Character Animation with Direct3D- P8

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Character Animation with Direct3D- P8

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Character Animation with Direct3D- P8:This book is primarily aimed at teaching indie and hobby game developers how to create character animation with Direct3D. Also, the seasoned professional game developer may find some interesting things in this book. You will need a solid understanding of the C++ programming language as well as general object-oriented programming skills.

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Nội dung Text: Character Animation with Direct3D- P8

  1. 126 Character Animation with Direct3D That’s pretty much all you need for a lightweight physics simulation. Note that there are light-years between a physics engine like this and a proper engine. For example, this “engine” doesn’t handle things like object–object collision, etc. Next, you’ll learn how the position of an object is updated, and after that the first physics object (the particle) will be implemented. POSITION, VELOCITY, AND ACCELERATION Next I’ll cover the three most basic physical properties of a rigid body: its position p, its velocity v, and its acceleration a. In 3D space, the position of an object is described with x, y, and z coordinates. The velocity of an object is simply how the position is changing over time. In just the same way, the acceleration of an object is how the velocity changes over time. The formulas for these behaviors are listed below. pn = p + v • t where pn is the new position. vn = v + a • t where vn is the new velocity. f a= m In the case of a 3D object, these are all described as a 3D vector with an x, y, and z component. The following code shows an example class that has the m_position, m_velocity, and the m_acceleration vector. This class implements the formulas above using a constant acceleration: class OBJECT{ public: OBJECT() { m_position = D3DXVECTOR3(0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f); m_velocity = D3DXVECTOR3(0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f); m_acceleration = D3DXVECTOR3(0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f); } void Update(float deltaTime) { Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  2. Chapter 6 Physics Primer 127 m_velocity += m_acceleration * deltaTime; m_position += m_velocity * deltaTime; } private: D3DXVECTOR3 m_position; D3DXVECTOR3 m_velocity; D3DXVECTOR3 m_acceleration; }; As you can see, the m_position and the m_velocity vectors are initialized to zero, while the m_acceleration vector is pointing in the Y-direction with a constant magnitude of one. Figure 6.11 shows a graph of how the acceleration, velocity, and position of an object like this change over time. FIGURE 6.11 Acceleration, velocity, and position over time. In this section you have looked at how an object’s position is affected by velocity, which in turn is affected by its acceleration. In the same manner, an object’s orientation is affected by its angular velocity, which in turn is affected by its torque. However, since you won’t need the concepts of angular velocity and torque to create a simple ragdoll animation, I won’t dive into the detailed math of these. If you want to look into the specifics of angular velocity and torque, I suggest reading the article “Integrating the Equations of Rigid Body Motion” by Miguel Gomez [Gomez00]. THE PARTICLE These days, physicists use billions of volts to try and accelerate tiny electrically charged particles and collide them with each other. What you’re about to engage in is, thankfully, much simpler than that (and also a lot less expensive). You’ll be looking at the smallest (and simplest) entity you can simulate in a physics engine: the particle! ease purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  3. 128 Character Animation with Direct3D A particle can have a mass, but it does not have a volume and therefore it doesn’t have an orientation either. This makes it a perfect physical entity for us beginners to start with. The particle system I am about to cover here is based on the article “Advanced Character Physics” by Thomas Jakobsen [Jakobsen03]. Instead of storing the velocity of a particle as a vector, you can also store it using an object’s current position and its previous position. This is called Verlet integration and works like this: pn = 2pc - po + a t po = pc pn is the new position, pc is the current position, and po is the previous position of an object. After you calculate the new position of an object, you assign the previous position to the current. As you can see, there’s no velocity in this formula since this is always implied using the difference between the current and the old position. In code, this can be implemented like this: D3DXVECTOR3 temp = m_pos; m_pos += (m_pos - m_oldPos) + m_acceleration * deltaTime * deltaTime; m_oldPos = temp; In this code snippet, m_pos is the current position of the particle, m_oldPos is the old position, and m_acceleration is the acceleration of the particle. This Verlet inte- gration also requires that the deltaTime is fixed (i.e., not changing between updates). Although this method of updating an object may seem more complicated than the one covered previously, it does have some clear advantages. Most important of these advantages is that it makes it easier to build a stable physics simulation. This is due to the fact that if a particle suddenly were to collide with a wall and stop, its velocity would also become updated (i.e., set to zero), and the particle’s velocity would no longer point in the direction of the wall. The following code shows the PARTICLE class. As you can see, it extends the PHYSICS_OBJECT base class and can therefore be simulated by the PHYSICS_ENGINE class. class PARTICLE : public PHYSICS_OBJECT { public: PARTICLE(); PARTICLE(D3DXVECTOR3 pos); void Update(float deltaTime); void Render(); Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  4. Chapter 6 Physics Primer 129 void AddForces(); void SatisfyConstraints(vector &obstacles); private: D3DXVECTOR3 m_pos; D3DXVECTOR3 m_oldPos; D3DXVECTOR3 m_forces; float m_bounce; }; The m_bounce member is simply a float between [0, 1] that defines how much of the energy is lost when the particle bounces against a surface. This value is also known as the “coefficient of restitution,” or in other words, “bounciness.” With a high bounciness value, the particle will act like a rubber ball, whereas with a low value it will bounce as well as a rock. The next thing you need to figure out is how a particle behaves when it collides with a plane (remember the world is described with OBBs, which in turn can be described with six planes). “To describe collision response, we need to partition velocity and force vectors into two orthogonal components, one normal to the collision surface, and the other parallel to it.” [Witkin01] This same thing is shown more graphically in Figure 6.12. FIGURE 6.12 Particle and forces before collision (left). Particle and forces after collision (right). ease purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  5. 130 Character Animation with Direct3D VN = (N•V)N VN is the current velocity projected onto the normal N of the plane. VT = V – VN VT is the velocity parallel to the plane. V' = VT – VN Finally, V' is the resulting velocity after the collision. The following code snippet shows you one way to implement this particle-plane collision response using Verlet integration. In this code I assume that a collision has occurred and that I know the normal of the plane with which the particle has collided. //Calculate Velocity D3DXVECTOR3 V = m_pos - m_oldPos; //Normal Velocity D3DXVECTOR3 VN = D3DXVec3Dot(&planeNormal, &V) * planeNormal; //Tangent Velocity D3DXVECTOR3 VT = V - VN; //Change the old position (i.e. update the particle velocity) m_oldPos = m_pos - (VT - VN * m_bounce); First, the velocity of the particle was calculated by subtracting the position of the particle with its previous position. Next, the normal and tangent velocities were calculated using the formulas above. Since Verlet integration is used, you need to change the old position of the particle to make the particle go in a different direc- tion the next update. You can also see that I have added the m_bounce variable to the calculation, and in this way you can simulate particles with different “bounciness.” Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  6. Chapter 6 Physics Primer 131 EXAMPLE 6.2 This example covers the PARTICLE class as well as the particle-OBB inter- section test and response. Play around with the different physics parameters to make the particles behave differently. Also try changing the environment and build something more advanced out of the Oriented Bounding Boxes. THE SPRING Next I’ll show you how to simulate a spring in a physics simulation. In real life you find coiled springs in many different places such as car suspensions, wrist watches, pogo-sticks, etc. A spring has a resting length—i.e., the length when it doesn’t try to expand or contract. When you stretch a spring away from this equilibrium length it will “pull back” with a force equivalent to the difference from its resting length. This is also known as Hooke’s Law. F = –kx ease purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  7. 132 Character Animation with Direct3D F is the resulting force, k is the spring constant (how strong/stiff the spring is), and x is the spring’s current distance away from its resting length. Note that if the spring is already in its resting state, the distance will be zero and so will the resulting force. If an object is hanging from one end of a spring that has the other end attached to the roof, it will have an oscillating behavior whenever the object is moved away from the resting length, as shown in Figure 6.13. FIGURE 6.13 The oscillating behavior of a spring. As you can see in Figure 6.13, the spring makes a nice sinus shaped motion over time. Eventually, however, friction will bring this oscillation to a stop (this is, incidentally, what forces us to manually wind up old mechanical clocks). In this book a specific subset of springs are of particular interest: springs with an infinite strength. If you connect two particles with a spring like this, the spring will auto- matically pull or push these particles together or apart until they are exactly at the spring’s resting length from each other. Using springs with infinite strength can be used to model rigid volumes like tetrahedrons, boxes, and more. The following code snippet shows the implementation of the SPRING class. As you can see, you don’t need anything other than pointers to two particles and a resting length for the spring. The SPRING class also extends the PHYSICS_OBJECT class and can therefore also be simulated by the PHYSICS_ENGINE class. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  8. Chapter 6 Physics Primer 133 class SPRING : public PHYSICS_OBJECT { public: SPRING(PARTICLE *p1, PARTICLE *p2, float restLength); void Update(float deltaTime){} void Render(); void AddForces(){} void SatisfyConstraints(vector &obstacles); private: PARTICLE *m_pParticle1; PARTICLE *m_pParticle2; float m_restLength; }; void SPRING::SatisfyConstraints(vector &obstacles) { D3DXVECTOR3 delta = m_pParticle1->m_pos - m_pParticle2->m_pos; float dist = D3DXVec3Length(&delta); float diff = (dist-m_restLength)/dist; m_pParticle1->m_pos -= delta * 0.5f * diff; m_pParticle2->m_pos += delta * 0.5f * diff; } This code shows the SPRING class and its most important function, the Satisfy- Constraints() function. In it, the two particles are forcibly moved to a distance equal to the resting length of the spring. ease purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  9. 134 Character Animation with Direct3D EXAMPLE 6.3 This example is a small variation of the previous example. This time, how- ever, the particles are connected with springs forcing the particles to stay at a specific distance from each other. C ONCLUSIONS As promised, this chapter contained only the “bare bones” of the knowledge needed to create a physics simulation. It is important to note that all the code in this chapter has been written with clarity in mind, not optimization. The simplest and most straightforward way to optimize a physics engine like this is to remove all square root calculations. Write your own implementation of D3DXVec3Length(), D3DXVec3Normalize(), etc. using an approximate square root calculation. For more advanced physics simulations, you’ll also need some form of space partitioning speeding up nearest neighbor queries, etc. In this chapter the game world was described using Oriented Bounding Boxes. A basic particle system was simulated as well as particles connected with springs. Although it may seem like a lot more knowledge is needed to create a ragdoll Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  10. Chapter 6 Physics Primer 135 system, most of it has already been covered. All you need to do is start creating a skeleton built of particles connected with springs. In Chapter 7, a ragdoll will be created from an existing character using an open source physics engine. C HAPTER 6 E XERCISES Implement particles with different mass and bounciness values and see how that affects the particles and springs in Example 6.3. Implement springs that don’t have infinite spring strength (use Hooke’s Law). Try to connect particles with springs to form more complex shapes and objects, such as boxes, etc. F URTHER R EADING [Eberly99] Eberly, David, “Dynamic Collision Detection Using Oriented Bounding Boxes.” Available online at DynamicCollisionDetection.pdf, 1999. [Gomez99] Gomez, Miguel, “Simple Intersection Tests for Games.” Available online at, 1999. [Gomez00] Gomez, Miguel, “Integrating the Equations of Rigid Body Motion.” Game Programming Gems, Charles River Media, 2000. [Ibanez01] Ibanez, Luis, “Tutorial on Quaternions.” Available online at http://www., 2001. [Jakobsen03] Jakobsen, Thomas, “Advanced Character Physics.” Available online at, 2003. [Svarovsky00] Svarovsky, Jan, “Quaternions for Game Programming.” Game Programming Gems, Charles River Media, 2000. [Wikipedia] “Gravitational Constant.” Available online at wiki/Gravitational_constant. [Witkin01] Witkin, Andrew, “Physically Based Modeling, Particle System Dynamics.” Available online at pdf/notesc.pdf, 2001. ease purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
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  12. 7 Ragdoll Simulation Ragdoll animation is a procedural animation, meaning that it is not created by an artist in a 3D editing program like the animations covered in earlier chapters. Instead, it is created in runtime. As its name suggests, ragdoll animation is a technique of sim- ulating a character falling or collapsing in a believable manner. It is a very popular technique in first person shooter (FPS) games, where, for example, after an enemy character has been killed, he tumbles down a flight of stairs. In the previous chapter you learned the basics of how a physics engine works. However, the “engine” created in the last chapter was far from a commercial engine, completely lacking support for rigid bodies (other than particles). Rigid body physics is something you will need when you implement ragdoll animation. So, in this chapter I will race forward a bit 137 ease purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  13. 138 Character Animation with Direct3D and make use of an existing physics engine. If you ever work on a commercial game project, you’ll find that they use commercial (and pretty costly) physics engines such as Havok™, PhysX™, or similar. Luckily, there are several good open-source physics engines that are free to download and use. In this chapter I’ll use the Bullet physics engine, but there are several other open-source libraries that may suit you better (for example, ODE, Box2D, or Tokamak). This chapter covers the following: Introduction to the Bullet physics engine Creating the physical ragdoll representation Creating constraints Applying a mesh to the ragdoll Before you continue with the rest of this chapter, I recommend that you go to the following site: Download the amazing 87 kb Sumotori Dreams game and give it a go (free down- load). It is a game where you control a Sumo-wrestling ragdoll. This game demo is not only an excellent example of ragdoll physics, but it is also quite fun! Figure 7.1 shows a screenshot of Sumotori Dreams: FIGURE 7.1 A screenshot of Sumotori Dreams. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  14. Chapter 7 Ragdoll Simulation 139 INTRODUCTION TO THE BULLET PHYSICS ENGINE A complete physics engine is a huge piece of software that would take a single person a tremendous amount of time to create on his own. Luckily, you can take advantage of the hard work of others and integrate a physics engine into your game with mini- mum effort. This section serves as a step-by-step guide to installing and integrating the Bullet physics engine into a Direct3D application. The Bullet Physics Library was originally created by Erwin Coumans, who previously worked for the Havok project. Since 2005, the Bullet project has been open source, with many other contributors as well. To get Bullet up and running, you only need to know how to create and use the objects shown in Table 7.1. TABLE 7.1 BULLET CORE CLASSES btDiscreteDynamicsWorld The physics simulations world object. You add rigid bodies Separate multiple permissions and constraints toand class. This class alsois an example: with a comma this no spaces. Here updates and runs the simulation using the stepSimulation() function. stsadm -o managepermissionpolicylevel -url http://barcelona -name "Book btRigidBody This is the class used to represent a single rigid body object Example" -add -description “Example from book" -grantpermissions in the physics simulation. UpdatePersonalWebParts,ManageLists btMotionState Each rigid body needs a collision shape. For this purpose, You can verify the creation classes policy from the btCollisionShape, such asthe several of the inherit in Central Administration. Once policy is created, you can use changepermissionpolicy to alter the permissions or btBoxShape, btSphereShape, btStaticPlaneShape, etc. use deletepermissionpolicy to remove it completely. You can also use addpermis- btTransform You will need to extract the position and orientation from sionpolicy to assign your policy or any of the included ones to a user or group. an object’s transform each frame to do the rendering of that object. The btTransform corresponds to the D3DXMATRIX in DirectX. T HINGS Y OU C AN O NLY D O IN STSADM btVector3 Bullet’s 3D vector, which corresponds to DirectX’s D3DXVECTOR3. The final part of this chapter will cover functionality that is not in the Web UI. This functionality btQuaternion is only available with STSADM. which corresponds to DirectX’s Bullet’s Quaternion class, D3DXQUATERNION. As you can see, there are some classes with duplicated functionality when using Bullet together with DirectX. I have created a set of helper functions to easily convert some Bullet structures to the corresponding DirectX structures. These helper functions are listed below: ease purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  15. 140 Character Animation with Direct3D //Bullet Vector to DirectX Vector D3DXVECTOR3 BT2DX_VECTOR3(const btVector3 &v) { return D3DXVECTOR3(v.x(), v.y(), v.z()); } //Bullet Quaternion to DirectX Quaternion D3DXQUATERNION BT2DX_QUATERNION(const btQuaternion &q) { return D3DXQUATERNION(q.x(), q.y(), q.z(), q.w()); } //Bullet Transform to DirectX Matrix D3DXMATRIX BT2DX_MATRIX(const btTransform &ms) { btQuaternion q = ms.getRotation(); btVector3 p = ms.getOrigin(); D3DXMATRIX pos, rot, world; D3DXMatrixTranslation(&pos, p.x(), p.y(), p.z()); D3DXMatrixRotationQuaternion(&rot, &BT2DX_QUATERNION(q)); D3DXMatrixMultiply(&world, &rot, &pos); return world; } As you can see in these functions, the information in the Bullet vector and quaternion classes are accessed through function calls. So you simply create the corresponding DirectX containers using the data from the Bullet classes. However, before you can get this code to compile, you need to set up your project and integrate the Bullet library. I NTEGRATING THE B ULLET P HYSICS L IBRARY This section describes in detail the steps required to integrate the Bullet Physics Library to your own Direct3D project. You can also find these steps described in detail in the Bullet user manual (part of the library download). DOWNLOAD BULLET The first thing you need to do is to download Bullet from: Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  16. Chapter 7 Ragdoll Simulation 141 At the time of writing, the latest version of the Bullet Physics Library was 2.68. After you have downloaded the library (, in my case), unpack it somewhere on your hard drive. I will assume that you unpacked it to “C:\Bullet” and will use this path throughout the book (You can of course put the Bullet library wher- ever it suits you best). A screenshot of the folder structure can be seen in Figure 7.2. FIGURE 7.2 The Bullet Physics Library. The example exe files will not be available until you have made your first build of the Bullet physics engine. BUILD THE BULLET LIBRARIES The next thing you need to do is to compile the Bullet libraries. In the root folder of the Bullet library, find the “C:\Bullet\msvc” folder and open it. In it you’ll find pro- ject folders for Visual Studio 6, 7, 7.1, and 8. Select the folder corresponding to your version of Visual Studio and open up the wksbullet.sln solution file located therein. This will fire up Visual Studio with the Bullet project. You will see a long list of test applications in the solution explorer. These are a really good place to look for example source code, should you get stuck with a particular problem. ease purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  17. 142 Character Animation with Direct3D Next, make a release build of the entire solution and sit back and wait for it to finish (it takes quite a while). Press the Play button to start a collection of Bullet examples. Be sure to check these out before moving on (especially the Ragdoll example, as seen in Figure 7.3). FIGURE 7.3 The Bullet Ragdoll example. Not only did you build all these cool physics test applications when compiling the Bullet solution, you also compiled the libraries (lib files) you will use in your own custom applications. Assuming you put the Bullet library in “C:\Bullet” and that you use Visual Studio 8, you will find the compiled libraries in “C:\Bullet\out\ release8\libs”. SETTING UP A CUSTOM DIRECT3D PROJECT The next thing you need to do is create a new project and integrate Bullet into it. First make sure the Bullet include files can be found. You do this by adding the Bullet source folder to the VC++ directories, as shown in Figure 7.4. You will find this menu by clicking the Options button in the Tools drop-down menu in Visual Studio. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  18. Chapter 7 Ragdoll Simulation 143 FIGURE 7.4 Adding the Bullet source folder to the VC++ directories. Select the “Include Files” option from the “Show Directories for” drop-down menu. Create a new entry and direct it to the “C:\Bullet\src” folder. You also need to repeat this process but for the library folder. Select “Library Files” from the “Show Directories for”-dropdown menu. Create a new entry in the list and direct it to “C:\Bullet\out\release8\libs”. Then link the Bullet libraries to the project. You do this through the project properties (Alt + F7), or by clicking the Properties button in the Project drop- down menu. That will open the Properties menu shown in Figure 7.5. Now find the “Linker – Input” option in the left menu. In the “Additional De- pendencies” field to the right, add the following library files: libbulletdynamics.lib, libbulletcollision.lib, and libbulletmath.lib, as shown in Figure 7.5. Finally you need to include the btBulletDynamicsCommon.h header file in any of your source files making use of the Bullet library classes. After following these directions, you should now be ready to create and build your own physics application. ease purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  19. 144 Character Animation with Direct3D FIGURE 7.5 The Project Properties menu. HELLO BT D YNAMICS W ORLD In this section you will learn how to set up a btDynamicsWorld object and get started with simulating physical objects. The btDynamicsWorld class is the high-level interface you’ll use to manage rigid bodies and constraints, and to update the simulation. The default implementation of the btDynamicsWorld is the btDiscreteDynamicsWorld class. It is this class I will use throughout the rest of this book, or at least for the parts concerning physics (see the Bullet documentation for more information about other implementations). The following code creates a new btDiscreteDynamicsWorld object: //New default Collision configuration btDefaultCollisionConfiguration *cc; cc = new btDefaultCollisionConfiguration(); //New default Constraint solver btConstraintSolver *sl; sl = new btSequentialImpulseConstraintSolver(); Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  20. Chapter 7 Ragdoll Simulation 145 //New axis sweep broadphase btVector3 worldAabbMin(-1000,-1000,-1000); btVector3 worldAabbMax(1000,1000,1000); const int maxProxies = 32766; btBroadphaseInterface *bp; bp = new btAxisSweep3(worldAabbMin, worldAabbMax, maxProxies); //New dispatcher btCollisionDispatcher *dp; dp = new btCollisionDispatcher(cc); //Finally create the dynamics world btDynamicsWorld* dw; dw = new btDiscreteDynamicsWorld(dp, bp, sl, cc); As you can see, you need to specify several other classes in order to create a btDiscreteDynamicsWorld object. You need to create a Collision Configuration, a Constraint Solver, a Broadphase Interface, and a Collision Dispatcher. All these interfaces have different implementations and can also be custom implemented. Check the Bullet SDK for more information on all these classes and their variations. Next I’ll show you how to add a rigid body to the world and finally how you run the simulation. To create a rigid body, you need to specify four things: mass, motion state (starting world transform), collision shape (box, cylinder, capsule, mesh, etc.) and local inertia. The following code creates a rigid body (a box) and adds it to the dynamics world: //Create Starting Motion State btQuaternion q(0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f); btVector3 p(51.0f, 30.0f, -10.0f); btTransform startTrans(q, p); btMotionState *ms = new btDefaultMotionState(startTrans); //Create Collision Shape btVector3 size(1.5f, 2.5f, 0.75f); btCollisionShape *cs = new btBoxShape(size); //Calculate Local Inertia float mass = 35.0f; btVector3 localInertia; cs->calculateLocalInertia(mass, localInertia); ease purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
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