cu > IFeCU + CuCl. 2. Tinh chat vat l i 2FeCl3 + 2KI > IFedn + I . + 2KC1 . ; Ddng la kim loai nang, mau do, deo, dSn di6n va dSn nhidt ra't td't (chi thua bac). 2FeCl3 + H,S > 2FeCU + S + HCl 3. Tinh chat hoa hoc '" Ddng la kim loai kem hoat ddng, cd tinh khir ye'u. 2FeCl3 + Zn ) 2FeCl2 + ZnQ, - Tham gia phan ung trao doi: I Cu,b,„+02(kk, — l i ^ CuO 2FeCl3 + 3Na2C03 + 3 H , 0 > 2Fe(OH)3 + 3C0j1 + 6NaCl Cu + C l , - i ^ C u C l 2 - ' ^ - Dieu chd': Cu + S — ^ CuS Cach 1: Tir Fe hoae hop cha't sat (II) vdri cac cha't oxi hoa manh nhu CI2, HNO3, H2SO4 dac, nong,... 2Cu + 4HC1 + 02(Kk) > 2CuCl2 + 2H2O
  12. ~CiyTNHH MTV DVVH Khang Viet 2 C u + 2H2SO4 + 02,kk) > 2CUSO4 + 2H2O Chu y: CuCOH), c6 kha nSng tao phirc vdi cac chat nhu ancol da chuc, peptit,... -Di^uche': Cu"* + 20H" > Cu(OH),4, Cu + 2H,S04 CUSO4 + SO, + 2H,0 3. Dong (ID sunfat, CUSO4 3Cu + 8 H N O 3 o.5„g, > 3Cu(N03)3 + 2NOT + 4 H , 0 - CUSO4 khan la chat ran, mau trdng, hao nirdfc (ha'p thu nirdc thanh CuS04.5H,0 Cu + 4 H N O 3 > CuCNOj), + 2NO,t + 2H2O mau xanh). Tan t6't trong nuoc tao thanh dung dich c6 mau xanh lam (mau ciia Cu + 2AgN03 > Cu(N03)2 + 2 A g i dung djch chiia ion Cu^*). Cu + 2Fea3 > 2FeCl, + CuCU - Di^u cha': 2Cu + 2H,S04 (1) + O, > 2CUSO4 + 2H,0 Chu y; Cu kh6ng tac dung vdri H , , N , , C,... Cu + 2H,S04 — ^ CUSO4 + SO,T + 2H2O ., 4. Dieu che dong n. so Liroc \i M O T S6 KIM LOAI KHAC CuO + CO — 5 % Cu + CO, . Ag, bac (iS. 3CuO + 2NH3 > 3Cu + N , + 3H,0 - A g (Z=47): [Ar] 4d"'5s'. - Trong hop cha't, bac c6 s6' oxi hoa ph6 bie'n la +1. CUSO4 + H , 0 Cu + H2SO4 + ^ O^t - Bac CO tfnh khiJr y6'u: 2CU2O + Cu,S — ^ 6Cu + SO, Ag + 2HNO3 > AgN03 + NO, t + H2O VI. MOT S6 HOP CHAT CUA DONG 4Ag + O, + 2H2S > A g , S i + 2H,0 1. Dong ill) oxit, CuO Den - CuO la chat ran, mau den, kh6ng tan trong nirdc. Au, vang - A u ( Z =79): [Xe]4f'5d'°6s' - La oxit baza: CuO + 2 H a > CuCl, + HjO - Trong hop chat, vang c6 s6 oxi hoa ph6 bie'n la + 3 va + 1. - Co tfnh oxi hoa: .0 - Vang la kim loai dec nha't trong tat ca cac kim loai, tao duoc h6n hd'ng v6i iiy ngan. CuO + CO ——> Cu + CO, - Vang CO tfnh khix ra't y6'u, tan duoc trong nuoc cu6ng toan ( I V HNO3 dac + 3CuO + 2NH3 — ^ 3Cu + N , + 3H,0 HCl dac), tao phiic tan vdri mud'i xianua: Au + H N O 3 + 3HC1 > AUCI3 + NO + 2H,0. CuO + Cu — ^ Cu,0 ' .0 2Au + 4NaCN + O, + H , 0 > 2Na[Au(CN)2] + 2NaOH. - D i l u cM: Cu(OH), — ^ CuO + H , 0 Nl,niken - N i ( Z = 28):[Ar]3d«4s-. ICuCNOj), '° > 2CuO + 4 N 0 , + O, - Trong hop cha't, niken c6 s6' oxi hoa ph6 bid'n la + 2 va + 3. CuC03.Cu(OH)2 — ^ 2CuO + CO^X + H p - Niken la kim loai nSng, m^u trang bac, ra't cumg. 2. Dong (H) hidroxit, Cu(OH)j - Niken cd tfnh khu y6'u hon sat: - Cu(OH), la chat ran, mau xanh lam, kh6ng tan trong nude. - Kem bin: Cu(0H)2 — ^ CuO + H,0. N i + CI, — ^ Nia2 - Co tinh baza: Cu(0H)2 + 2HC1 >• CuClj + 2H2O. 2Ni + O 2 - i - ^ 2NiO «• - Tao phuc: Cu(OH)2 + 4NH3 > [Cu(NH3)4]'" + 20H- Ni + 2HC1 > N i a , + H2t xanh lam (dd) 3 N i + 8 H N O 3 (loang) > 3Ni(N03)2 + 2 N 0 t + 4 H 2 O 184
  13. Phdn loai vci phuang phiip gicii nhanh BT Hoa hoc 12 -C / //.•/? I oarT Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khang Viet Chu y: + Kim loai Ni ben vdi khong khi, nirdc la do c6 loip ox it b^n bao v&. - Trong cac hop chat, chi c6 so oxi hoa + 2 va + 4. Hap chat c6 so oxi hoa +2 la + Cung nhu Fe, Ni cung bj thu d6ng hoa bai HNO3 dac, ngu6i; H2SO4 dac, ph6 bie'n va b^n han. ngu6i. + Khac vert sat, d6'i vdri niken trang thai oxi hoa + 2 dac trung hon + 3. - Chi la kim loai nang, mh.u trang xanh, m^m, deo, dd nong chay. 4, Z n , kern - Chi CO tinh khix yd'u: - Zn (Z = 30): [Ar] 3d"'4s- Pb + 3H2S04(dac) — ^ Pb(HS04)2 + SO2 + 2H2O v i ^ i , • - Trong hop chat, kem c6 s6' oxi hoa + 2. 3Pb + 8HNO3 (loang) -> 3Pb(N03)2 + 2NO + 4H2O - Kem la kim loai hoat dong, c6 tinh khir manh. .0 2Pb + O, 2PbO 2Zn + O, — ^ 2ZnO ,0 Pb + CI2 PbCU Z n + S ——> ZnS Zn + 2HC1 > ZnCl, + H , Pb + S — ^ PbS (den) 4Zn + 5H2SO4 (dac) > 4ZnS04 + H.S + 4H2O 2Pb + 2H2O + O2 > 2Pb(OH)2 4Zn + IOHNO3 (1) > 4Zn(N03)2 + NH4NO3 + 3H2O Pb + 2KOH + 2H2O > K2[Pb(OH)4] + H2t Z n + CUSO4 > Cu + ZnS04 Zn + 2FeCl3 > ZnCU + 2Fea, Dang 1; Bai tap ve crom va hap chat ciia crom Z n + 2NaOH + 2H,0 > Na,[Zn(OH)4] + H . 1. Cho m gam b6t crom phan ling hoan toan vdi dung djch HCl (du), thu ducfc V lit Z n + 4NH3 + 2H2O > [Zn(NH3)4](OH), + H^t khi H ; (dktc). Mat khac, cung m gam bot crom trfin phan ung hoan toan vdi khi O2 (du), thu duoc 15,2 gam oxit duy nha't. Gia tn ciia V la k 4Zn + NaN03 + 7NaOH > 4Na2Zn02 + NH3 + H^O A. 2,24 B.6,72 C. 4,48 D. 3,36 5. Sn, thiec - Sn (Z = 50): [Kr] 4d"'5s-5p-. Hu&ng ddn gidi - Trong hap chat, thiec c6 s6' oxi hoa la + 2 va + 4. Theobaira: nc^03 =15,2/152 = 0,lmol - Thidc la kim loai nang, mau tiing bac, deo, dt nong chay (t°^ = 232°Q. 2Cr + - 0 , >Cr20, 2 ^ - Thie'c 1? kim loai c6 tinh khix yd'u han kem va niken. 0,2 CrCl2+H2 t Sn + HCl > SnCU + H . 0,2 ^ 0,2 (mol) Sn + H2SO4 (loang) > SnS04 + H , Vay: V = 0,2.22,4 = 4,48(1) 3Sn + 8HNO3 (loang) > 3Sn(N03)2 + 2N0 + 4H2O. i; Dap an dung la C. Sn + 4HNO3 (dac) > H2Sn03i + 4NO2T + H.O ^ . Co 150ml dung djch CrQ, I M tac dung vira dii m gam b6t kem. Gia tri ciia m la Sn + 4H2SO4 (dac) — - > Sn(S04)2 + 2SO2 + 4H2O ^ A. 14,625 B. 19,500 C. 9,750 D. 4,875. Huong ddn gidi Sn + 2NaOH + 2H2O > Na2[Sn(OH)4] + H2. 6. Pb, Chi - Pb (Z = 82): [Xe] 4f'"Sd'^es-ep". ^cr'*/cr2* =-OAIV nSn Zn khir C r " V * C r *
  14. riu'in locii vii /;i>phdp gidi nhanh ET Hoa hoc 12 — Cii Thanh 1 odn 6. K h i cho lucmg d u dung dich K O H vao 6'ng nghifim dung dung dich kali Theo bai ra: S6' mol C r C l , = 0,15.1 = 0,15 mol dicromat, dung djch trong 6'ng nghiem PTPIT: Zn + CrQ., ZnCU +2CTC\^ A . chuy^n tir mau vang sang mau da cam 0,075 < - 0 , 1 5 mol B. chuyen tijf mau vang sang mau do =>nz„ = 0 , 1 5 / 2 = 0,075 (mol) ^ m^, = 0,075. 65 = 4,875 (g) C. chuyen tir mau da cam sang mau vang M D a p an dung la D . D . chuyd'n tir mau da cam sang mau xanh luc. 3. De' d i ^ u chS' dirotc 78 gam Cr tir C r j O j (du) bang phuomg phap nhiSt nh6m v6i Hu&ng ddn gidi hifiu sua't cua phan irng la 90% thi kh6'i luqmg b6t nh6m cin dung t6'i thie'u la P T H H xay ra: A . 40,5 gam B. 81,0 gam C. 54,0 gam D . 45,0 gam K2Cr207 + 2 K O H -> 2K2Cr04 + H2O Hu&ng ddn gidi kali dicromat kali cromat Theo bai ra: = 7 8 / 5 2 = I,5^mol) (da cam) (vang) .0 2A1 + C12O3 — ^ 2 C r + A I 2 O 3 Dap an dung la C. K h i cho dung djch N a O H vao dung djch K^CrjO, thi dung djch tir 1,5 2CrCl3 + 2KC1 + 3CI2 + 7H2O M :ls22s22p^3s23p°3d'*4s^(Z =24;Cr) => Se» phan tir H Q tham gia phan ling = 14. Suy ra: ^ S6' phan tiir H C l la chat k h u = 6 - M C O Z = 24, chu k i 4, nhom V I B => do la nguyen t6 crom. z:>k = 6/14 = 3/7. D a p an diing la C .
  15. CtyTNHHAf/\ VH KhangVie! - Cr(OH)3 C O tinh ludng ti'nh: 10. Khi cho 41,4 gam h6n hop X gdm Fe.O,, Cr.O., va A I 2 O 3 tac diing vdi dung Cr(OH)3 + 3HC1 ^ CrCl, + SHjO djch NaOH dac (du), sau phan ling thu duoc chat ran c6 khdi luong 16 gam. De' khiJr hoan toan 41,4 gam X bang phan ling nhiSt nhom, phai dung 10,8 gam A l . Cr(OH)3 + NaOH ^ Na [Cr(OH)4 Thanh phdn phin tram theo khdi luong cua CrjO, trong hdn hop X la (cho hidu - Ion Cr^* vira c6 tinh oxi hoa vita c6 tinh khu: sua't cua cac phan ihig la 100%) A. 36,71%. B. 50,67%. C. 66,67%. D. 20,33%. 2Cr''++Zn->2Cr^++Zn2^ Huomg ddn gidi 2Cr^* + 16KOH + 3 B r 2 - > 2 C r 0 4 " + 6 B r + 1 6 K ^ + 8 H 2 O Goi X , y, z Idn luot la sd mol Fe^Oj, Cr.Oj, AUOj trong hdn hop X. v Dap an dung la A . Theo bai ra ta cd: 160x + 152y + 102z = 41,4 (1) 9. Phat bie'u khong dung la: • X + NaOH (dac, du): A. Cac hop chat Cr.O,, CitOH),, CrO, CKOH), dau c6 tinh chit luong tinh. Fe^Oj + NaOH > Khdng xay ra. I.. B. Hop chA Cr(n) c6 tinh khir dac trimg con hop chat Cr(VI) c6 tinh oxi hoa manh. Cr,03 + 2NaOH + 3 H , 0 > 2Na[Cr(OH)4] C. Cac hop chat CrO, CrCOH), tac dung diroc \6i dung djch HCl con CrOj tac dung diroc vori dung dich NaOH. + 2NaOH + 3H2O AI2O3 > 2Na[Al(OH)4] D. Them dung djch ki^m vao mudi dicromat, mu6'i nay chuyS'n thanh mu6'i cromat. => 160x= 16 =:> x = 0,l (2) Huang dan gidi • X + Al: Xet cac phirong an: Fe^O, + 2A1 > 2Fe + AlA A. Khdng diing, vi chi c6 CuO^, CrCOH), (crom c6 s6' oxi hoa + 3) c6 tinh luong X 2x tinh; con CrO, CrCOH), c6 tinh bazo (khong th^ hiSn tinh axit). C r A + 2Al >2Cr + Al,03 Thidu: Cr(OH)3 + 3HC1 > CrClj + SH.O V 2y Cr(OH)3 + NaOH ^ Na[Cr(OH)4]. Ta cd: 2x + 2y = 0,4 (3) B. Dung. D6'l voi cac hop chat ciia crom: Tir(2,3) z i > y = 0,l ; x = 0 , l . - - Co sd oxi hoa +2: Tinh khir. Thay v a o ( l ) => z = 0 , l . - Co sd oxi hoa +3: VCra c6 tinh khir, vCra c6 tinh oxi hoa. %m(Cr,03) = 152. 0,1 /41,4 = 36,71 %. Dap an dung la A. - Co sd oxi hoa +6: Tinh oxi hoa manh 11. Hoa tan het 20,6 gam Cr(OH)3 trong 500 ml dung djch HCl 2M dun ndng, thu duoc dung djch X. Khdi luong Zn phan ling vira het cac ch& trong dung djch X la Thi du: 2CrCl, + CI, > 2CrCl3 A. 19,5 gam B. 32,5 gam C. 6,5 gam D. 13 gam K . C r A + 14Ha > 3C1, + 2KC1 + ZCrCl, + TH^O Hu&ng ddn gidi C. Diing. Ddi vdi cac oxit, hidroxit ciia crom: - Co sd oxi hoa +2: Co tinh bazo Theo bai ra: n^^^^^^^^ =0,2(mol); n^^x = K"""') . :>!j i - Co sd oxi hoa +3: Co tinh ludng tinh PTPIT: Cr(OH)3 + ^HCl -> CrClj + 3 H 2 O - Co sd oxi hoa +6: Co tinh axit Banddu: 0,2 1 i Phan ling: 0,2 0,6 -> 0,2 ' D. Diing: CrO^ + 2H" H^O, 0,2 [H*] giam => can bang trdn chuy^n sang trai, tire Ik mudi dicromat se chuyen thanh mudi cromat. Zn + 2CrCl3 -> ZnClj + 2CrCl2 Dap an dung la A . 0,1 < - 0,2 (mol)
  16. Phdn logi va phucfngphdp gicii nhanh tSl Hoa hoc iz -L-U 1 Htinn 1 oun => =0,2 + 0,1 =0,3(mol) => m^^ =0,3.65 = 19,5(gam) 15. Khi cho hoa chat X vho tac dung vdi NaOH dir c6 sSn CrQj thi sau phan ling, Dap an dung la A dung djch thu duc«c c6 mau vang. Trong s6' cac chat: Cl2,S03,03,H202,Bl2,HCl,K2C03 ;.;,y;; 12. Trong pin diSn hoa Cr - Sn xay ra phan ihig: S6' hoi chat thoa man vdi di^u kidn ciia X la . • ... Cr + ... Sn-" > ... Cr^* + ... Sn A. 7 B.6 C. 5 D.4 ?; Bie't E ° 3^ = - 0,74 V. Sua't dien d6ng chuin cua pin didn hoa Cr - Sn \k Hu&ng ddn gidi , So d6: X + NaOH + CrC^ -> Na2Cr04 +NaCl + ... A . - 0 , 8 8 V. B . - 0 , 6 0 V. C. 0,60 V. D. 0,88 V. (mau vang) mi i. 1 : ns.: > Hu&ng ddn gidi => X la cha't oxi hoa manh trong m6i trirdmg ki^m " " '* ' - V I Epi„ lu6n ducmg => loai phirong an A B. => X C O tb^ la a,, O 3 , H2O2, Br2 (4 chat) Dap an dung Ik D. - V i Cr C O tinh khif manh hon Sn ntn Chit v.- PTHH xay ra: EV-Sn)=E°Sii /Sn~E°Cr /Or = E°s„ /Sn ~ ( ~ 0.74) 3CI2 + 16NaOH + 2CrCl3-> 2Na2Cr04 + 12NaCl+ 8H2O = +0,74(V). 3O3 + lONaOH + 2CrCl3 -> 2Na2Cr04 + 6NaCl + 3O2 + SHjO - Vi Sn diing tnttSc H trong day dien hoa ndn E^a.^'^/s, 2Na2Cr04 + 6 N a a + 8H20 " ' ' Dod6E°(Q.^) 2Na2Cr04 + 6NaCl + 6NaBr + 8H2O Dap an dung la C. 15. Khi thdm vai giot axit clohidric vao dung djch natri cromat, hi6n tifong xay ra la 13. Hiat bid'u nao sau day khong diing khi so sanh tinh chtft hoa hoc cua nh6m va crom? A. dung djch chuyd'n tCr mau da cam sang mau vang. A. Nhom va crom ddu bj thu d6ng hoa trong dung dich H2SO4 dac ngu6i. B. dung djch chuyd'n tir mau vang sang mau da cam. B. Nhom va crom d^u b^n trong kh6ng khi va trong nirdc. C. tao ra ket tiia axit cromic mau do. * ' C. Nh6m va crom ddu phan ling vdi dung dich HCl theo cung ti Id v^ s6' mol. D. tao ra dung djch mu6'i crom (III) clorua mSu xanh. ( D. Nh6m C O tinh khir manh hon crom. Hu&ng ddn gidi Hu&ng ddn gidi Khi cho HCl vao Na2Cr04 (mau vang), xay ra qua tfmh: Nh6m va crom phan utig vdi dung dich HCl theo ti Id khac nhau: 2CrO^" + 2H* < > CrjO^- +H2O 2A1 + 6HC1-).2A1C13+3H2 (m^u vang) (mau da cam) ^ Cr + 2HC1 ->CrCl2+H2 => dung dich chuy^n tir mau vang sang mau da cam. Phat bi^u kh6ng dung la C. Dap an dung la C. Dap an dung la B. 14. Hidn tuong xay ra khi nho vai giot dung djch H2SO4 v^o dung djch Na2Cr04l& A. dung djch chuyd'n tir mau vang sang khdng mau. Dang 2; Bai tap s^t tac dung vdi axit HNO3 B. dung djch chuy^n tCr mau da cam sang mau vang. 1. Hoa tan hoan toan 11,2 gam Fe vao dung djch HNO3. Sau khi cac phan ung kd't C. dung dich chuyd'n tiir mau vang sang mau da cam. thiic thu duoc 3,36 lit khi NO (0 dktc, san p h ^ khir duy nha't) va dung djch D. dung djch chuy^n tCr khdng m^u sang mau da cam. chiia 2 mu6'i. Khi c6 can dung djch X thu duoc khoi luong mu6'i khan la Hu&ng ddn gidi A. 27 gam. B. 28 gam. C. 39,1 gam. D. 54 gam. PTHH: ' Hu&ng ddn gidi 2Na2Ci04 + H2SO4-> Na2Cr207 + Na2S04 + H2O Theo hk\: 0^ = 11,2/ 56 = 0,2 (mol). mau vang mau da cam HNO = 3,36/ 22,4 = 0,15 (mol). Dap an dung la C. PTPlT: Pe + 4HNO3 ^ Fe(N03)3 + NO + 2H2O ' 0,15 (mol) 0,15 (mol)
  17. Cty TNHH AfTV DVVH Khang Viet Fe + 2Fe(N03)3 > 3Fe(NO,,), Na'u chi xay ra phan trfin thi n pe /"HNOJ = 1 / 4 = 0,25 = 25%. (0,2-0,15)^ 0,1 0,15 (mol) Theo bai ra, n /np,N03(p/u)= 31,25% => c6 them phan irng: Vay, sau khi cac phan ting xay ra hoan toan c6: Fe + 2Fe(N03)3 3Fe(N03)2 : 0,15 mol FeCNOj), ; i:> 5o»Ux' Goi X la s6' mol H N O 3 phan ling => s6' mol Fe la 0,3125x. 0,15 - 0,1 = 0,05 mol FeCNO,), ' PTPLT: Fe + 4 H N O 3 Fe(N03)3 + NO + 2H3O =>m^„,i = 0,15. 180 + 0,05.242 = 39,1 (g). x/4 X -> x/4 Dap an dung la C. 2. Hoa tan 11,2 gam Fe bang dung djch HNO3, sau khi cac phan ilng xay ra hoan Fe + 2Fe (NOj), ^ 3Fe(N03), toan thu duoc h6n hop san phim khir (gom NO,, NO, NjO va N,), dung djch X (0,3125x-0,25x) 0,125x 0.1875x va tha'y ccn lai 2,8 gam Fe. Khi c6 can dung djch X thu duoc m gam muoi khan. Ta c6: (0,3125x - 0,25x).242 + 0,1875x. 180 = 51,2 Gia tri cua m la => 64x =51,2 => x = 0,8 A. 27 gam. B. 28 gam. C. 36,3 gam. D. 54 gam. v a y m = 0,3125. 0,8. 5 6 = 14 (gam) Dap an dung la D. Hu&ng din gidi 5. Nung m gam bot sat trong oxi, thu duoc 3 gam h6n hop chat rdn X. Hoa tan het 112 — 2 8 h6n hop X trong dung dich HNO3 (du), thoat ra 0,56 lit ( 0 dktc) NO (la san Theo bai ra: mp^ (p^j,, —' = 0,15 (mol). ph^m khir duy nha't). Gia trj ciia m la VI Fe du, ndn sau khi cac phan ling xay ra hoan toan chi thu diroc FeO^O,),: A. 2,62. B. 2,32. C. 2,52. D. 2,22., Fe """"-^ > Fe(N03), Hu&ng ddn gidi v a y m„„«i = 0,15.180 = 27 (gam) 0,56 Theo biii ra: n^o = = 0,025 (mol) Dap an dung la A. 22,4 3. Ho^ tan hoan toan m gam Fe vao 0,2 lit dung dich HNO3 I M , phan ting tao ra san ph^m khu duy nha't la NO. Gia tn 16n nha't cua m la Taco: :^-^ = ^ + 3.0,025: •3m = 2 1 - 7 m + 4,2 56 8 A. 2,8 gam. B. 5,6 gam. C. 8,4 gam. D. 4,2 gam. => 10m = 25,2 => m = 2,52. Hu&ng dan gidi Dap an diing la C , Theo bai ra: nHN0 3 = 0,2. 1 = 0,2 (mol). PTPLT: Fe + 4 H N O 3 > Fe(N03)3 + NO + 2H,0 Dang 3: E ai tap sat tac dung voi axit H2SO4 0,05 < - 0,2 ^ 0,05 (mol) 1. Cho 6,72 gam Fe vao dung djch chiJa 0,3 mol H2SO4 dac, nong (gia thiet SO, la san phdni khiJf duy nha't). Sau khi phan ung xay ra hoan toan, thu duoc Fe + 2Fe(N03)3 ^ 3Fe(N03), A. 0,03 n o l Fe,(S04)3 va 0,06 mol FeS04. 'r 0,25 mol
  18. TtJTNHH MTV DWH KhangVivi Fe(du) + Fe2(S04)3 ^ 3FeS04 Fe2(S04)3 + Fe(d) > 3FeS04 BandSu: 0,02 mol 0,05 (mol) X Phaniing: 0,02 mol 0,02 mol 0,06mol ' ' •J mol X (mol) ' Conlai: 0 0,03mol 0,06mol * -J J vay m, =m2 =(56 + 96)x (gam) Dap an dung la A. Vay sau phan ihig c6 0,03 mol Fe2(S04)3 va 0,06 mol FeS04. rcr Vy,-. y.i /. 4. Cho X mol Fe tan hoan toan trong dung djch chiia y mol H2SO4 (ti 16 x: y = 2: 5), Dap an dung 1^ A . thu duoc m6t san ph^m khu duy nha't va dung dich chi chiia mu6'i sunfat. So mol 2. Cho m gam b6t Fe vao axit H2SO4 dac, nong, dir thu duoc V, lit khi SO2 (san electron do luong Fe tren nhucmg khi bj hoa tan la ph^m khu duy nha't). Trong m6t thi nghidm khac, cho m gam b6t Fe vao dung A. 2x B. 2y C. y D. 3x ' dich H2SO4 loang, du, thu duoc V2 lit khi H2. M6'i quan hd giua V, va V2 la (cac Hu&ng ddn gidi th^ tich khi do trong cilng di^u kidn nhidt d6, ap sua't) A . V , = V2. B . V , = 1,5V2. C. V 2 = 1 , 5 V , . D.V2 = 3V,. Nhan xet:+) x : y = 2 : 5 = > y = 2,5x (l) Huong ddn gidi 0 +n Gia sir m =112 gam (2 mol Fe); cac khi deu do 6 dktc. +) Fe-ne >Fe 0 x-> nx -> X «' 2Fe + 6H2SO4 (dac) Fe2(S04)3 + SSOjt + 6H:0 Vi n (min) = 2; n (max) = 3 => 2x < nx < 3x (2) 2 (mol) 3 (mol) +(6-m) Fe + H2SO4 (loang) ^ FeS04 + +) S ( H 2 G 0 4 ) + me > S 2 (mol) 2 (mol) a -> ma vay V, = 3. 22,4 (lit); V , = 2. 22,4 (lit). Suyra: V, = 1,5. V,. SO^" >SOX (mu6'i sunfat) Dap an dung la B. h b CM v: Khi Fe phan iJng v6i axit H2SO4 dac, nong va khi phan ling vdri axit Theo dinh luat bao toan electron: nx = ma (3) H2SO4 loang, tao ra hofp chat ma sat c6 s6' oxi hoa khac nhau (+ 3 va + 2). Theo djnh luat bao toan dien tich: nx = 2b (4) '• 1- 3. Cho bet Fe (du) vao dung dich chiia x mol H2SO4 (loang), duoc dung dich A. C6 Theo djnh luat bao toan nguydn 16: a + b = y (5) ''it can dung djch A thu duoc m, gam mu6'i khan. Ne'u cho b6t Fe (du) vao dung Til (3,4) => ma = 2b (6) dich chufa,2x mol H2SO4 (dac, nong), sau khi phan dug xay ra hoan toan, c6 can + V6i m = 2 (san phim khu SO2): , , phdn dung djch thu duoc m, gam mu6'i khan. Tir (6): 2a = 2b a=b Quan h6 giOa m, va m, 1^ Thay vao (5): 2b = y A. m, = my B. m, < m,. => nx = 2b = y (thoa man dieu kien (2)). C. m, > m,. D. chua xac dinh ducjc. vay s6' mol electron do Fe cho la y. Hu&ngddngiai Dap ^n dung la C. Cac PTPLT xay ra: + Vdri m = 6 (san phim khu la S): Fe + H2SO4 (loang) ^ FeS04 + H2T Tir(6)=>6a = 2 b ^ 3 a = b tn Thay vao (5): 4a = y => 6a = 1,5y. X(mol) ^ X (mol) Sat (du) phan ihig voi H2SO4 (dac, nong): => nx = 6a = 1,5y = 1,5. 2,5x = 3,75x (=> loai do khdng thoa man di^u kitn (2)). 1 + Vdi m = 8 (san phdm khiJr la H2S): 2Fe + 6H2S04(dac) > Fe2(S04)3 + 3 8 0 , 1 + 6H2O • Tir (6) 8a = 2b => 4a = b ' ' 2x mol ^mol Thay vao (5): 5a = y 8a = 1,6y . ^ nx = 8a = 1,6y = 1,6. 2,5x = 4x (=> loai). "
  19. Ttnifi luui VII ifniiun\> i>nup }>iui iPicmn P I nun tiuv iz riunn i vun 5. Hoa tan 5,6 gam Fe bang dung djch H2SO4 loang (du) thu dugc dung dich X. Ta tha'y n^g „ i „ h < n^g „ro„g AgNo 3) => AgNO, du. Dung djch X phan ling vCra dii vdi V ml dung djch KMn04 0,5M. Gia tri cua V la PTPLT: Fe + BAgNO, (du) > Fe(N03)3 + 3 A g i A. 80. B. 20. C.40. D. 60. 0,15(mol) 0,45(mol) , .j,,,,,, Huong ddn gidi ' = > ipe =^^^^^==0,15(mol)r::>mpj =0,15. 56 =8,4(gam). ^ "Fe =H = 0.1(mol);nKMnO4 ^ ^ ^ ( ' " " ' ^ Dap an dung la B. 3. Cho 12 gam h6n hgp b6t Cu va Fe (c6 ti 16 s6' mol 1 : 1) vao 225 ml dung djch Cac PTPLT: Fe + H.SO^ (1) — > • FeS04 + H . t AgN03 a(M). Sau khi cac phan iing xay ra hoan toan thu dugc 48,6 gam Ag. Gia 0,1 (mol) 0,1 (mol) trj cLia a la 10FeSO4 + 2KMn04 + 8H2SO4 -> 5Fe,(S04)3 + 2MnS04 + K2SO4 + 8H2O A. 0,5. B. 1. C.2. D. 1,5. 0,1 ( m o l ) ^ 0,02 (mol) Huong ddn gidi ' . J ' - -1 Theo bai ra: n^g = 0,45 (mol); s6' mol AgNOj = 0,225a (mol). Suyra: = 0,02 => V - 40(ml). iOOO Ggi X (mol) la s6' mol Cu (cung la ciia Fe) trong h6n hap kim loai ban diu. Dap an dung la C. Ta c6: 64x + 56x = 12 120x = 12 => X =0,1 (mol) Dang 4: Bai tap s-it tac dung voi dung dich muol AgNO., Cac PTHH xay ra theo thii tu sau: 1. Cho 6,16 gam bot sat vao 300 ml dung djch AgNO, I M . Sau khi phan ling xay ra Fe + 2AgN03 > Fe(N03)2 + 2 A g i (1) -i-'; • hoan toan thu dugc m gam chat rdn. 0,1 (mol) 0,1 (mol) > 0,2 (mol) Gia trj ciia m la A. 23,76 gam. B. 32,40 gam. C. 36,40 gam. D. 35,92 gam. Cu + 2AgN03 > Cu(N03)3 + 2 A g i (2) Hu&ng ddn gidi 0,1 (mol) 0,2 (mol) Theo bai ra: So mol AgNOj = 0,3 . 1 = 0,3 (mol); Up, = 0,11 mol. VI theo (L, 2 ) : n^g = 0,2 + 0,2 = 0,4 < 0,45 (mol) PTPLT xay ra: Suy ra c6 phan ting sau xay ra: ^ Fe + 2AgN03 > FeCNO,), + 2Ag4 Fe(N03)2 + AgNO, > Fe(N03), + Agi Banddu: 0,11 (mol) 0,3(mol) 0,1 (mol) , 0,1 (mol) Phan ling: 0,11 (mol) 0,22(mol) 0,11 mol 0,22(mol) 0,05 (mol) " 0,05 (mol) Conlai: 0 0,08(mol) 0,11 (mol) 0,22(mol) Neu Fe(NO,)2 phan ling he't thi n^g „ M „ , = 0,1 (mol) Nhung thirc te thu them dugc 0,45 - 0,4 = 0,05 mol Ag AgN03(d) + Fe(N03)2 > Fe(N03)3 + Agi => Fe(NO,)2 du; AgNO, phan ving het. 0,08 mol > 0,08 (mol) 0,08 (mol) Vay: S6' m'ol AgNO, = n^g = 0,45 (mol) => Cha't r£n thu dugc sau phan xJng la Ag =>a =0,45/0,225 = 2M => m^g = (0,22 + 0,08). 108 = 32,40(gam). Dap an diing la C. Dap an dung la B. 4. Tien hanh hai thi nghifim sau: 2. Cho m gam bot Fe tac dung v6i 500 ml dung djch AgNOj I M . Sau khi phan utig - Thi nghiem 1: Cho m gam bot Fe (du) vao V, lit dung djch CuCNO,). 1M; xay ra hoan toan thu dugc 48,6 gam Ag. Gia trj cua m la - Thi nghiem 2: Cho m gam b6t Fe (du) vao V, lit dung djch AgNO, 0,1M. ' A. 5,6gajn. B. 8,4 gam. C. 11,2 gam. D. 14,0 gam. Sau khi c4c phan dug xay ra hoan toan, kh6'i lugng chat ran thu dugc 6 hai thi Hu&ng ddn gidi nghiem deu bang nhau. Gia trj ciia V, so vdri V , la Theo bai ra: So mol AgNO, = 0,5 . 1 = 0,5 (mol); n^g = 0,45 mol. A . V , = V2. B . V , = 10V,. C.V, = 5V2. D. V, = 2V2.
  20. Phdn iv) i^lnfifiii^ pluip yiiil iilidnh BT Hon hot IJ CU Thanh Tmin Cty TNHH MTV l>\I K hang Viet Huong ddn gidi AgNOj (du) vao dung djch X, sau khi phan iJng xay ra hoan to^n sinh ra m gam Theo b^i ra: S6' mol CuCNO,), = 1. V, (mol); cha't rSn. Gia trj cua m la S6 mol AgNOj = 0,1. (mol) "' ' A. 10,8. B. 57,4. C.68,2. D. 28,7, Cac PTPir xay ra: ^ Huong ddn gidi Goi X la s6 mol FeCl, => s6 mol NaQ la 2x. Fe (du) + Cu(N03)2 > Fe(N03)2 + Cui Theo bai ra, ta c6: 127x + 2x.58,5 = 24,4 ' V, (mol) < V, (mol) V, (mol) => 244x = 24,4 : ^ x = 0,1. * ^AM i ; Fe(d) + 2AgN03 > Fe(N03)2 + 2 A g i C!ac phuong trinh phan ling xay ra: • 0,05V2(mol) « 0,lV,(mol) 0,lV,(mol) NaCl + AgNOj > AgCl i + NaNOj ' Kh6'i lircrtig chat ran sau phan ling d thi nghidm 1: 2x 2x m , = m o , + mp. (d) = 64.V, + ( m - 56.V,) = m + 8V, (gam). F e a , + 3AgNOj > 2AgCl i + Fc(NOj), + Agi Kh6'i lirong cha't ran sau phan ling 6 thi nghifm 2: X 2x X m j = m^g + (d) = 108.0.1.V, + ( m - 56.0,05.V,) = m + SV^ (gam) vay cha't ran g6m c6 AgQ (4x mol); Ag (x mol). ' ' TTieo bai ra, ta c6: m | = m 2 vay m = mAgci + niAg = 4.0,1.143,5 + 0,1.108 = 68,2 (gam) ^ m + 8V, = m + 8V, =^ V, = V,. Dap an dung la C. Dap an dung la A. Chti v: FeQ, + 2AgN03 > Fe(N03)2 + 2AgCl i ^, Chit v.- V i Fe du ntn khi cho Fe vao dung dich AgN03 chi c6 phan ling xay ra la Fe(NOj)2 + AgNOj (du) > Fe(NO,), + Agi Fe +AgN03 > Fe(NOi)2 + 2Agi. 3. Cho 28 gam Fe tac dung vdri 500 ml dung djch HCl 1,5M, sau khi phan irng k€t thiic thu duoc dung djch X. Cho dung djch X tac dung vdri dung djch AgNOj du, Dang 5; Bai tap ve phan umg Fe^" + CP + Ag" sau khi phan iJng xay ra hoan toan thu dupe m gam cha't ran. Gia trj ciia m la 1. Cho 100 ml dung djch FeCl, 1,2M tac dung vdri 200 ml dung djch AgNOj 2M, A. 188,625 gam B. 81 gam. C. 40,5 gam. D. 148,125 gam. thu duac m gam kd't tiia. Gia trj cua m la Hu&ng ddn gidi A. 30,18 B. 34,44 C. 12,96 D. 47,4 Theo bai ra: np, = 0,5(mol); HHCI = 0,5. 1,5 = 0,75(mol). Hu&ng ddn gidi PTHH cua cac phan iJng xay ra: , A Theo bai ra: n^^^^^ =0,1.1,2 = 0,12(mol) Fe + 2HC1 > FeCK + ftt \ n A g N 0 3 = 0.2.2 = 0,4(mol) 0,375 < - 0,75 (mol) ^ 0,375 (mol) Sau phan ling nay c6: 0,375 mol FeCU; (0,5 - 0,375) = 0,125 mol Fe (d) FeCl2 + 2AgN03 ->Fe(N03)2 + 2AgCl i Fe + SAgNOj,,, > Fe(N03)j + 3 A g ; 0,12 ^ 0,24 ->0,12 0,24 0,125 (mol) 0,375 (mol) Fe (NO3 \ AgN03 -> Fe (NO3 \ Ag 4 FeCU + 3AgN03(d) > FeiNOjh + 2Agai + Agi 0,12 ^ 0,12(0,4-0,24) 0,12 0,375(mol) ' 0,75(mol) >0,375(mol) Vay: m = mAga+mAg =0.24.143,5 + 0,12.108 = 47,4(g) Cha't ran thu dupe sau phan tag gom C O - Ag (0,375 +0,375 =0,75mol) ' Dap an dung la D. 2. Hoa tan hoan toan 24,4 gam h6n hgfp g6m FeCU va NaCl (c6 ti 16 s6' mol tuong - AgCl (0,75 mol). ling la 1 : 2) vko m6t lugmg nude (du), thu dupe dung djch X. Cho dung djch Vay: m = 0,75. (108 + 143,5) = 188,625 (gam) Dap an dung la A.

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