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Văn phạm ngôn ngữ tiếng Anh: Phần 1

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Văn phạm ngôn ngữ tiếng Anh: Phần 1

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Văn phạm là linh hồn của ngôn ngữ, một câu văn viết đúng ngữ pháp, chính tả và ý nghĩa rõ ràng sẽ giúp người xem và người nghe dễ hiểu ý mà người viết, người nói muốn biểu đạt. Và để hiểu rõ hơn về văn phạm trong tiếng Anh mời các bạn tham khảo Tài liệu Văn phạm tiếng Anh: Phần 1 do Phạm Đình Lộc biên soạn sau đây. Tài liệu hữu ích với những bạn chuyên ngành Tiếng Anh và những bạn quan tâm tới môn học này.

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Nội dung Text: Văn phạm ngôn ngữ tiếng Anh: Phần 1

  1. Tieng A nh li A compendium o f f lYEN EU grammar r& c o rre c t w r itin g ■
  2. V A N P H A M T IE N G A N H A compendium of English Grammar & Correct Writing 1
  3. P H A M D IN H LO C VAN PHAM TIENG ANH A compendium of English Grammar & Correct Writing NHA XUAT BAN HdNG Ol>C 3
  4. C u n g ta c g ia A Glimpse of Vietnamese Oral Literature ISBN 1-4010-4038-1 Library of Congress Number 2001119757 in USA ICFMC Vietnam ISBN 1-4134-1852-X 4
  5. J li) i tao (fid Toi viet sach nay vai kinh nghiem sau nhung nam day tieng Anh a Sai Gon truac day va a My. Hoc sinh thixcmg bi roi ■ tri vi phai doc qua nhieu danh tCr kho hieu, khong can thiet ma cac tac gia da viet trong phan dan giai, nen hoc sinh cam thay kho hieu va cham thu nhan duoc cac y chinh can tim hieu qui iuat van pham tieng Anh. Roi tri hon nua neu hoc sinh doc nhung sach giao khoa van pham tieng Anh d My, vi danh tu van pham a nhung sach nay khong dong nhat. Do do, trong sach nay toi viet thu gon a viec dan giai, toi dung thi du de chi dan nguai hoc nhan xet, tim ra nhung quy luat can ban cua van pham. Toi khong dich sang tieng Viet nhung danh tir van pham tieng Anh, toi chi chon nhung tu thong dung de nguai hoc de thu nhan, va can thiet cho nguai hoc sau nay tham khao them sach van pham tieng Anh. Thong thuong, nguai hoc ngoai ngu bat dau hoc tu vung (vocabulary), hoc dan dan ngu phap (grammar), roi doc nhieu de nhan xet loi viet theo cac qui luat van pham. Ngoai ra, ngon ngu viet doi khi khac vai ngon ngu noi, vi nhieu khi van pham duoc hieu ngam khi noi, va moi dja p h uang thuang co mot so tho ngu (dialects). N g u a i hoc se gap nhiing truang hop nay khi doc sach, va se tim hieu bang cach tra ciru a tir dien. Pham Din It Loc Washington, D.C 5
  6. CONTENTS I. Parts o f S p eech...................................................................11 II. Verbals............................................................................... 63 III. Tenses............................................................................... 71 IV. Parts o f a Sentence.......................................................... 78 V..Clauses................................................................................ 88 VI. Correct W riting................................................................98 VII. Stylistics.........................................................................132 VIII. Speakers o f ESL (English as a second language). 153 IX...The history’ and development o f E nglish...................174 7
  7. V a n p h a m la link hon cua ngon ngu. N guai noi va nguai nghe, nguai viet va nguai doc tim thay"giao cam" vai nhau qua tieng noi hay cau van. Am thanh tao thanh tieng noi mang nhung y tuang, y nghi cua nguai noi sang nguai nghe de hieu nhau. Cau van (nhieu loi viet khac nhau) chica dung y tuang, y nghi, cam xuc cua nguai viet de nguai doc san se tam tu, hay thu nhan kien thuc. Tieng noi hay cau van hop thanh bai mot so tir, duoc dat theo thu tu truac sau, thi du: Thieu nu chai toe truac gucmg. M oi tu mang mot y nghia (meaning), tir no dat truac tic kia (word order), moi tic co rieng chicc nang (function), khi noi khi viet thi theo qui luat; Neu khong dung tu theo chicc nang, khong viet theo qui luat thi tieng noi, cau van khong co nghia gi ca. Cau van, tieng noi co duac giao cam la nha qui luat van pham. Do do, van pham la yeu to thiet yeu cua ngon ngu. 8
  8. Danh tir thirtrng dung Nhung danh tir dirai day thirang thay a cac sach van pham tieng Anh, va phucrng phap dan giai a cuon sach nay giir nguyen danh tir tieng Anh. Active voice Chu dong cach Auxiliary verb Tro dong tir Adverb Trang tir Adjective Tinh tir Article Quan tir Clause Menh de Conjunction Lien tir Complement Bo ngu Direct object Tan ngu true tiep Expression Thanh ngir Fundamental Can ban, thiet yeu Grammar Van pham Indirect object Tan ngir gian tiep Infinitive verb Dong tir nguyen dang Interjection Tan than tir Irregular verb Dong tir bat qui tac Noun Danh tir 9
  9. Parts o f speech Loai tir ngu Passive voice Bi dong cach Past participle Qua khu phan tir Past tense Thi qua khu Preposition Giai tir Present tense Thi hien tai Pronoun Dai tir Rules Qui luat van pham Sentence Cau viet theo van pham Verb Dong tir Vocabulary Tir vung Word Tir 10
  10. I. PARTS OF SPEECH 11
  11. PARTS OF SPEECH Phan nay dem den vai nguai hoc su hieu biet long quat ve cac loai ngu, cac chuc nang (function) cua timg loai, va cach dung (usage) cua tim g loai; tat ca nhuvgySu to can thiet de co mot can ban can va du ve qui luat van pham, truac khi sang cac phan ke tiep cu the han ve cach viet va noi theo "Standard E nglish." 1. Nouns 2. Pronouns 3. Adjectives 4. Verbs 5. Adverbs 6. Prepositions 7. Conjunctions 8. Interjections 19
  12. Speech la so lugng tir hop thanh ngon ngu viet (written language) hay ngon ngu noi (spoken language), dien ta cac y tuang (thoughts), cam nhan (feelings), hay mo ta mot viec lam (act). Khi viet hay noi thi ghep nhieu tu thanh mot cau (sentence), neu nguai doc hay nguai nghe hieu duac ro y cau do la nha da theo qui luat van pham (the rules o f grammar). Moi cau gom nhieu tu (words) vai chuc nang van pham khac nhau (grammatical elements). Tieng Anh co khoang mot trieu tu, hai phan ba so tu nay la danh tu thuoc cac nganh khoa hoc ky thuat nhu dien tir, vat ly, y khoa, tarn than hoc... va bo mon triet hoc. Trong mon hoc van pham, ngon ngu thong dung duoc xep thanh 8 loai tir ngu chinh: 1- Nouns 2- Pronouns 3- Adjectives 4- Verbs 5- Adverbs 6- Prepositions 7- Conjunctions 8- Interjections Nguai hoc can biet ro chuc nang (function) cua moi loai tir ngu, dac tinh rieng cua moi loai, dung a dau (vi tri) trong mot cau. Moi cau (viet hay cau noi) can it nhat 2 loai tir ngir (subject va verb). Song, tiiy thuoc a loi cau true (construction) theo van pham, mot cau co the gom nhieu loai tir ngu. 13
  13. 1. NOUNS Noun (danh tir) la mot tir noi ve nguai (person), vi tri (place), vat (thing) hay y tuang (idea). Loai ngu nay phan biet theo cac dac tinh duai day: Proper noun - Common noun - Collective noun - Concrete noun - Abstract noun a) Proper noun noi ve mot ten rieng, hay dac biet, cSn v ilt hoa a dau chu (capital), gom nhung loai duai day: Person : Conficius, Tran Hung Dao Place : Viet Nam, France, England Animal : Phoenix, Kangaro Object : Viet Nam Airlines Group : the Red Cross Time : Friday, November Event : World War II, the Vietnam War Idea : Judaism, Buddhism, Confucianism b) Common noun noi ve tat ca ten chung: girl, boy, teacher, student, mother, father, house, car, bird, chicken, property, honesty, idea, table, chair, school, market, store, shop, country, world, etc. 14
  14. c) Collective noun noi ve ten mot nhom nguai, vat, vj tri, vai chuc nang la mot dan vj: Flock, team, the public, committee, club, the poor, the rich, the army, etc. d) Concrete noun noi ve nhung gi biet duoc bang 5 giac quan (senses): (sight [see], touch [feel], smell, hearing [hear], and taste) door, tree, dress, snow, city, museum, sorrow, joy, odor, sound, salt, etc. e) Abstract noun noi ve quality (pham chat), condition (tinh trang / hoan canh), idea (y tuang): beauty, fear, truth, hatred, kindness, honesty, courtesy, love, loneliness, dismissal, etc. Nominative & Objective: Can biet nhung dac tinh duai day de phan tich van pham khi viet mot cau. Tinh chat cua mot noun tuy thuoc cho dung a dau trong cau. La nominative neu noun la su b ject: I live The train stopped. The car runs Subject la mot noun, hay personal pronoun, hay mot noun phrase (nhom tu), hay mot noun equivalent/ substitute (tuang duang / thay the) ma se dugc mo ta (describe) hay noi den (tell more about) bai nhung loai ngu' theo sau de biet (subject) la gi, la ai, lam gi. 15
  15. (I live: I la subject, live la verb) La objective neu noun la o b je c t: I saw the train. He saw the parade. He is a teacher. Object la mot noun or any word or group o f words (mot tir hay nhom tir) co chuc nang nhu mot noun de noi subject la gi, hay verb lam gi (teacher la object) Possessive & Com pound: Se thuong gap nhung loi viet duai day khi doc sach, quan sat de biet loi viet possessive noun khi muon noi ve ownership, possession (scr hiru), hay sir lien quan (relationship) giua 2 noun. Loi viet nay se ngan hon vi bo di dugc chu of, hay to, hay that trong mot nhom tir, tranh dugc cau van ruom ra. Examples: The beauty o f the flower > the flower’s beauty A house that belongs to Mr. Smith > Mr. Smith's house The job that my sister has > my sister’s job Com pare: At dawn the crowing o f a rooster could be heard, (passive voice) Co the viet ngan hon theo loi possessive, nhu duai day: The cock’s crow came at dawn. (possessive form) 16
  16. Rules: Nhung noun khong tan ciing bang s thi se them apostrophe ( ’ ) va s. Examples: The dog’s tail (tail o f the dog) H elen’s hat (the hat o f Helen) (mu cua Helen) Nhirng noun co mot syllable tan ciing bang s, se th em ’s. Examples: The kiss’s affection Scott’s shirt Note: Khi noi tir (word) nay co 4 dm tiet (syllables), nghia la khi doc se ngat (tach xa) tir nay thanh 4 phan vai dm (sound) nang nhe khac nhau, nhu tir edM.ca.tion Nhirng noun nhieu hem mot am tiet (syllable) tan ciing bang s, chi them apostrophe ( ’ ): the w itness’ story the hardiness’ condition Nhung noun so nhieu khong tan ciing bang s, th e m ’s : the w om en’s group the children’s toys Nhung noun so nhieu tan ciing bang s, chi them ( ’ ) apostrophe: the girls’ garments the zebras’ stripes 17
  17. Compound nouns - Nhung noun hop thanh bcri hai hay nhieu noun, co khi tach biet nhu high school, co khi ghep chung nhu hairdresser, co khi noi lien bang hyphen (-) nhu sister-in-law Or: Conference room, steam boiler Headmaster, headphone Ice-cream, great-grandfather Qui tac: •> f Boi singular noun (danh tir so it ) thanh plural noun (danh tir so nhieu). Phan Ion tat ca noun khi doi thanh so nhieu thi chi them s, nhu: girl / girls, month / months, house / houses car / cars , boy / boys, year / years, friend / friends D uai day la nhung tnrcmg hop dac biet: a) Noun tan ciing bang s, x, z, sh, ch, se them es: bus / buses, box / boxes, waltz / waltzes, wish / w is h e s , lunch / lunches, brush / brushes, bush / bushes b) Noun tan ciing bang y, truac la mot phu am (consonant), thi thay y bang i roi them es: colony / colonies, country / countries b a b y / b a b ie s , penny / pennies c) Noun tan cung bang y, truac la mot nguyen am (v o w e l) , thi th e m s: 18
  18. monkey / monkeys, boy / boys d) Noun tan cung bang f hay fe, thi them s: roof / roofs, safe / safes Mot so trirong hop thay f hay fe bang v, roi them es: leaf / leaves, life / lives e) Noun tan ciing bang o, truac la mot phu am (consonant), thi them es: tomato / tomatoes, veto / vetoes 0 Noun tan ciing bang o, truac la mot nguyen am (vowel), thi chi them s: radio / radios g) Nhung truong hap bat qui tac: child / children, tooth / teeth, woman / w om en... h) Common noun co hyphen (-), hay viet tach biet, thi them s vao nhirng tir chinh: mother-in-law / mothers-in-law, ice-cream / ice­ creams college student / college students, girl school / girl schools 2. PRONOUNS Pronoun la mot tir dung thay cho mot noun de noi ve nguai hay vat (person or thing), chuc nang giong nhu common noun hay proper noun trong mot cau. Tieng Anh co han 70 pronouns, chia thanh 5 nhom: 19
  19. a) Personal pronouns (+ possessive form va reflexive form) b) Demonstrative pronouns c) Interrogative pronouns d) Relative pronouns e) Indefinite pronouns a) Personal pronouns (dai tir nhan xirng) Personal pronoun la dai tir nhan xirng chi ro rang nguai hay vat (specific persons and things); I, we la ngucri noi, noi vai nguai true tiep doi thoai la you; nguai hay vat dugc noi toi la he, she, it va they. Chuc nang cua cac pronouns nay trong mot cau co the la chii ngu (subject), co the la bo ngu (object), va khi viet hay noi thi can hap vai nhau theo nhung dac tinh duai day: Gender: {masculine or fem inine (giong due hay giong cai) neuter (giong trung) singular or plural (so it hay so nhieu) fir s t person : chinh minh (nguai noi). second person : mot nguai hay nhieu nguai (doi dien khi noi). third person : mot nguai hay nhieu nguai, vat hay nhieu vat (dugc noi toi). 20
  20. Nominative case Nominative case singular plural first person I we second person you you third person he, she, it they Objective case Objective case singular plural first person me us second person you you third person him, her, it them Quan sat cac thi du (example) duai day de phan biet: "nominative case", personal pronoun la subject trong mot cau; "objective case", personal pronoun la object cua mot dong tir (verb) hay cua mot giai tu (preposition) trong mot cau. Examples: - Nominative case (subjective case) She sang the song. He played the guitar. She played the piano. - Objective case The audience applauded her. The audience sang with them . 21
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