Embedding Perl in HTML with Mason Chapter 12: Custom Mason Subclasses- P2

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Embedding Perl in HTML with Mason Chapter 12: Custom Mason Subclasses- P2

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Nội dung Text: Embedding Perl in HTML with Mason Chapter 12: Custom Mason Subclasses- P2

  1. Chapter 12: Custom Mason Subclasses- P2 Output: Compiling to a Different Output So you've decided that you really hate Mason and you want to use Embperl instead. But you have a number of Mason components you've already written that you'd like to save. Well, you can create your own compiler to generate Embperl code from Mason. In this case, we'll use the lexer as is and rewrite the compiler from scratch. There isn't really a one-to-one match between Mason and Embperl's features so this example will, like the lexer example, be limited in scope. Finding an intelligent way to convert Mason's methods and subcomponents to Embperl is beyond the scope of this book. In case you are unfamiliar with Embperl, it uses the following syntax: [+ +] tags contain code whose results should be sent to the browser, like Mason's substitution tag (). The [* *] tags contain Perl code that is not intended to generate output. This is equivalent to Mason's % -lines and blocks. Finally, Embperl also has a [! !] tag similar to Mason's block. There are other Embperl tags but, once again, this is a simplified example. Embperl does have a feature similar to Mason's inheritance system called EmbperlObject, but translating between the two is nontrivial. So let's make our new compiler: package HTML::Mason::Compiler::ToEmbperl;
  2. $VERSION = '0.01'; use strict; use HTML::Mason::Lexer; use HTML::Mason::Exceptions ( abbr => [qw(syntax_error)] ); use HTML::Mason::Compiler; use base qw(HTML::Mason::Compiler); This pulls in the basic packages we'll need. Even though we really aren't inheriting much from HTML::Mason::Compiler , we still subclass it as anything expecting a compiler will check that what it is given is a subclass of HTML::Mason::Compiler. Of course, in our case, we won't be using this compiler with the HTML::Mason::Interp class, so the point is moot but important to mention. sub compile { my ($self, %p) = @_; $self->lexer->lex( comp_source => $p{comp_source}, name => 'Embperl', compiler => $self );
  3. return $self->component_as_embperl; } The only parameter we expect is comp_source. We tell the lexer the name of the component is 'Embperl' since we don't really care what the name is in this context. Presumably we are being called by some sort of script that is simply going to take the Embperl-ized component and write it to disk somewhere. The name is used for reporting syntax errors when a component is run, but that won't be an issue in this case. sub start_component { my $self = shift; $self->{once_header} = ''; $self->{header} = ''; $self->{body} = ''; $self->{footer} = ''; $self->{current_block} = ''; } This method is called to give the compiler a chance to reset its state, so that's what we do.
  4. We will be storing blocks of code in each of the first four attributes. When we encounter a block, it will go in the once_header attribute. For blocks, we can put then in the header attribute. % -lines, blocks, blocks, substitution tags, and text will be placed immediately into the body attribute. Finally, any blocks will go into the footer attribute. The current_block() attribute will be used to keep track of what type of block we are in after a call to our start_block() method. This example will ignore other Mason syntax such as component calls, subcomponents, methods, and . Again, this will be left as an exercise for the reader. sub start_block { my ($self, %p) = @_; syntax_error "Cannot nest a $p{block_type} inside a $self->{in_block} block" if $self->{in_block}; This is to make sure that the component is following the syntax rules we expect. $self->{in_block} = $p{block_type}; } Then we record what kind of block we are starting, which will be something like init or perl .
  5. The next method, raw_block() , is called for all of the blocks that we handle except the block: sub raw_block { my ($self, %p) = @_; for ($self->{in_block}) { /^once$/ and $self->{once_header} .= $p{block}; /^init$/ and $self->{header} .= $p{block}; /^perl$/ and $self->{body} .= "[* $p{block} *]"; /^cleanup$/ and $self->{footer} .= $p{block}; } } This switchlike statement stores the code given to us in the appropriate attribute. If it is a block, we wrap it in the relevant Embperl tag; otherwise, we simply store it as is in the appropriate slot. sub text_block { my ($self, %p) = @_; $self->{body} .= $p{block}; }
  6. sub text { my ($self, %p) = @_; $self->{body} .= $p{text}; } The first method is called when the lexer finds a block. The second is called for regular text. Both of these get placed into the body attribute for later use. sub substitution { my ($self, %p) = @_; $self->{body} .= "[+ $p{substitution} +]"; } This method handles substitution tags () though it ignores the fact that this method can also be given an escape parameter. This could be handled via Embperl's $escmode variable (again, left as an exercise for the reader). sub perl_line { my ($self, %p) = @_; $self->{body} .= "[* $p{line} *]"; } This method is called for % -lines. Then we need to implement the end_block() method:
  7. sub end_block { my ($self, %p) = @_; syntax_error "end of $p{block_type} encountered while in $self->{in_block} block" unless $self->{in_block} eq $p{block_type}; Another sanity check is in the start_block() method. It's always a good thing to make sure that the lexer is giving us the kind of input that we would expect. $self->{in_block} = undef; } And we reset our in_block attribute so that the next call to start_block() succeeds. The last method to implement is the component_as_embperl() method, which simply will return a big block of text, our new Embperl page: sub component_as_embperl { my $self = shift; my $page = ''; if ( length $self->{once_header} ) { $page .= "[! $self->{once_header} !]\n";
  8. } if ( length $self->{header} ) { $page .= "[* $self->{header} *]\n"; } if ( length $self->{body} ) { $page .= "$self->{body}\n"; } if ( length $self->{footer} ) { $page .= "[* $self->{footer} *]\n"; } return $page; } And there you have it -- a perfectly good Mason component brutally butchered and turned into an Embperl page. I hope you're happy with yourself! Storage: Replacing the Resolver
  9. Occasionally, people on the Mason users list wonder if they can store their component source in an RDBMS. The way to achieve this is to create your own HTML::Mason::Resolver subclass. The resolver's job is take a component path and figure out where the corresponding component is. We will show an example that connects to a MySQL server containing the following table: MasonComponent ---------------------------------------- path VARCHAR(255) PRIMARY KEY component TEXT NOT NULL last_modified DATETIME NOT NULL Our code starts as follows: package HTML::Mason::Resolver::MySQL; $VERSION = '0.01'; use strict; use DBI; use Params::Validate qw(:all); use HTML::Mason::ComponentSource;
  10. use HTML::Mason::Resolver; use base qw(HTML::Mason::Resolver); __PACKAGE__->valid_params ( db_name => { parse => 'string', type => SCALAR }, user => { parse => 'string', type => SCALAR, optional => 1 }, password => { parse => 'string', type => SCALAR, optional => 1 }, ); These parameters will be used to connect to the MySQL server containing our components. Readers familiar with the Perl DBI will realize that there are a number of other parameters that we could take. Our constructor method, new(), needs to do a bit of initialization to set up the database connection, so we override our base class's method: sub new { my $class = shift; my $self = $class->SUPER::new(@_); We invoke the new() method provided by our superclass, which validates the parameters in @_ and makes sure they get sent to the right contained objects. The latter concern doesn't seem so important in this case since we
  11. don't have any contained objects, but the point is that if somebody subclasses our HTML::Mason::Resolver::MySQL class and adds contained objects, our new() method will still do the right thing with its parameters. Now we connect to the database in preparation for retrieving components later: $self->{dbh} = DBI->connect ( "dbi:mysql:$self->{db_name}", $self->{user}, $self->{password}, { RaiseError => 1 } ); return $self; } A resolver needs to implement two methods left unimplemented in the parent HTML::Mason::Resolver class. These are get_info() and glob_path(). The first is used to retrieve information about the component matching a particular component path. The second takes a glob pattern like /path/* or /path/*/foo/* and returns the component paths of all the components that match that wildcard path. Additionally, if we want this resolver to be usable with the ApacheHandler module, we need to implement a method called apache_request_to_comp_path() , which takes an Apache object and translates it into a component path.
  12. Given a path, we want to get the time when this component was last modified, in the form of a Unix timestamp, which is what Mason expects: sub get_info { my ($self, $path) = @_; my ($last_mod) = $self->{dbh}->selectrow_array ( 'SELECT UNIX_TIMESTAMP(last_modified) FROM MasonComponent WHERE path = ?', {}, $path ); return unless $last_mod; If there was no entry in the database for the given path, we simply return, which lets Mason know that no matching component was found: return HTML::Mason::ComponentSource->new ( comp_path => $path, friendly_name => $path, last_modified => $last_mod, comp_id => $path,
  13. source_callback => sub { $self- >_get_source($path) }, ); } The get_info() method returns its information in the form of a HTML::Mason::ComponentSource object. This is a very simple class that holds information about a component. Its constructor accepts the following parameters: • comp_path This is the component path as given to the resolver. • friendly_name The string given for this parameter will be used to identify the component in error messages. For our resolver, the component path works for this parameter as well because it is the primary key for the MasonComponent table in the database, allowing us to uniquely identify a component. For other resolvers, this might differ from the component path. For example, the filesystem resolver that comes with Mason uses the component's absolute path on the filesystem. • last_modified This is the last modification time for the component, as seconds since the epoch. • comp_id
  14. This should be a completely unique identifier for the component. Again, since the component path is our primary key in the database, it works well here. • source_callback This is a subroutine reference that, when called, returns the source text of the component. Mason could have had you simply create an HTML::Mason::ComponentSource subclass that implemented a source() method for your resolver, but we thought that rather than requiring you to write such a do-nothing subclass, it would be easier to simply use a callback instead. Our _get_source() method is trivially simple: sub _get_source { my $self = shift; my $path = shift; return $self->{dbh}->selectrow_array ( 'SELECT component FROM MasonComponent WHERE path = ?', {}, $path ); } • comp_class
  15. This is the component class into which this particular component should be blessed when it is created. This must be a subclass of HTML::Mason::Component. The default is HTML::Mason::Component. • extra This optional parameter should be a hash reference. It is used to pass information from the resolver to the component class. This is needed since an HTML::Mason::Resolver subclass and an HTML::Mason::Component subclass can be rather tightly coupled, but they must communicate with each other through the interpreter (this may change in the future). Next is our glob_path() method: sub glob_path { my $self = shift; my $pattern = shift; $pattern =~~ s/*/%/g; The pattern given will be something that could be passed to Perl's glob() function. We simply replace this with the SQL equivalent for a LIKE search: return $self->{dbh}->selectcol_array
  16. ( 'SELECT path FROM MasonComponent WHERE path LIKE ?', {}, $pattern ); } Then we return all the matching paths in the database. Since we may want to use this resolver with ApacheHandler, we will also implement the apache_request_to_comp_path() method: sub apache_request_to_comp_path { my $self = shift; my $r = shift; my $path = $r->uri; return $path if $self->{dbh}->selectrow_array ( 'SELECT 1 FROM MasonComponent WHERE path = ?', {}, $path ); return undef unless $r->path_info; $path .= $r->path_info; return $path
  17. if $self->{dbh}->selectrow_array ( 'SELECT 1 FROM MasonComponent WHERE path = ?', {}, $path ); return undef; } We generate a component path by taking the requested URI and looking for that in the database. If it doesn't exist, we will try appending the path info if possible or just give up. Finally, we try the altered path and, if that doesn't exist either, we just give up and return undef, which will cause the ApacheHandler module to return a NOT FOUND status for this request. That's it, all done. And nothing left as an exercise for the reader this time. As with the lexer, this can be used either via a httpd.conf directive: PerlSetVar MasonResolverClass HTML::Mason::Resolver::MySQL or by passing the resolver_class parameter to the new() method for HTML::Mason::Interp. Request: A Request Object with a Built-in Session Wouldn't it be cool to have a request object with a built-in session? "Yes, it would," you answer. "Child's play," we say. When a request is made using this object, it should either find an old session or create a new one. Then in our components we will simply call $m- >session() to get back a hash reference that will persist between requests.
  18. For simplicity's sake, we won't make this class configurable as to what type of session to use, though it could be done.3 package HTML::Mason::Request::WithSession; $VERSION = '0.01'; use strict; # Import a subroutine error( ) which throws an HTML::Mason::Exception # object use HTML::Mason::Exceptions ( abbr => [ 'error' ] ); use HTML::Mason::ApacheHandler; use base qw(HTML::Mason::Request); One problem unique to subclassing to the Request object is that Mason already comes with two of its own Request subclasses. These are HTML::Mason::Request::ApacheHandler and HTML::Mason::Request::CGIHandler, which are used by the ApacheHandler and CGIHandler, respectively. In order to cooperate with the ApacheHandler and CGIHandler modules, we want to subclass the appropriate class. However, we can't know which one to subclass when we are loaded, because it is possible that we will be loaded
  19. before the ApacheHandler or CGIHandler module. We'll take care of this in our new() method, which will be discussed momentarily. Our session will be implemented using cookies and Cache::FileCache for storage, just as we saw in Chapter 11: use Apache::Cookie; use Cache::FileCache; use Digest::SHA1; We solve our subclassing problem with the following code. There is nothing wrong with changing a class's inheritance dynamically in Perl, so that's what we do. The alter_superclass() method is provided by the HTML::Mason::Request base class, and does the right thing even given multiple inheritance. It also cooperates with Class:Container to make sure that it sees any changes made to the inheritance hierarchy: sub new { my $class = shift; $class->alter_superclass( $HTML::Mason::ApacheHandler::VERSION ? 'HTML::Mason::Request::ApacheHandler' : $HTML::Mason::CGIHandler::VERSION ? 'HTML::Mason::Request::CGI' :
  20. 'HTML::Mason::Request' ); return $class->SUPER::new(@_); } We make a session, call exec() in our parent class, taking care to preserve the caller's scalar/list context, and then save the session. If an exception is thrown, we simply rethrow it: sub exec { my $self = shift; $self->_make_session; my @result; if (wantarray) { @result = eval { $self->SUPER::exec(@_) }; } elsif (defined wantarray) { $result[0] = eval { $self- >SUPER::exec(@_) }; } else { eval { $self->SUPER::exec(@_) }; }
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