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COLOR MANAGEMENT- P7: ICC White Papers are one of the formal deliverables of the International Color Consortium, the other being the ICC specification itself – ISO 15076: Image technology color management – Architecture, profile format, and data structure. The White Papers undergo an exhaustive internal development process, followed by a formal technical review by the membership and a ballot for approval by the ICC Steering Committee.

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  1. 164 Measurement and Viewing Conditions The ICC recommends that when making measurements for the purpose of generating profiles, polarization filters should be removed, and instruments with polarization that cannot be removed should not be used. (Instruments with polarization may still be appro- priate for in-plant process control purposes, to monitor the deviation between dry proof and wet print.) Furthermore, time should where possible be allowed to ensure that the print is properly dry before making measurements. In some cases, the drying time required to stabilize color measurements is longer than might be expected from just observing the surface gloss or tackiness. 20.3 Measurement and Calculation Procedures for Transmitting Media The recommendations of ISO 13655 should be followed when measuring transmitting media, with the exception of the source of illumination, which is generally less critical because transmitting substrates with fluorescence are extremely uncommon. ISO 13655 specifies that the measurement geometry for transmitting media should be either 0:diffuse or diffuse:0. If an opal glass diffuser is used, it should conform to that defined in ISO 5-2. The procedure for the calculation of tristimulus values should be the same as for reflecting media, by using the CIE 1931 Standard Colorimetric Observer (2 ), with the CIE illuminant D50. The ISO 13655 spectral weighting functions, derived from this observer and illuminant, should be used when the measurement is made with a spectrophotometer or spectroradiometer in which the spectral sampling interval is coarser than that specified by CIE – that is, less than or equal to 5 nm. Of the different ISO 13655 measurement conditions, ICC recommends an M2 condition (typically achieved with a tungsten source conforming to that in ISO 5-2), with any UV excluded, when making measurements for characterization data intended for the creation of ICC profiles. The recommendations as to averaging a number of measurements should be consistent with those recommended for reflection media, except where the image being measured is a commercial input target, in which case the issues of consistency and uniformity should be unimportant as the target should not exhibit such problems. 20.4 Measurement and Calculation Procedures for Color Displays ISO 13655:2009 addresses the measurement of self-luminous sources, such as color displays. Many other standards or recommendations also do so, including CIE Publication 122, IEC 61966 (parts 3–5), and the ASTM standards E1336 and E1455. These specifications recom- mend measurement procedures as well as measurement instrument characteristics. Among them they cover measurements obtained with both spectroradiometers and tristimulus col- orimeters. Measurements of displays should be consistent with the recommendations made in the standards appropriate to the type of display and/or measurement device used. If the measurement instrument is in conformance with these standards, then the user need address only a relatively small number of issues.
  2. ICC Recommendations for Color Measurement 165 Care should be taken when making measurements to ensure that the sampling frequency, or integration time, of the instrument used is synchronized with the frequency of scanning of the display. If not, at least 10 measurements should be taken and averaged. Although the use of telespectroradiometers or telecolorimeters for measurement from the viewer position is often advantageous, they are not in common use among those building profiles. The ICC recommends that they be used whenever possible for display measure- ments, as they will include any veiling glare present, and therefore provide an accurate representation of the color as perceived by the viewer. Where such instruments are not available, and measurements are made in contact with the face of the display, some attempt should be made to measure the veiling glare from the viewer position, so the result can be used to correct the contact measurement data obtained. If a telespectroradiometer or telecolori- meter is not available, a spot light meter can be used to get the approximate ratio of the luminance of the display faceplate, as observed from the viewer position, with the ambient illumination on and off. This ratio can be used to estimate the veiling glare from the display black contact measurement. The contact measurements are corrected by adding the veiling glare to them, typically assuming that the veiling glare has the same chromaticity as the display white point for simplicity. If it is not possible to obtain any estimate of the veiling glare, the contact measurements should be corrected by assuming a veiling glare of 1 cd/m2. However, users should be aware that this level of glare may not be correct for their specific viewing conditions, which is why the two previously described methods are preferred. Where display profiling software allows users to specify the veiling glare as part of the input for profile construction, the software should perform the data correction. When this is not the case, the user will have to correct the data prior to building the profile. It should be noted that, in this context, veiling glare refers to the ambient light reflected from the display faceplate in the direction of the viewer. It does not refer to flare internal to the display, which should be included in contact measurements if measurement patches are displayed with an appropriate surround. It also does not refer to any flare that may result from ambient illumination not from the display entering the measuring instrument or eye, as this type of flare is not supposed to be included in profiles and, if present, should be removed from measurement data before it is used for profile construction. Measurements of the display should be made to ensure acceptable levels of constant channel chromaticity, spatial uniformity, internal flare, and channel independence. Those displays exhibiting poor uniformity or high levels of internal flare should be avoided, or care taken to average measurements made with varying image surround and/or position. For displays with inconsistent channel chromaticities, or low channel independence, profiles should be based on an n-component LUT rather than a three-component matrix. When spectral data is obtained during measurement, the CIE 1931 Standard Colorimetric Observer (2 ) should be used for the calculation of tristimulus values. Spectral data should be obtained at wavelength sampling intervals of no more than 5 nm. In some cases finer sampling intervals will be required to obtain sufficient colorimetric accuracy, as some display primaries exhibit narrow spikes in their spectral radiance which are not well captured in an instrument with a wider interval. When using a telespectroradiometer, measurements should be taken from a display area of at least 4 mm in diameter with an angle of collection of 5 or less. Averaging to avoid measurement errors should also be undertaken.
  3. 166 Measurement and Viewing Conditions 20.5 Number of Measurements Two significant issues must be addressed when making measurements for the construction of profiles: . Device consistency and uniformity . Errors during measurement. Averaging multiple measurements can minimize the impact of both factors. A profile is appropriate for the condition obtained by the calibration of the device at the time when the profiling target was printed. But for many devices, however carefully they are calibrated, some variation will occur over time. The ideal profile should as far as possible reflect the central value within this variation, minimizing its effect by averaging multiple measurements. Some printers, particularly offset printing presses, can suffer from a lack of uniformity over the sheet. In part, this is caused by the ink coverage in other parts of the sheet. In an attempt to minimize the effect of this variation, some profiling targets are “randomized” to avoid relatively large areas of each ink being localized on the print. The ICC recommends the use of randomized targets, if available. When they are not available or when the potential printed area is much larger than the target, measurements should be made of multiple targets taken from different positions on the sheet, with various orientations of the target. These should be averaged to obtain the data to be used for profiling. Errors may arise during measurement, due to measurement technique or poor instrument repeatability. To minimize the effect of these errors, the ICC recommends that the average of a number of measurements of each patch of the target be used when making profiles. These are recommendations for the “ideal” situation. How many measurements need to be averaged depends on the consistency and/or uniformity of the device, the instrument repeat- ability, and/or the competence of the operator. Prior knowledge of the significance of these factors may permit single measurements to suffice – however, without that knowledge multiple measurements should be averaged as described here. An advantage of basing profiles on well-prepared measurement data, which result from averaging multiple printed samples and multiple measurements, is that the forward and inverse transforms tend to be significantly more accurate. 20.6 Summary of the Recommendations The recommended measurement conditions and procedures described above are summarized below: . Reflectance and transmittance measurements of non-fluorescent media should conform to ISO 13655:2009 measurement conditions M1 or M2. The exception is when the actual illumination will be significantly different from D50. In this case, the profile construction should use the colorimetry corresponding to the actual illumination. (As noted in Chapter 19, historic characterization data may be considered to be ISO 13655:2009 measurement condition M0.)
  4. ICC Recommendations for Color Measurement 167 . In certain situations, where the end-use viewing condition includes a significant amount of UV and the substrates used fluoresce, the ISO 13655:2009 M1 condition, in which the measurement source effectively matches CIE illuminant D50, should be used. . The use of M0, M1, or M2 measurement conditions should be reported when exchanging measurement data or profiles made using such data. . For reflectance measurements a white sample backing is recommended. . For reflectance instruments the use of polarizing optics should be avoided. . For displays, measurements should conform to ISO 13655:2009. Additionally, display measurement instruments should be consistent with the recommendation of CIE Publication 122, IEC 61966 (parts 3–5), or the ASTM standards E1336 and E1455. Measurement should ideally be made with a telescopic instrument at the viewer position, but where this is not possible, and the measurement is made using an instrument in contact with the face of the display, the veiling glare at the viewer position should be measured. If this cannot be done, a veiling glare of 1 cd/m2 should be assumed. . When contact measurements are made of displays, the veiling glare should be used to correct the data prior to profile construction, unless profile building software allows this as a separate input. Multiple measurements should be made to minimize the effect of poor synchronization between the display scanning frequency and measurement integration time. . For all media, multiple measurements of each patch should be averaged. The extent of this should be consistent with the uniformity and/or temporal consistency of the device, and temporal consistency of the measurement instrument and/or operator.
  5. 21 Fluorescence in Measurement Most commercial printing papers on the market have significant amounts of fluorescent whitening agents, or FWAs (also known as optical brightening agents, or OBAs), to maximize their whiteness and brightness. These additives are important in producing modern, highly brightened papers in response to customer demand. FWAs contain stillbene molecules that are excited by photons in a spectral band that lies mainly in the UV, and in response emit photons in a band which lies mainly within the visible spectrum. The excitation and emission regions peak at approximately 350 and 440 nm respectively. Measurement of fluorescing materials is not straightforward. Colorimetric measurements of color prints are derived from measurements of the reflectance factor, which is the ratio of the reflected radiance to the radiance reflected under the same conditions by a perfect reflecting diffuser. Since this ideal diffuse reflector is non-fluorescing, the regular component of the total reflected radiance is also free of fluorescence. However, the human visual system (and most measurement systems) also responds to the fluorescent radiance component if present in the reflection, and does not distinguish between regular and fluorescent components. While the regular radiance component of the measurement can readily be calibrated so that it is independent of the source illumination, the fluorescent radiance component is dependent on the amount of energy emitted by the instrument source within the excitation region. A range of different sources are used in graphic arts instruments, including tungsten, pulsed xenon, and LEDs, and it is difficult to obtain good inter-instrument agreement and repeatability between all types of instrument. Many instruments suppress energy in the excitation region through the use of longpass filters commonly referred to as UV-cut filters. However, the suppression of excitation energy cannot be achieved in an ideal way by the use of such filters, since they have some transmission in the excitation band and some absorption in the visible band; moreover, the two bands overlap over the region 380–420 nm, so that complete suppression of excitation energy would lead to a loss of response in the blue end of the spectrum. A complete measurement of the fluorescent component of reflection can only be achieved by a bispectral instrument. Color Management: Understanding and Using ICC Profiles Edited by Phil Green Ó 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
  6. 170 Measurement and Viewing Conditions 1.6 UV−cut 1.4 Xenon Tungsten 1.2 Reflectance factor 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 wavelength (nm) Figure 21.1 Spectral reflectance of white paper measured using xenon, tungsten, and UV-cut sources Figure 21.1 illustrates a highly brightened white printing paper measured with xenon, tungsten, and UV-cut sources. The UV-cut source is in effect an ISO 13655 M2 measurement condition, while the tungsten source corresponds to an ISO 13655 M0 measurement condition. The xenon source has a relative spectral power in the UV excitation region similar to D50, and so is closer to the ISO 13655 M1 measurement condition, while not matching it within the tolerances defined in ISO 13655. Table 21.1 shows the CIELAB values arising from the three reflectances, together with the CIELAB DEab difference relative to the UV-cut measurement. * Measurement of FWA-containing substrates is further complicated because FWA efficacy decreases on prolonged exposure to UV radiation. A CIE study [1] of UV-excluded and UV-included measurement of printed samples, using an instrument with a xenon source, found differences of the order of 12 DEab for unprinted paper * and 3–4 DEab for solid inks, on a highly brightened paper. The largest differences are found in * unprinted paper and lighter tints, while darker tints mask the fluorescence somewhat. Where present, yellow ink tends to absorb UV radiation effectively and minimize fluorescence. A viewing booth conforming to ISO 3664 is required to match the CIE D50 illuminant in the UV as well as the visible. The D50 illuminant is defined over the range 300–800 nm, and has a significant amount of UV content, which is not matched spectrally by the D50 simulators used in commercial viewing booths. Moreover, end-use viewing environments have varying amounts of UV depending on the type of lamps used and the permittivity of window glass. Table 21.1 CIELAB values for measurements of white paper in Figure 21.1 Là aà bà DEab * UV-cut 95.96 0.14 0.71 0 Tungsten 96.09 2.10 À5.24 6.27 Xenon 96.94 5.18 À17.70 19.11
  7. Fluorescence in Measurement 171 This degree of uncertainty in measurement and viewing poses a number of problems in color management. First, the measurement of the sample depends on the UV in the instrument source, but the appearance depends on the UV in the viewing illumination, and these may not be well matched. Secondly, different media often have different amounts of FWA and, where this is the case, matching the white point spectrally is difficult or impossible. In addition, any apparent visual match between media with different amounts of FWA will only hold under one viewing condition. Color management operates on colorimetric coordinates, and, on a reflective medium, increasing the peak reflectance is not possible. As a result, the closest colorimetric match (in a minimum DEab sense) is achieved by a color with a larger negative bà value, resulting in a more * bluish rather than a whiter appearance. Recent revisions to the ISO standards for graphic arts measurement and viewing conditions (ISO 13655:2009 and ISO 3664:2009) provide two possible approaches to the problem of matching proof to print with FWA-containing substrates: 1. Discount the fluorescent radiance by excluding UV from the measurement source, using measurement condition M2 in ISO 13655. This will eliminate most of the uncertainty which arises from fluorescence, and will also tend to lead to more similar colorimetric values for the media white on both brightened and unbrightened papers. This approach is appropriate when there is little or no UV in the end-use viewing condition, but if the proof and print media have different amounts of FWA they will not match when compared in a viewing booth conforming to ISO 3664. 2. Ensure that the amount of UV in both measurement and viewing conditions is matched, using measurement condition M1 defined in ISO 13655, and viewing prints in a booth whose light source simulates D50 in the UV as well as the visible, within the tolerances defined in ISO 3664. This approach is applicable when there is a significant amount of UV in the end- use viewing condition. The ICC recommends the first of these two approaches in most situations, except where there is a significant amount of UV in the end-use viewing condition and the measurement instrument has an M1 measurement condition. Chapter 20 provides more information on the measurement of imaging media for color management. References [1] CIE (2004) The Effects of Fluorescence in the Characterization of Imaging Media, Publication 163:2004, Central Bureau of the CIE, Vienna.
  8. 22 Measurement Issues and Color Stability in Inkjet Printing It has been observed that inkjet prints exhibit color change following printing. This can be an issue in situations where color accuracy is critical, such as proofing. Profiles produced from measurements of inkjet-printed test charts may not describe a stable state of ink and media interaction, and prints which are within a given tolerance when printed might change to the extent that they are no longer in tolerance when appraised. The aim of this chapter is to describe the common types of inkjet paper media and their performance with dye-based and pigment-based inks presently on the market, and to indicate the magnitude of color shifts which can be experienced. 22.1 Inkjet Media The basic media types are: uncoated, matt coated, gloss coated, swellable, and microporous. These categories do have several variations thanks to the manufacturers’ efforts to improve product performance and reduce costs. The uncoated media type is the basic surface-sized paper. While the manufacture will often be to a high standard, the performance is inferior to coated media in terms of color and image quality and therefore will not be considered any further here. The aim of the paper coating is to give the optimum color strength and dot definition to give the optimum image quality with the quickest drying time. Therefore the dye or pigment has to stay at or close to the surface while the ink vehicle has to be drawn down and dispersed into the bulk of the coating and paper. How this is done depends on the coating type. What has been found is that the color formed is not stable even under standard room conditions. For matt coated papers, the ink is jetted onto a filled coating containing a high proportion of silica mixed with other fillers and pigments (e.g., calcium carbonate and titanium dioxide) bound with polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH). The dye or pigment will be electrostatically attracted to Color Management: Understanding and Using ICC Profiles Edited by Phil Green Ó 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
  9. 174 Measurement and Viewing Conditions the silica, and so will remain at the surface. But each dye will be attracted to the silica to a varying degree according to the type of dye molecules present. This can lead to migration further into the layers, especially when surface silica particles receive a large volume of ink. To help stabilize this situation, dye fixants or mordants can be mixed with the PVOH to restrict the dye movement, though this can cause problems with removing the ink vehicle. The ink vehicle needs to travel past and disperse through the PVOH/silica coating. Dye fixants (and any other performance additives present) may impede the removal of the vehicle and actually allow the dye to move around. Another factor that can occur is a change in color due to dye and dye fixant interaction. This may change over time with the changing ratio of free and bound dye molecules, and is more of a problem with cheaper papers. Similar electrostatic interactions occur with pigment inks, but the aim is to allow proper orientation of the pigment on the surface so the control of how quickly the ink vehicle is removed is vital and the surface color can change while the pigment dries. Glossy coated papers can be similar in structure to the matt coated papers but tend to have at least two coated layers over a very smooth paper coated with clay or barium sulfate. In the top layer a lower volume of fillers is used, with functional polymers being used in their place. The polymers tend to have dye fixing groups grafted along their molecular chain, to which the dyes are attracted. The bottom layer binds the ink vehicle and controls its dispersion into the paper bulk, so as to avoid cockle and curl. Similar problems with dye migration and bonding interactions can occur as with matt coated papers. Pigments can create other problems: for example, poor surface fixing can lead to poor rub resistance and low aggregation of pigment particles, leading to poor color strength. Too strong an attraction when the ink hits the paper can lead to poor orientation of pigment particles, and, in extreme cases, bronzing can occur. This can change over time, with the pigment particles changing to a more energetically favorable orientation with the polymer dye fixing groups. Swellable coated papers are another type of glossy coated paper. Current market trends indicate that this type is mostly used on a polyethylene extruded photo film-type base, and so forms a different product. The “swellable” term comes from the ability of the polymer (usually PVOH or gelatin) to increase in size when absorbing the ink vehicle. After the ink vehicle enters the coating it is dispersed throughout the layer and the coating eventually shrinks to its original size. The speed at which this occurs depends on the particular ink system and the constituents. Therefore dot movement and resultant color change can occur, though this is less of a problem with new formulations. Dye migration and pigment reorientation within the layer can also occur during the return to size. The principal layer of microporous papers is a coating of nanometer-size pores usually formed from the arrangement of silica in a high pigment-to-binder ratio. The pores enable the ink vehicle to be very quickly removed and dispersed through the paper. At the surface, dyes and pigments are held in a similar manner to that of the matt coated papers but the pore structure can lead to colorant movement. Depending on the size of pore, the dye molecule can travel into the coating, but is not actually chemically fixed within the pore. The pore will act as a capillary and the dye molecule can travel back up to the surface. The rate of travel will depend on the dye type, and hence there can be color changes over time. Some pigments will do the same but due to their larger size tend not to enter the pores. Note that there are a wide variety of coated media commercially available and only very general trends have been described above. This is especially true for combinations of coating types to allow a wider range of inks to be used.
  10. Measurement Issues and Color Stability in Inkjet Printing 175 22.2 Dye-Based and Pigment-Based Inks Inkjet printers use either dye- or pigment-based inks. Dye-based inks tend to show lower light stability compared to pigment-based inks. Pigments tend to produce smaller color gamuts, though recent advances have increased the gamut producible with a pigment inkset. It is not possible to obtain good results using pigment-based inks with swellable media. 22.3 Trends by Paper and Ink Type An investigation into this issue has been carried out by London College of Communication and Felix Schoeller GmbH on each of the main types of paper with dye and pigment inksets. CMYK primaries and their overprints were printed at 95%, 50%, and 10% tints and measured with a GretagMacbeth SpectroEye immediately after printing and then periodically over four days (swellable, matt, and gloss coated) and seven days (microporous). The environmental conditions were a constant 22  C and 50% RH. Table 22.1 lists the average CIELAB color differences between the first measurement and the final measurement, together with color difference components DLÃ , DCÃ , and DHÃ . The following observations can be made: 1. There is a color shift for both inksets on all the media types. 2. Comparing the two inksets, the dye-based set has the higher color shifts with corresponding shifts in chroma and hue. 3. In all cases the prints get lighter with time while chroma falls. 4. The biggest lightness shifts occur with the microporous media for both ink types. 5. Color changes continued throughout the period of study, with no indication that a stable state had been reached. If we were to rank the paper and ink combinations then the sequence would look like this (most stable first): 1. Matt coated þ pigment ink 2. Gloss coated þ pigment ink Table 22.1 Average color differences for different media and ink types Dye-based ink Paper type CIELAB DEab * CIELAB DLÃ CIELAB DC Ã CIELAB DH Ã Matt coated 1.23 0.57 0.94 0.55 Gloss coated 1.80 0.78 1.32 0.94 Microporous 1.90 0.85 1.51 0.78 Swellable 1.23 0.61 0.88 0.61 Pigment-based ink Paper type CIELAB DEab * CIELAB DLÃ CIELAB DCÃ CIELAB DH Ã Matt coated 0.87 0.68 0.53 0.12 Gloss coated 1.09 0.74 0.79 0.13 Microporous 1.22 0.81 0.80 0.44
  11. 176 Measurement and Viewing Conditions 3. Microporous þ pigment ink 4. Matt coated þ dye-based ink 5. Swellable þ dye-based ink 6. Gloss coated þ dye-based ink 7. Microporous þ dye-based ink. Therefore the use of pigment inks is to be recommended for stability of print, which is unsurprising given the inherent properties of pigments, including their inertness and particle size. The findings given here are a summary of results, based on average measurements of the primary and secondary colors. The color shifts would also probably increase in magnitude at higher temperatures and humidity levels. Offset litho and electrostatic printing processes were also tested using the same methodology by Helwan University, Cairo, and the results showed color shifts that can be regarded as not significant for most applications.
  12. 23 Viewing Conditions The appearance of a color is significantly influenced by the illumination under which it is viewed. Perhaps the most important factors are the intensity and the spectral power distribution, or SPD (the relative amount of energy at each wavelength), of the illumination source. Changing the SPD of the illumination alters the radiance reflected from a surface, since more energy will be reflected at those wavelengths that correspond to the highest relative power in the illumination. Although the human visual system has an outstanding ability to preserve the approximate appearance of a stimulus as the SPD of the illumination source changes, the retinal and cognitive mechanisms do not completely achieve color constancy. Moreover, in color management the goal is to produce a metameric match in which the required tristimulus values are defined but not the relative spectral power required to achieve this colorimetry. As a result a metameric match achieved under one illumination may fail under a different illumination. Traditionally in graphic arts the colorants used in photographic media and printing inks had spectral reflectances that were very similar and so transparencies and prints matched quite consistently even when the viewing illumination was changed. Modern colorants (as used for example in dyes and toners in digital printing) often have quite different spectral reflectances from these traditional media, and can be particularly prone to mismatches arising from changes in viewing illumination. In addition to the effect of the relative spectral power of the illumination in the visible region, the level of UV radiation in the illumination source will strongly affect the appearance of any materials that fluoresce. In real viewing conditions there is typically a mix of some or all of incandescent, fluorescent, LED, and daylight illumination. The relative amounts of these may vary according to which lamps are illuminated at a particular time, the contribution of natural daylight through its intensity and the elevation of the sun, and any shading provided by window blinds, drapes, or curtains. Since the appearance of a stimulus is likely to vary with the type of illumination, standardization of viewing conditions is essential in order to provide an agreed basis for the communication of color appearance and the assessment of color matches. It is important to note here that the illuminant used as a standard may not correspond to that of the actual illumination source in the end-use viewing condition, but a well-defined viewing condition is nevertheless Color Management: Understanding and Using ICC Profiles Edited by Phil Green Ó 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
  13. 178 Measurement and Viewing Conditions essential as a reference for the purposes of data exchange. If the actual end-use viewing condition is known, then this can be used as the reference condition, but it is rare for the end-use viewing condition to be defined as unambiguously as is necessary. The basic properties which may be used to define a viewing condition are the chromaticity and intensity of the illumination source, the reflectance of the background, and (where optically brightened substrates are viewed), the relative UV content of the source. A more complete specification is provided if the SPD of the illumination source, the relative luminance of the surround, and the chromaticity of the adopted white point are also defined. In a specification of standard viewing conditions for reflective copy it is usually assumed that the adopted white is a perfect diffuse reflector, which will thus have the same chromaticity as the illumination source. For emissive and projected displays it is common to assume that the observer is completely adapted to the display white point and hence the chromaticity of the display white is taken as the adopted white. Many industries involved in the manufacture of color products, such as paper, paints, and textiles, have agreed on standardization of CIE illuminant D65, which has a correlated color temperature of 6500 K, for measurement and viewing. D65 corresponds to average north-sky daylight. CIE daylight illuminant D50 (corresponding to a correlated color temperature of 5000 K and noon-sky daylight) is used in graphic arts, largely because it is closer to the chromaticity of indoor illumination and to the white point used in daylight photography. 23.1 PCS Viewing Condition In situations where the source or destination viewing condition is not D50, the PCS-side values are chromatically adapted to D50. The ICC specification requires that in such cases the matrix used to chromatically adapt the adopted white point to D50 is specified in the profile in a chromaticAdaptationTag (“chad” tag), and if desired the CMM can use this to convert an image data encoding to the chromaticity of the actual source or destination viewing condition. Hence the viewing condition defined for the ICC perceptual PCS should be considered as part of the specification of a reference interchange encoding, not a requirement to actually use D50 in the color management workflow. Equally, it may be desirable to evaluate proofs and final reproductions under the end-use viewing condition. This is not precluded by the specification of a reference viewing condition for the PCS, which is intended to provide a reference condition for the communication of appearance rather than a simulation of actual end-use viewing conditions. This may seem to be an overcomplex solution in some situations, such as where a D65 display encoding is converted to a print encoding to be viewed under D65 illumination. In this case chromatic adaptation to D50 appears to be redundant. However, to achieve interoperability it is preferable to have a single reference viewing condition, with a well-defined procedure for transforming data between the reference viewing and all actual viewing conditions. The choice of D50 for the PCS reference viewing condition also means that it matches the actual viewing condition most commonly used in graphic arts. If a source or destination profile is defined for a viewing condition that is not D50, profile generators can include a viewingCondDescTag which provides a textual description of the actual viewing conditions, and a viewingConditionsTag specifying the parameters of the actual
  14. Viewing Conditions 179 viewing condition. The viewingConditionsTag enables the XYZ of the illuminant and surround to be stored in the profile as unnormalized CIE XYZ values, in which Y is in units of candelas per square meter and hence also implies the illuminance and surround relative luminance. The viewingCondDescTag can be used to distinguish between profiles generated for different viewing environments and to select one appropriate for the intended use. 23.2 Viewing Conditions and Rendering Intents In versions of the ICC specification prior to v4, a single PCS and associated reference medium viewing environment were specified. The v4 specification introduced a distinction between the PCS used for colorimetric and perceptual rendering intents. The colorimetric PCS is now wholly measurement based, and as a result is no longer associated with a viewing condition. The perceptual PCS is now defined for a physically realizable medium with specified maximum and minimum luminances in an ISO 3664:2009 P2 viewing condition. This lower level (500 lux) is chosen for the ICC PCS since it is more typical of end-use viewing environments in the home and office than the higher ISO 3664:2009 P1 (2000 lux) level used in viewing booths for critical comparison of prints. It also corresponds to an adopted white luminance that is practically realizable on a color display in a home or office environment. Since the colorimetric PCS is measurement based, inversion of the matrix stored in the chromaticAdaptationTag will produce values corresponding to the original medium colori- metry under the illuminant used to compute the original medium XYZ values. However, the PCS values stored for the perceptual intent will have been the result of a color rendering operation adjusting for factors such as dynamic range and gamut mapping, adaptation for differences between the PCS and end-use viewing conditions, and any further color adjust- ments applied to generate a preferred rendering. As a result the chromaticAdaptationTag is unlikely to produce either the original colorimetry or the optimal colorimetry (with preference adjustments) for the source viewing condition when inverted and applied to the PCS values for the perceptual intent. 23.3 Viewing Conditions for Prints, Transparencies, and Displays Viewing conditions for graphic arts media are specified in ISO 3664:2009. This essentially specifies a D50 illuminant for color transparencies and prints, together with appropriate intensity levels and tolerances. Reflection print viewing environments conforming with condition P1 should have an illuminance of 2000 lux. This produces an adopted white luminance of 636.6 cd/m2 for a perfect reflecting diffuser (since a diffuse reflector radiates 1/p of the incident flux). Transparency illuminators conforming to condition ISO 3664:2009 T1 should have a luminance of 1250 cd/m2. When covered by a transparency whose base film has an assumed transmittance of 50%, the white point luminance is 625 cd/m2 and is sufficiently close to the adopted white luminance of the reflection print in the P1 condition for the user to have the same adaptation state when viewing transparency and print side by side. Reflection print viewing environments conforming to condition P2 should have an illumi- nance of 500 lux, producing an adopted white luminance of 159.2 cd/m2 for a perfect reflecting diffuser.
  15. 180 Measurement and Viewing Conditions Extraneous light and colored objects in the field of view should be avoided when performing assessments in a standard viewing environment. Displays used for the appraisal of color images should have a white point chromaticity which approximates that of D65 and has a luminance of at least 80 cd/m2. When the display is used for direct comparison between soft copy images and prints viewed under a P2 condition, it is preferable for the user to have a single adopted white point and hence the display white point should be closer to the chromaticity of D50 and should have a luminance level of at least 160 cd/m2. Ambient illumination in the display environment should be relatively low, so that the surround luminance is one-quarter or less of the luminance of the display white point. The correlated color temperature of the ambient illumination should be less than or equal to that of the display white point. The background against which images are displayed should have no more than 20% of the display white point luminance, and should ideally be 3% of the white point luminance. As with reflection print and transparency viewing, veiling glare and colored objects in the field of view should be avoided. For substrates which are not completely opaque, the sample backing will have an effect on the color appearance and should be consistent with that used in practice. For measurement purposes the ICC recommends a white sample backing and for consistency this should also be applied to viewing. 23.4 Other Standard Viewing Conditions There are many circumstances when the standard viewing conditions for prints, transparencies, and displays defined in ISO 3664 are not relevant, particularly in the case of source images encoded in reference and interchange color encodings such as the ISO 22028 and IEC 61966-2 series. The viewing conditions associated with these encodings will differ from that of the ICC PCS, and hence require chromatic adaptation (and possibly an appearance model transform, if illuminance and surround relative luminance are different) to the ICC PCS. Details of these viewing conditions can be found in the relevant standards. 23.5 Viewing Conditions and Measurement The aim of color measurement is to provide a metric which correlates with visual perception. This implies that the geometry and spectral responsivity of the measurement instrument should ideally simulate those of the human visual system. For reflective samples, it also implies that the sample should be illuminated with a source having the same SPD as is used by the observer when viewing the sample. For this reason, ISO TC 130 and ISO TC 42 have collaborated in joint working groups to produce revisions to ISO 13655 and ISO 3664 that harmonize the SPD of both instrument and standard viewing condition. ISO 3664:2009 specifies that reflective samples shall be judged in a viewing environment having a source corresponding to CIE daylight illuminant D50. ISO 13655:2010 specifies four source SPDs for measurement instruments, of which M1 is recommended for measurement of graphic arts samples. In both cases the SPD of D50 is required to include the spectral power of D50 that lies outside the visible range and in the UV, which is essential to ensure a correspondence
  16. Viewing Conditions 181 between measurement and appearance when fluorescent whitening agents are present in the sample – as is the case for almost all commercial printing papers. Where the source used in the end-use viewing condition includes little or no UV, the ICC recommends that measurements are made with the ISO 13655 M2 measurement condition, which excludes UV from the source (see Chapters 20 and 21 for more details). This will lead to a better prediction of the appearance in the end-use viewing condition. It does have the effect that the UV component in the standard viewing condition may give rise to a mismatch between proof and print, where the proof has been made on a substrate with a different amount of FWA than that of the final print. In this situation it may be desirable to temporarily mask the UV component from the viewing booth source to evaluate the match in the absence of fluorescent excitation, although users should be aware that this viewing condition does not conform to ISO 3664. For display measurement, ISO 13655 specifies that XYZ values should be computed from the spectral power of the display emission (without a standard illuminant, since the display is self-luminous), and may be normalized by dividing by 100/Yw, where Yw is the Y tristimulus value of the adopted white. ICC color management assumes that the user is completely adapted to the display white point: the display colorimetry is normalized to the display white and chromatically adapted to the PCS D50 white point. For most applications this will produce an optimal conversion between a source image on a display and a reproduction on another medium with a different viewing condition. The chromaticAdaptationTag matrix can be used to recover the original colorimetry in the source viewing environment if required. 23.6 Assessment of Viewing Conditions Aim values for reference viewing conditions are defined in ISO 3664. A particular realization of this reference viewing condition can be assessed in terms of its ability to meet the SPD, chromaticity, and intensity of illumination. Details of such assessment are given in ISO 3664: . Tolerances for the luminance or illuminance are approximately 25% of the aim value, with departures from uniformity no greater than 25% between center and edge. . The chromaticity of the illumination is required to be within a radius of 0.005 from the aim values specified for D50. . The SPD of the illumination is evaluated with respect to the CIE daylight illuminant D50 by means of a color rendering index (CRI) of at least 90 and metamerism index in the UV (MIUV) of less than 1.5. Computational procedures for calculating these parameters are given in ISO 3664. For the practical evaluation of a viewing condition, it is essential to use a telespectror- adiometer with a narrow spectral bandpass (
  17. 182 Measurement and Viewing Conditions 23.7 Viewing Condition and Color Appearance The viewing condition under which a color stimulus is viewed strongly influences its appearance. Colorimetric coordinates can be computed for a given viewing condition, but to predict the appearance of the same stimulus under a different viewing condition – or to predict the colorimetry required to match the original stimulus in a different viewing condition – a model of color appearance is required. Currently the CIECAM02 model is recommended by the CIE for this purpose. Although the details of calculating appearance coordinates using models such as CIECAM02 are outside the scope of this chapter (readers are referred to the literature describing these models), a brief summary is given here of the effect of the viewing condition on color appearance and how these effects should be interpreted or applied within an ICC color management workflow. Where the source and destination image colorimetry are defined for the same viewing condition, the appearance model should predict the same XYZ coordinates for both source and destination conditions, and is therefore not required. In situations where the only change in the viewing conditions between source and destination is a change in the chromaticity of the adopted white point, a chromatic adaptation model is sufficient to predict the change in XYZ coordinates required to match the original under the source conditions to the reproduction under the destination conditions. Only where other differences between source and destination viewing conditions exist is an appearance model required in order to predict the final appearance. For the purpose of modeling color appearance, a number of terms can be defined. The stimulus forming the focal color perception is assumed to extend to 2 of angular subtense. The background is the region subtending approximately 10 beyond this stimulus. The adapting field includes everything outside the background, while the surround is a categorical repre- sentation of the ambient illumination in comparison to the image white point luminance. Surround categories in CIECAM02 are average, dim, and dark. The adapted white point is the internal human visual system white point for a given set of viewing conditions, while the adopted white point is the white point actually used in the calculation of appearance coordinates and white point normalized colorimetry. In CIECAM02, the adapting luminance LA is the luminance of the adapting field. In most cases a “Grey World” assumption is made and the adapting luminance calculated as one-fifth of the luminance of the adopted white point. The background relative luminance parameter Yb is calculated by dividing the luminance of the background by the luminance of the adopted white point. Color appearance models were derived primarily for simple color stimuli, but are generally applicable to complex images. The main issue to take into consideration is how the image background is to be defined. Some studies have found that taking the mean luminance of a complex image provides an adequate description of the background effect on a given pixel. Alternatively a “Grey World” assumption is sometimes made and the Yb parameter is set based on a neutral gray background with a reflectance of 20%. If a profile includes a viewingConditionsTag, the LA parameter is found by dividing the Y tristimulus value of the illuminant by 5. The surround category is found by comparing the Y tristimulus values of the surround and illuminant: if the ratio of surround to illuminant is 20% or above, the average surround category is chosen; if the ratio is below 20% the dim surround
  18. Viewing Conditions 183 category is appropriate; and finally if the ratio is close to 0 the dark surround category should be chosen. ISO 3664 P1 and P2 conditions (and hence the ICC perceptual PCS and most print-centric tasks such as print and proof viewing) imply a CIECAM02 “average” surround condition, while display-centric calibrated RGB encodings are typically based on a surround relative luminance which corresponds to a “dim” category. For other media, such as projection displays, a “dim” surround may be applicable. The XYZ of the illuminant stored in the viewingConditionsTag also provides the data required to perform chromatic adaptation from the PCS D50 illuminant to other illuminants as required, either by using a chromatic adaptation transform such as the CAT02 or Bradford models, or in a color appearance transform in which chromatic adaptation is an element in the computational procedure. A input profile can also include a colorimetric intent image state tag (“ciis”), which specifies how the data for the colorimetric intent stored in the profile should be interpreted. Four signatures are currently supported: . scene colorimetry estimate “scoe” . scene appearance estimate “sape” . focal plane colorimetry estimate “fpce” . reflection hard copy original colorimetry “rhoc.” For the first three of these signatures, the adopted white is normalized to 1.0 as with reflection print and display colorimetry, but the mediaWhitePointTag Y tristimulus value is relative to the adopted white Y value and can be larger than 1.0. This allows the calculation of appearance effects which depend on viewing condition parameters such as the luminance of the adapting field, and also makes it possible to communicate the appearance of a scene containing specular highlights with luminances greater than that of the diffuse white point of the destination media. Examples of typical corrections to media-relative colorimetry that are required in a color management workflow are the adjustment of brightness and colorfulness to compensate for the effect on tonal reproduction of a dark background or an adapting field whose illuminance is significantly lower or higher than the PCS perceptual intent viewing condition (such as print appraisal under typical office lighting with 200–400 lux illuminance, or proof viewing in an ISO 3664 P1 condition with 2000 lux). A dark background, such as a transparency rebate, gives rise to an impression of a brighter image, especially in shadow areas. The contrast and colorfulness of a reflective print will increase with increasing incident illumination, while that of a display will fall. Both these effects can be modeled by CIECAM02 with reasonable success.
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