3D Game Programming All in One- P15

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3D Game Programming All in One- P15: During the past several years while working on the Tubettiland “Online Campaign” software and more recently while working on the Tubettiworld game, I figure I’ve received more than a hundred queries from people of all ages about how to get started making games. There were queries from 40-year-olds and 13-year-olds and every age in between. Most e-mails were from guys I would estimate to be in their late teens or early 20s.

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  1. Making a Player Skin 327 Hair and Hands Next we'll tackle the hair and hands of the Standard Male. We'll do these two together because they both use skin (flesh) tones (the guy is going to have a bald spot). Once these are done, we are finished with the skin part of the skin. Or something like that. Both of the next subsections will be using the skin layer in addition to other layers. Hair Textures Figure 9.31 Finished face and neck. Hair has a pattern, though not a specific pattern. There is often quite a bit of randomness, but nonetheless there is a grain, if you will, like the grain in a wooden plank or the lay of a lawn. There's a clue there! Try this: 1. Locate the hair portion of the UV template in your working file, player.psp. 2. Draw an object that encompasses the hair, and set the fill to match the color of the hair you used in the bits that show in the head area as in Figure 9.32. 3. Copy that object and paste the copy into another new layer. Modify the fill of that object. (Reminder: You can do this by double-clicking on the object with the Object Select tool and then clicking on the Fill color box.) 4. Set the hair RGB color value to those listed in Table 9.5. 5. Select the Texture check box. Figure 9.32 Filled hair template area. 6. Click the Current Texture dis- play box and select Grass02 from the list that pops up. 7. Set Angle to 90 and Scale to 50. Team LRN
  2. 328 Chapter 9 ■ Skins Table 9.5 Hair Color RGB Settings Color Component Value Red 251 Green 178 Blue 129 8. Click OK to close the Color dialog box and then again to close the Properties dia- log box. You will get something similar to Figure 9.33. 9. Merge the new layers you created with your skin layer, using the Merge Visible technique I showed you earlier. 10. After you do this, the layer will be named "Merged". Rename it to "Skin" again, by right-clicking on the layer's name in the Layer palette, choosing Rename, and then typing in the name. 11. Now for the bald spot. If you look at how the triangles in the UV template are arranged you can see that the upper-left corner of the hair area and the upper-right corner of the hair area meet when they are wrapped back onto the model. The place where they meet is the crown of the head, which just so happens to be one of the two places where classic male-pattern Figure 9.33 Textured hair. baldness begins! Choose the Air Brush and set its size to about 32, its density to about 25, and its foreground color to the high- light flesh tone found in Table 9.4. 12. In each of the corners, spray some bald skin on, sparser toward the inner areas and denser as you move toward the corners, until you have a substan- tial patch of bare skin and a sur- Figure 9.34 The font of wisdom under rounding area of varying thinness construction—the bald spot. (see Figure 9.34). Don't worry about overspraying the edges, those areas outside are not going to be rendered. Team LRN
  3. Making a Player Skin 329 The Hands The hands need to be skinned on three sides. You should use the basic flesh tone, with some shadow color for areas between the fingers. 1. Once again using the Pen tool with the Point to Point Segment Type, draw an object that surrounds the area that comprises the hand UV template (Figure 9.35). 2. Set the fill color of the object you just made to the basic flesh tone. 3. Start a new vector layer. 4. Using the Pen tool with the Segment Type set to Freehand, Line Width set to 2.0, and Color set to black, draw the lines that sep- arate the fingers. Use Figure 9.36 as a guide. Figure 9.35 5. Put the Pen tool back into Point to Point mode, and draw a fin- Hand area. gernail. Make sure the line color is black, and use a fairly bright pink for the fill color. 6. Place your lines and fingernails appropriately (as in Figure 9.36), and fiddle with the shapes until you are happy. 7. Set the opacity of the layer to about 10 or so. That bright pink fingernail color is not so bright any- more. 8. Merge the two layers you just created into the skin layer. 9. Using the touchup brushes (ninth from the bot- Figure 9.36 Finger lines and tom of the Tools toolbar) and the Air Brush tool, fingernails. add shading and irregularity to the lines as in Fig- ure 9.37. 10. Weaken some of the darker lines. Add lighter high- lights around the main knuckles and darker wrin- kles around the other knuckles. 11. Eventually you will arrive at something that works for you, similar to Figure 9.38. The Clothes We'll spend most of our time remaining in this chapter working on the jacket. You've already learned and applied almost all of the new skills required to do the clothing. Figure 9.37 Adding hand details. Team LRN
  4. 330 Chapter 9 ■ Skins The Jacket It's a leather jacket. Quite a nice one too. Wouldn't mind one like that myself! The color is a basic brown, with the usual darker shadows and lighter highlights, just like with the flesh tones. Things to note are that the jacket "blouses" at the waist and at the cuffs. This is a wrinkling effect that occurs as the material is gathered in for the seam work in those areas. 1. Start off by drawing objects around the back, the front, the waist, the cuffs, the collar, and the sleeves in a fash- ion similar to what we've done in the past (see Figure 9.39). Make sure you do this on a new layer and name it "Jacket". 2. Set the fill color to the basic brown, using the values shown in Table 9.6. 3. On the Tool Options palette, just to the right of the Presets box, is another box with brush configuration choices. Click on that box, and then choose Small Bris- Figure 9.38 The finished tles Hard from the icon list. hands. Table 9.6 Jacket Color RGB Settings Color Component Value Red 140 Green 68 Blue 62 4. To get that stippled leathery look, choose the Air Brush and set it as shown in Table 9.7. Figure 9.39 The jacket pieces. Team LRN
  5. Making a Player Skin 331 Table 9.7 Air Brush Settings Setting Value Shape Round Size 26 Hardness 100 Step 10 Density 50 Thickness 100 Rotation 0 Opacity 90 Blend Mode Normal Rate 5 5. Merge all your new layers onto the skin layer. 6. Spray the leather areas of the jacket with short sharp strokes—just enough to get the stippled look to appear. Do this for all the leather areas: back, front, collar, and sleeves. Figure 9.40 gives an idea what I've done: The back (on the left) has the stippled look, while the visible part of the front (on the right) does not. 7. Use the Lighten/Darken brush (the tenth brush down in the Tool palette) to make the contours of the gathers at the bottom of the front of the jacket. 8. Use the Smudge brush and the other touchup brushes to tweak the contours to your liking (for example, as in Figure 9.41). 9. You can create the zipper and the zipper flap by using the Pen tool to draw a line from the neck to the bottom. Make one line with a width of about 3.0, and then copy it and paste the copy next to the original line. 10. Edit the properties of the new line and change its width to 7. This will be the flap. 11. Merge the new layers to the skin layer, and then touch up the zipper area with stippling and make other tweaks to get it to coordinate with the other areas of the jacket. 12. You can do all the other areas of the jacket in the same way as shown in steps 4 to 11. Figure 9.40 Getting close to that leathery look. Team LRN
  6. 332 Chapter 9 ■ Skins The Trousers The trousers can be done using exactly the same techniques as used for the jack- et. You just need to use different colors and perhaps a different texture or air- brush density or step value. By now, you should be pretty handy with the toolkit in Paint Shop Pro, so I'll leave you to do the trousers on your own. Don't forget to make a belt—it goes at the bottom of the Figure 9.41 That leathery look. trouser area in the UV template. The Boots The final area to apply texture to is the boot area. Again, you've practiced all the tech- niques required to make the boots as well. There is one thing I want to show you, though, that will help, and that is the built-in textures in the Color dialog boxes. If you click on the Color box in the Materials palette, or the Color box in the Properties dialog box of an object, you will see a tab for Patterns, and then to the right side, a box for Textures. The textures will be applied to whatever color mode (tab) you have selected, so that you can have, say, tex- tures applied to patterns. In the Pattern list there is a Tire Tread pattern that would be suitable for the bottom of the heel of a boot, and in the Textures list there are many textures that would be suitable for different parts of the boot. Make sure you save your work in player.psp, and then save another version as C:\3DGPAi1\resources\ ch9\player.jpg. Figure 9.42 shows the com- plete skin for the Standard Male. Figure 9.42 Standard Male skin. Team LRN
  7. Moving Right Along 333 Trying It On for Size As you learned earlier in the chapter, you can use the Show Book Models shortcut and load the player.dts model. You will be able to view the Standard Male character with your new skin on it. You'll probably see areas that need fixing up, and so go ahead and do just that. Moving Right Along In this chapter you learned how UV unwrapping relates to the texture files known as skins. And you learned how to apply that understanding to images for game objects ranging from the simple (a soup can) to the complex (a human character). I hope you also take away from the chapter the idea that hand-drawn concept artwork is a useful tool. Draw everything in sketch form before you start working on your models. It's a great help. Finally, you can see that a fully featured image processing tool like Paint Shop Pro has quite a few features to ease the effort of creating images for skins. We've only scratched the surface of what the program can do. Don't be shy about using Paint Shop Pro's built-in Help utility. It's well done and chock-a-block-full of information. If you want to make great skins, you are going to need to practice, practice, and practice some more. Here are some of the many ways to do this: ■ Create your own models and make the skins. ■ Make skins for other people's models. ■ Make skins for other people for popular games like Half-Life and Tribes. ■ Make monster skins, policeman skins, airplane skins, light pole skins. ■ Make a set of stock skins. ■ Make skin templates that you can use to make the skinning task easier. But most of all, get down and do it! In the next chapter, we will continue with the visual aspects of developing our game, but this time we will be looking at how to create graphical user interface (GUI) elements, by using Torque script to insert images and controls. Team LRN
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  9. chapter 10 Creating GUI Elements A s you've seen by now, there is more to a 3D game than just the imaginary world into which the player plunks his avatar. There is the real need to provide the play- er with some method to make selections and otherwise control the game activi- ties. Generally, we provide a Graphical User Interface (GUI) to the player to interact with the program. The menu we employed at the start-up of the program, where the player clicks on buttons to launch the game, change the setup, or quit; the dialog box that shows the client's loading progress; the dialog box that asks if the player really wants to quit— these screens are all examples of GUIs. If you take a look at Figure 10.1, you can see a sample of the variety of elements found within these interface screens. Some of the elements are things we can interact with: ■ push buttons ■ radio buttons ■ edit boxes ■ check boxes ■ menus ■ sliders Figure 10.1 Common graphical user interface elements. 335 Team LRN
  10. 336 Chapter 10 ■ Creating GUI Elements Some of the elements are things we can just look at: ■ frames ■ labels ■ backgrounds Also, during the course of discussions about graphical user interfaces, you may find the terms GUI, window, interface, and screen used interchangeably. I'll stick to the words inter- face and screen as much as possible, although contextually it might make more sense to use GUI or window from time to time. GUI is best used to describe the entire game inter- face with the player as a whole. Window is a term that most people tend to associate with the operating system of their computer. The names of GUI items that are available by default with Torque don't differentiate between whether they are interactive and noninteractive GUI elements. If you are familiar with X-Windows or Motif, you will probably have encountered the term widgets. If so, your definition of widgets may be a fair bit broader than the one I am about to use here. In our situation, widgets are simply visual portions of a displayed GUI control. They convey information or provide an aesthetic appearance and offer access to defined subcontrol elements. For example, Figure 10.2 portrays a scroll bar. Within the scroll bar are the thumb, arrow, and bar widgets. These aren't controls in their own right but rather are necessary special- ized components of the control to which they belong. It is possible for a control to use another control as a widget. In fact, every control in a screen can be consid- ered a widget within the control that defines the screen. This will become clearer later on. I will only use the term widget to refer to a specialized component of a control Figure 10.2 Scroll bar widgets. that is not itself a control. Worth noting is the fact that you can create your own GUI elements using Torque Script if the ones that are available by default don't suit your needs. Controls The name says it all—controls are graphical items provided to the program user to control what the program will do. In Torque, interactive controls are used by clicking on them or click-dragging the mouse across them. Some controls, like edit boxes, also require you to type in some text from the keyboard. Some of the controls have built-in labels that iden- tify their purpose, and some will require you to create an accompanying noninteractive control to provide a label. Noninteractive controls, as the name implies, are used to only display information and not to capture user input. Team LRN
  11. Controls 337 Torque provides a number of default controls right out of the box; the most commonly used ones are listed next. You will have encountered a few of these controls in earlier chap- ters, and we will discuss several more of them in this chapter. You can use them as is; you can modify them by adjusting the control's profile; or you can use them as the basis for defining new controls. GuiArrayCtrl GuiControlListPopUp GuiPlayerView GuiAviBitmapCtrlGuiBackgroundCtrl GuiCrossHairHud GuiPopUpBackgroundCtrl GuiBitmapBorderCtrl GuiEditCtrl GuiPopUpMenuCtrl GuiBitmapButtonCtrl GuiFadeinBitmapCtrl GuiPopUpTextListCtrl GuiBitmapButtonTextCtrl GuiFilterCtrl GuiProgressCtrl GuiBitmapCtrl GuiFrameSetCtrl GuiRadioCtrl GuiBorderButtonCtrl GuiHealthBarHud GuiScrollCtrl GuiBubbleTextCtrl GuiInputCtrl GuiShapeNameHud GuiButtonBaseCtrl GuiInspector GuiSliderCtrl GuiButtonCtrl GuiMenuBackgroundCtrl GuiSpeedometerHud GuiCanvas GuiMenuBar GuiTerrPreviewCtrl GuiCheckBoxCtrl GuiMenuTextListCtrl GuiTextCtrl GuiChunkedBitmapCtrl GuiMessageVectorCtrl GuiTextEditCtrl GuiClockHud GuiMLTextCtrl GuiTextEditSliderCtrl GuiConsole GuiMLTextEditCtrl GuiTextListCtrl GuiConsoleEditCtrl GuiMouseEventCtrl GuiTreeViewCtrl GuiConsoleTextCtrl GuiNoMouseCtrl GuiWindowCtrl Figure 10.3 shows a screen used to select missions to play. There is a list of available mis- sions on the client, some buttons to run the mission or go back to the main menu, and a check box to indicate whether you want to host this mission for other players. Note, too, that there is a background, which is the same as the background used for our Emaga game program's start-up menu. What we'll do is examine each of the screen's GUI elements in detail. GuiChunkedBitmapCtrl The GuiChunkedBitmapCtrl class is usually used for the large backgrounds of interfaces, like menu screens. Figure 10.4 shows such a background. The name derives from the con- cept of breaking up an image into a collection of smaller ones (chunked bitmaps) in order to improve display performance. Here is an example of a GuiChunkedBitmapCtrl definition: new GuiChunkedBitmapCtrl(MenuScreen) { profile = "GuiContentProfile"; horizSizing = "width"; vertSizing = "height"; Team LRN
  12. 338 Chapter 10 ■ Creating GUI Elements position = "0 0"; extent = "640 480"; minExtent = "8 8"; visible = "1"; bitmap = "./interfaces/emaga_back- ground"; // insert other controls here }; The first thing to note about this definition is the line "// insert other controls here". Typically, a GuiChunkedBitmapCtrl control Figure 10.3 Start mission interface screen. would contain other controls, functioning as a sort of super- container. All other controls in a given screen using this control would be children, or subele- ments, of this control. This line is a comment, so in and of itself, it has no effect on the control's definition. I include it here to indicate where you would start nesting other controls. Note the extent property, which specifies a width of 640 and a height of 480. These are "virtual pixels" in a way. Any Figure 10.4 GuiChunkedBitmapCtrl background sample. subelements you insert in this control will have a maximum area of 640 480 to work with for positioning and sizing. These virtual pixels are scaled in size according to the actual canvas size, which you can change by setting the value of the global variable $pref::Video::windowedRes and then calling CreateCanvas, or if you already have a canvas, calling Canvas.Repaint;—we used CreateCanvas in Chapter 7. The minExtent property specifies the smallest size that you will allow this control to be shrunk down to when using the Torque built-in GUI Editor. We will use that editor later in this chapter. Team LRN
  13. Controls 339 GuiControl The GuiControl class, as shown in Figure 10.5, is a sort of generic control container. It's often used as a tablike container, or as what other systems often call a frame. With it, you can gather together a collection of other controls and then manipulate them as a group. Here is an example of a GuiControl definition: new GuiControl(InfoTab) { profile = "GuiDefaultProfile"; horizSizing = "width"; vertSizing = "height"; position = "0 0"; extent = "640 480"; minExtent = "8 8"; visible = "1"; }; Probably the property you will be most interested in is the visible property. You will probably want to programmatically make the control visible or invisible based on the con- tents (the other controls) you place within the control. You can do that this way: InfoTab.visible = true; InfoTab.visible = false; Note that true is the same as 1 or "1" and false is the same as 0 or "0". GuiTextCtrl The GuiTextCtrl, as shown in Figure 10.6, is a straightforward, commonly used control. You can use it to display any text you want. You can put it on an interface with no text and then fill in the text as the game progresses. Here is an example of a GuiTextCtrl definition: new GuiTextCtrl(PlayerNameLabel) { profile = "GuiTextProfile"; Figure 10.5 GuiControl sample. horizSizing = "right"; vertSizing = "bottom"; position = "183 5"; extent = "63 18"; Figure 10.6 GuiTextCtrl sample. Team LRN
  14. 340 Chapter 10 ■ Creating GUI Elements minExtent = "8 8"; visible = "1"; text = "Player Name:"; maxLength = "255"; }; You would specify the text font and other characteristics with your choice of profile. You can change the contents quite easily in this example by doing the following: PlayerNameLabel.text = "Some Other Text"; The maxLength property allows you to limit the number of characters that will be stored with the control. Specifying fewer characters saves memory. GuiButtonCtrl The GuiButtonCtrl, as shown in Figure 10.7, is another clickable control class. Unlike GuiCheckBoxCtrl or GuiRadioCtrl, this class does not retain any state. Its use is normal- ly as a command interface control, where the user clicks on it with the expectation that some action will be immediately invoked. Here is an example of a GuiButtonCtrl definition: new GuiButtonCtrl() { profile = "GuiButtonProfile"; horizSizing = "right"; vertSizing = "top"; position = "16 253"; extent = "127 23"; minExtent = "8 8"; visible = "1"; command = "Canvas.getContent().Close();"; text = "Close"; groupNum = "-1"; buttonType = "PushButton"; }; The most significant property is the command property. It contains a script statement to be executed when the button is pressed. This example will close the interface screen being shown in the canvas. Figure 10.7 GuiButtonCtrl sample. Team LRN
  15. Controls 341 Another feature is the buttonType property. This can be one of the following: ■ ButtonTypePush ■ ButtonTypeCheck ■ ButtonTypeRadio The property groupNum is used when the buttonType is specified to be ButtonTypeRadio. Radio buttons in an interface screen that have the same groupNum value are used in an exclusive manner. Only the most recently pressed radio button will be set to the checked value (true); all others in the group will be unchecked. Otherwise, the radio button type works the same as the GuiCheckBoxCtrl class, described in the next section. This control is also used as a base for deriving the three button classes shown previously. You would probably be better off to use the specialized classes GuiCheckBoxCtrl and GuiRadioCtrl for types ButtonTypeCheck and ButtonTypeRadio, rather than this control, because they have additional properties. So the upshot is, if you use this control, it will probably be as a ButtonTypePush. GuiCheckBoxCtrl The GuiCheckBoxCtrl, as shown in Figure 10.8, is a specialized derivation of the GuiButtonCtrl that saves its current state value. It's analogous to a light switch or, more properly, a locking push button. If the box is empty when you click the control, the box will then display a check box. If it is checked, it will clear the check mark out of the box when you click the control. Here is an example of a GuiCheckBoxCtrl definition: new GuiCheckBoxCtrl(IsMultiplayer) { profile = "GuiCheckBoxProfile"; horizSizing = "right"; vertSizing = "bottom"; position = "155 272"; extent = "147 23"; minExtent = "8 8"; visible = "1"; variable = "Pref::HostMultiPlayer"; text = "Host Mission"; maxLength = "255"; }; If you specify the variable property, then the value of the specified variable will be set to whatever the current state of the control is after you've clicked it. Figure 10.8 GuiCheckBoxCtrl sample. Team LRN
  16. 342 Chapter 10 ■ Creating GUI Elements When the control is first displayed, it will set its state according to the value in the speci- fied variable. You need to make sure that the variable you use contains appropriate data. You can also specify the text label that will be displayed next to the check box using the text property. Note that the GuiRadioCtrl control functions much like this control, except that it auto- matically enforces the principle that only one button in the same group will be checked. GuiScrollCtrl The GuiScrollCtrl class, as shown in Figure 10.9, is used for those famous scrolling lists that everyone likes. Okay, so not everyone may like them, but everyone has used them. Here is an example of a GuiScrollCtrl definition: new GuiScrollCtrl() { profile = "GuiScrollProfile"; horizSizing = "right"; vertSizing = "bottom"; position = "14 55"; extent = "580 190"; minExtent = "8 8"; visible = "1"; willFirstRespond = "1"; hScrollBar = "dynamic"; vScrollBar = "alwaysOn"; constantThumbHeight = "0"; childMargin = "0 0"; defaultLineHeight = "15"; // insert listing control here }; Normally we would populate a scroll control with a list, usually defined by the contents of a GuiTextListCtrl con- trol. The control containing the list would be added as a subelement of this control. The willFirstRespond property is used to indicate whether we want this Figure 10.9 GuiScrollCtrl sample. control to respond to arrow keys Team LRN
  17. Controls 343 when they are pressed (to control scrolling) or to let other controls have access to arrow key inputs first. Both the hScrollBar and vScrollBar properties—referring to the horizontal and vertical bars, respectively—can be set to one of these modes: ■ alwaysOn. The scroll bar is always visible. ■ alwaysOff. The scroll bar is never visible. ■ dynamic. The scroll bar is visible only when the list exceeds the display space. The property constantThumbHeight indicates whether the thumb, the small rectangular wid- get in the scroll bar that moves as you scroll, will have a size that is proportional to the num- ber of entries in the list (the longer the list, the smaller the thumb) or will have a constant size. Setting this property to 1 ensures a constant size; 0 will ensure proportional sizing. The property defaultLineHeight defines in virtual pixels how high each line of the control's contents would be. This value is used to determine how much to scroll when a vertical arrow is clicked, for example. Finally, childMargin is used to constrain the viewable space inside the parent control that would be occupied by whatever control contained the list to be scrolled. In effect, it cre- ates a margin inside the scroll control that restricts placement of the scroll list. The first value is the horizontal margin (for both left and right), and the second is the vertical mar- gin (both top and bottom together). GuiTextListCtrl The GuiTextListCtrl, as shown in Figure 10.10, is used to display 2D arrays of text values. Here is an example of a GuiTextListCtrl definition: new GuiTextListCtrl(MasterServerList) { profile = "GuiTextArrayProfile"; horizSizing = "right"; vertSizing = "bottom"; position = "2 2"; extent = "558 48"; minExtent = "8 8"; visible = "1"; enumerate = "0"; resizeCell = "1"; columns = "0 30 200 240 280 400"; fitParentWidth = "1"; clipColumnText = "0"; noDuplicates = "false"; }; Figure 10.10 GuiTextListCtrl sample. Team LRN
  18. 344 Chapter 10 ■ Creating GUI Elements The enumerate property indicates which line of text is presented as highlighted. You can allow the cells to be resized with the GUI Editor by setting the resizeCell prop- erty to true. Each record, or line, in the array has space-delimited fields. You can format the display of these fields by using the columns property to indicate at which column number each field will be displayed. The fitParentWidth property indicates whether the control will be enlarged in size to fill the available display space of any control that might contain this control. We can decide whether overlong text in each column is to be clipped, or will be left to overrun adjoining columns, by setting the clipColumnText property. We can automatically prevent the display of duplicate record entries by setting the noDuplicates property to true. GuiTextEditCtrl The GuiTextEditCtrl, as shown in Figure 10.11, provides a tool for users to manually enter text strings. Here is an example of a GuiTextEditCtrl definition: new GuiTextEditCtrl() { profile = "GuiTextEditProfile"; horizSizing = "right"; vertSizing = "bottom"; position = "250 5"; extent = "134 18"; minExtent = "8 8"; visible = "1"; variable = "Pref::Player::Name"; maxLength = "255"; historySize = "5"; password = "0"; sinkAllKeyEvents = "0"; helpTag = "0"; }; With this control, the variable property is the key one. When the user types a string of text into the control's edit box, that string is entered into the variable indicated. When the control is first dis- played, the contents of the indicated variable are Figure 10.11 GuiTextEditCtrl sample. stuffed into the edit box for display. Team LRN
  19. The Torque GUI Editor 345 Text edit controls have a nifty history feature that can be quite handy. All of the previous entries—up to a maximum specified by historySize—are saved and can be recalled using the Up Arrow key to go back in history or the Down Arrow key to go forward. If you are using this control to accept a password, then set the password property to true. The control will substitute asterisks ("*") in place of whatever is typed by the user so that bystanders can't see what is being typed. The sinkAllKeyEvents property, when set to true, causes the control to throw away any key- strokes that it receives but doesn't understand how to handle. When sinkAllKeyEvents is set to false, these keystrokes will be passed to the parent. The Torque GUI Editor Torque has an editor built in for creating and tweaking interfaces. You can invoke the GUI Editor by pressing the F10 key (this is defined in the common code base scripts, but you can change it if you want). You are perfectly free to ship your game with this editor code, or you can remove it in any shipping version to ensure that people will not fiddle with the interfaces. Or you can modify it to suit your heart's desire! The Cook's Tour of the Editor When you launch the editor by pressing the F10 key, the editor will appear and load what- ever interface is current, making it ready for editing. Visually, there are four components to the GUI Editor: the Content Editor, the Control Tree, the Control Inspector, and the Tool Bar. Figure 10.12 shows the GUI Editor open and working with one of the earlier main menu screens from the Emaga sample game. The Content Editor The Content Editor is where you can place, move, and resize controls. In Figure 10.12 the Content Editor is the large rec- tangular area at the upper left in the GUI Editor view. Selection Normally, you select a control by clicking the mouse on it. Some controls can be difficult to select because of their Figure 10.12 The Torque GUI Editor. Team LRN
  20. 346 Chapter 10 ■ Creating GUI Elements positions. Another way to select controls is by using the Control Tree, which is covered in a later section. If you hold down the Shift key while clicking the mouse (shift-clicking) on several controls, you can select more than one control at once. Each time you shift-click you add that con- trol to the selection. The sizing knobs turn white and can no longer be used to size the control. You can still move the controls. Only controls that share the same parent can be selected at the same time. Movement Move a control by clicking and dragging its content area after selecting it. When you move controls, be aware of which controls they may be contained by—when you drag the con- trol to one side or another, you may be dragging it outside the display area of its parent control, and you don't want that. Resizing You resize a control after selection by clicking on and dragging one of the eight black siz- ing knobs. As with movement, you need to stay aware of how the control you are resizing is related to other controls. The sizing might be restricted by a parent control's display area. Figure 10.12 shows the sizing knobs, attached to the Start Mission button. Adding The parent control of the currently selected control is outlined with a yellow and blue band. This control is known as the Current Add Parent. Any new control created from the toolbar or pasted from the Clipboard will be added to this control. The Current Add Parent control can be set manually by either clicking one of its children or right-clicking the control itself. The Control Tree The Control Tree shows the current content control hierarchy. It is in the upper-right cor- ner of the GUI Editor view. Parent controls, also called containers—controls that contain other controls—have a little box to the left of their entry in the tree. If the box is a plus sign, clicking it will expand that control into the list, bringing the child controls into view. If you click it when it looks like a minus sign, it will contract the control's list back to a single entry comprising solely the parent control. Clicking any control in the tree will cause it to be selected in the Content Editor view and cause the control's properties to be displayed in the Control Inspector view. You can see this effect by looking back at Figure 10.12. Team LRN
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